For Your Viewing Pleasurer

The fascinating history of cemeteries – Keith Eggener

This is an interesting take on regular burials and cemeteries. The History of Cemeteries

October 21 On This Day in History

From On This Day

Important Events

1805 Battle of Trafalgar: British Admiral Horatio Nelson defeats combined French and Spanish fleet. Nelson shot and killed during battle.

1854 Florence Nightingale with a staff of 38 nurses is sent to the Crimean War

1944 World War II: US troops capture Aachen, 1st large German city to fall

1948 UN rejects Russian proposal to destroy atomic weapons

1950 Chinese forces occupy Tibet

1993 Failed military coup in Burundi, led by ex-President Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, includes assassination President Ndadaye; 525,000 Hutus flee

All these links include birthdays, deaths, weddings and divorces.

Today’s Historical Events

Today’s Film and TV Historical Events

Today’s Historical Music Events

Today’s Historical Sports Events

 

Justice Spell

This is a gray magic spell. The intention of this spell is the person it is being cast on is for them to only suffer as much as you suffered. It is not done to cause any permanent damage to the person on the receiving end of it unless they caused permanent damage to the person casting it.

Be very careful if you write this type of spell that it does not cross over to being a black magick spell. Remember the Threefold Law a.k.a. The Law of Three. Another thing to remember is the Wicce Rede “Do as ye will, lest it harm none”

Justice Spell

WHAT YOU WILL NEED:

A Piece of Paper 2 inch/5 cm by 2 inches/5 cm

A RED pen or pencil

A small jar with lid (like from baby food)

Crushed Egg Shells or Black Salt (enough to fill the jar with the piece of paper inside)

Candle – Whatever color you feel you should use to seal the lid onto the jar

Prepare the Jar for the Spell:

Write the persons full name onto the piece of paper as you think about the wrongs they have done to you then fold it in 3. Keeping thinking of your intention for the person to suffer only as much as what they did to you. Pour half of the egg shells or black salt into the jar, place the paper in the jar and pour the rest of the crushed egg shells or black salt over it, stop when the jar is full to just under the lid.

THE SPELL:

Remember to keep your intention in the fore front of your mind as you say the spell at 3 times. The more you repeat it the stronger it will be but be careful so it does not do more to the person than they did to you or you may wind up feeling everything done to you again.

May (Name Of person) feel, what I felt.

May what (Name of person) did to me,

go back to (Name of person) just as strong as (Name of person) did to me.

May this spell tighten around (Name of person) like a belt.

ENd the spell whatever way you usually end any spell after you have repeated this spell

 

Astronomy Picture of the Day

Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

2021 October 17

The Einstein Cross Gravitational Lens

Image Credit & LicenseJ. Rhoads (Arizona State U.) et al., WIYNAURANOIRLabNSFExplanation: Most galaxies have a single nucleus — does this galaxy have four? The strange answer leads astronomers to conclude that the nucleus of the surrounding galaxy is not even visible in this image. The central cloverleaf is rather light emitted from a background quasar. The gravitational field of the visible foreground galaxy breaks light from this distant quasar into four distinct images. The quasar must be properly aligned behind the center of a massive galaxy for a mirage like this to be evident. The general effect is known as gravitational lensing, and this specific case is known as the Einstein Cross. Stranger still, the images of the Einstein Cross vary in relative brightness, enhanced occasionally by the additional gravitational microlensing effect of specific stars in the foreground galaxy.

Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondences for Saturday

From Ancient Pathway

Magickal Intentions:
Spirit Communications, Meditation, Psychic Attack or Defense, Locating Lost Things and Missing Persons, Building, Life, Doctrine, Protection, Knowledge, Authority, Limitations, Boundries, Time and Death

Incense:
Black Poppy Seed
Myrrh

Planet:
Saturn

Sign:
Capricorn
Aquarius

Angel:
Cassiel

Colors:
Black
Grey
Indigo

Herbs/Plants:
Myrrh
Moss
Hemlock
Wolfsbane
Coltsfoot
Nightshade
Fir

Stones:
Jet
Smokey Quartz
Amethyst
Black Onyx
Snowflake Obsidian
Lava
Pumice

From Angel Fire

Saturn: binding, protection, neutralization, karma, death, manifestation, structure, reality, the laws of society, limits, obstacles, tests, hard work, endurance, real estates, dentists, bones, teeth, farm workers, separation, stalkers, murderers, criminals in general, civil servants, justice, maths, plumbing, wills, debts, financing, joint money matters, discovery, transformation, relations with older people

SATURDAY Ruled by the Roman God of the harvest and planting.

New starts and firmly planting your seeds of intention or good focuses on Saturday.

Other correspondences for Saturday are: Saturn Rituals: Disciplining ourselves.

Element: Earth

Colour: Black and sometimes purple

Number: 3

From Angelorum.com

Saturday’s Angel is Cassiel

Ruler of Saturn. This very serious angel is not much concerned with your private life other than to make sure you get your job done. If you have problems with discipline and perseverance, this is the angel you want on your side. If your life purpose involves law and order, he will also champion your cause.

From Galleries.com

SATURDAY: Saturn

Labradorite

Turquoise

Astronomy Picture of the Day

Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

NGC 289: Swirl in the Southern Sky

Image Credit & Copyright: Mike SelbyExplanation: About 70 million light-years distant, gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 289 is larger than our own Milky Way. Seen nearly face-on, its bright core and colorful central disk give way to remarkably faint, bluish spiral arms. The extensive arms sweep well over 100 thousand light-years from the galaxy’s center. At the lower right in this sharp, telescopic galaxy portrait the main spiral arm seems to encounter a small, fuzzy elliptical companion galaxy interacting with enormous NGC 289. Of course spiky stars are in the foreground of the scene. They lie within the Milky Way toward the southern constellation Sculptor.

BELTANE: SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

Southern Hemisphere Beltane by Jane Hardwicke Collings

The date for the Southern Hemispheric Beltane is October 31st and ‘May Day’ is November 1st. The climax of Spring!

Beltane is the peak of Spring, a celebration of fertility. In ancient times it was the Beltane Rites that recon- nected each year the King to the Goddess, the masculine to the feminine. It is a time for us to give thanks for our fertile lives, our creativity and our gender specific gifts and roles. Its a time to notice and honour the difference in the masculine and feminine. It is a time of increasing growth, building to almost full potential, of beauty and heightened passion.

Beltane Spiritual Practice

Your being, as part of the Earth, part of the cycle of the seasons, will be influenced by this energy whether you’re paying attention to it or not. If you pay some attention, you will feel it, and you can be in flow with it.

Think like the gardener, and align with the Earth energy of now, contemplate the growth that is peaking in your life, that is getting all the attention…

Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondences for Thursday

Today’s Mantra

From Ancient Pathway

Thursday

Magickal Intentions:
Luck, Happiness, Health, Legal Matters, Male Fertility, Treasure and Wealth, Honor, Riches, Clothing Desires, Leadership, Public Activity, Power, Success

Incense:
Cinnamon
Musk
Nutmeg
Sage

Planet:
Jupiter

Sign:
Sagittarius
Pisces

Angel:
Sachiel

Colors:
Purple
Royal Blue
Indigo

Herbs/Plants:
Cinnamon
Beech
Buttercup
Coltsfoot
Oak

Stones:
Sugilite
Amethyst
Turquoise
Lapis Lazuli
Sapphire

Thursday

From Spell 8 – For More Information on Thursday’s Correspondences

Candle

Light a green candle to promote growth, fertility and abundance. Meditating with a green candle encourages us to improve in personal projects such as studies, work and self-development. It is great for casting prosperity or good luck spells, and also when invoking the healing energies of Nature.

Ruling Deities

Wiccan Goddess Gaia Wiccan God Osiris Wiccan God Poseidon Wiccan God Pan Wiccan God ZeusCernunnos, Gaia, Osiris, Pan, Poseidon and Zeus are rulers of Thursdays.

Crystals

Amethyst, Lapis Lazuli, Turquoise, Tiger’s Eye, and Sugilite.

Carrying these gemstones today can bring success and fulfillment of your goals. Wear them as a talisman or simply keep them close to you to harness their energy.

Potion

Drink a cup of Green Tea today to strengthen your focus. Green tea is loaded with beneficial antioxidants, and, besides caffeine, green tea contains aminoacids that help boost brain function. It has a large amount of L-theanine, an amino acid that is beneficial for memory, attention, concentration and learning.

Thursday’s Angel is Sachiel

From Angelorum.com

Ruler of Jupiter. Archangel Sachiel helps you to time risk-taking so that you won’t miss any of life’s opportunities. He is also the angel of abundance and perfect to invoke for those who feel called to be business owners. He is known as the’Ambassador of Benevolence.’

The colour is indigo.

Use sodalite or sugilite to connect with Sachiel in meditation.

Scents associated with Sachiel are cedar, peppermint, hyssop and nutmeg.

Astronomy Picture of the Day

Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

NGC 7293: The Helix Nebula

Image Credit & Copyright: Ignacio Diaz BobilloExplanation: A mere seven hundred light years from Earth, toward the constellation Aquarius, a sun-like star is dying. Its last few thousand years have produced the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293), a well studied and nearby example of a Planetary Nebula, typical of this final phase of stellar evolution. A total of 90 hours of exposure time have gone in to creating this expansive view of the nebula. Combining narrow band image data from emission lines of hydrogen atoms in red and oxygen atoms in blue-green hues, it shows remarkable details of the Helix’s brighter inner region about 3 light-years across. The white dot at the Helix’s center is this Planetary Nebula’s hot, central star. A simple looking nebula at first glance, the Helix is now understood to have a surprisingly complex geometry.

Some of the Witchcraft and/or Magickal Correspondences for Monday

Witchcraft and/or Magickal correspondences for every day of the week can differ from one web site to another from one practitioner to another. My aim is to bring you some but definitely not all of the correspondences for different days of the week from three to four websites per day when possible. I suggest you print out the Witchy correspondences to place in your Book of Shadows/Grimoire/or whatever name if any you refer to your personal book or computer file that you keep reference information in for spells, rituals, charms, talismans, etc. As such the Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondence post will no longer have any pictures on it unless necessary to a correspondence, so you will use less ink when printing them out.

From Ancient Pathway

Monday
Magickal Intentions:
Psychic Sensitivity, Women’s Mysteries, Tides, Waters, Emotional Issues, Agriculture, Animals, Female Fertility, Messages, Theft, Reconcilliations, Voyages, Dreams and Merchandise
Incense:
African Violet
Honeysuckle
Myrtle
Willow
Wormwood
Planet:
Moon
Sign:
Cancer
Angel:
Gabriel
Colors:
Silver
White
Gray
Herbs/Plants:
Night Flowers
Willow Root
Orris Root
Birch
Motherwort
Vervain
White Rose
White Iris
Stones:
Carnelian
Moonstone
Aquamarine
Pearl
Quartz Crystal
Flourite
Geodes

From Angelorum.com

Monday’s Angel is Archangel Gabriel, ruler of the Moon (Moon-day). Archangel Gabriel is the angel of magick and prophecy. If you are born on a Monday, you are meant to use your intuition to a higher degree than average… even if you are not directly involved in psychic work. This is also the angel to call on for help with understanding your dreams.

From Spell 8

Candle

Light a white candle for clearing negative energies and have an auspicious start of the week. Meditating with a white candle attracts clarity and goodwill.

Ruling Deities

Wiccan Goddess Artemis Wiccan Goddess Diana Wiccan God Thoth Wiccan Goddess SeleneArtemis, Diana, Selene and Thot symbolize the Moon and are rulers of Mondays.

Crystals

Aquamarine, Fluorite, Geodes, Selenite, Mother-of-Pearl, Pearl, Clear Quartz

Carrying these gemstones today can bring success and fulfillment of your goals. Wear them as a talisman or simply keep them close to you to harness their energy.

Potion

Drink a cup of Chamomile Tea, a caffeine-free alternative to start the week on a healthy note. Chamomile is considered by many ancient traditions as a purifying and protective herb so it will help prepare your mind and body for magical workings. Furthermore, it boosts immune health and relieves anxiety and depression ¹.

From The Flying Hedge Witch

Monday

This day of the week is dedicated to the moon, in which it gets its name. This is a great day to work with moon energy, especially if it is a full moon. Divination and prophetic dreaming are best performed today. It is also a good time to work magic focusing on mothers, nurturing, fertility, woman issues, and growth.
Color: Silver, white, light blue
Planet: Moon
Deities: Thoth, Selene, Diana, Artemis, Luna
Crystals: Pearl, opal, moonstone
Herbs: Wintergreen, catnip, comfrey, sage, chamomile, mint
Associations: Illusion, glamour, sleep, dreams, fertility, insight, peace, beauty, women’s mysteries

The Origins of Halloween by Silver RavenWolf

Harvest Moon, velvet sky, pumpkins glowing, children laughing, costumes, candy, scary stories—just where did this autumn gaiety begin? Let’s look through those cobwebby corridors of time to unearth the exciting genealogy of the American Celebration we call Halloween!

Nothing is ever as simple as it seems—especially when dealing with history. Too often events and circumstances of our past were written or re-written by people who, for whatever reason, operated under an agenda, or simply wanted history to reflect how it should have been, rather than how it was. How, then, do we determine what is fact and what is fiction? In some cases, we can’t. In other situations, we dig.

The Celts

Many historians feel that the greatest strength in the Celtic people lies in their collective mythos. Wading through the romanticism to find unmodified information can prove a tricky endeavor. The earliest archaeological evidence we have of the Celts rest in France and Western Germany.  The Celtic people moved into Spain, Britain, and Switzerland between the fifth and first century BCE. They even ransacked Rome in 390 BCE.

The Celtic peoples celebrated four festivals called fire festivals–commonly know today as Samhain, Oimelc (Imbolc), Beltane, and Lughnasadh. Samhain (pronounced sow-in, sow rhymes with now) was the first and foremost a harvest festival relating to animal husbandry and preparations for the winter months. Fire is an element of cleaning, a vehicle of eradication, so it is not unlikely that fire would work itself into any type of religious celebration. Fire among the ancient peoples often represented an aspect of the divine.

What does the word Samhain mean? Well, we know what it doesn’t mean. There is no archeological or literary evidence of a Celtic god by the name of Samhain. This little slip of fact appears to have begum in the 1700s and continues in some misinformed publications today. The word Samhain actually means “summers end”.

So, where did this Lord of the Dead thing come in? Over time, Samhain took on a religious significance through ministrations of the Druids (the clergy of the Celt’s). Legends indicate that on Samhain all the hearth fires in Ireland were doused and then lit again from a central fire maintained by the Druids at Tlachtga. To the Celts, Samhain was a turning point from light into darkness, and it was thought that this break or fissure created easier access to their land of the dead, Tir nan Og.

The Druids

We need to know a little bit about the Druids to continue with our history of Halloween. The Druids were versed in all learning and were considered to have the gift of prophecy. They functioned as judge, ambassadors, healers, and religious leaders. The Druids first named the holiday Samhain.

 Feast of the Dead

As the Celtic religious system solidified so did the beliefs of the Celts concerning the dead—as has occurred in all religions, before and after the Celts. Since the turning points of the year were considered fissures in time and space, the Celts believe that the dead they loved so dearly could travel through time and space and return from Tir nan Og to visit them. The custom of leaving food at the table (the birth part of the treat part of trick-or-treat) was a gesture of welcome to the departed. From these visits came the belief that those who had gone beyond the land of the living could provide information on past or future events. This is how divination became associated with Samhain.

The Celts did not believe in devils or demons, but they did believe in the Fairy Folk, whom they thought inhabited the land of the dead (the land in-between). Fairies were thought to be resentful of humankind for taking over their land. Because time and space could be conquered on Samhain, fairies were said to roam countryside creating mischief and kidnapping a human or two now and then—just for fun, you understand.—except the humans never came back. Here then is the root of the scary stuff associated with Halloween. The mischief, of course, was caused by living humans, and accepted by the Celts as a psychological release before the onset of winter gloom—though I doubt they would explain it in those terms.

Is it odd, gross, or unusual that a group of people should set aside a day for the dead? Nope. Different cultures and religions have followed such a practice for centuries. Let’s get on our broom again and check out Rome and its contributions to Halloween.

 As the Celtic religious system solidified so did the beliefs of the Celts concerning the dead—as has occurred in all religions, before and after the Celts. Since the turning points of the year were considered fissures in time and space, the Celts believe that the dead they loved so dearly could travel through time and space and return from Tir nan Og to visit them. The custom of leaving food at the table (the birth part of the treat part of trick-or-treat) was a gesture of welcome to the departed. From these visits came the belief that those who had gone beyond the land of the living could provide information on past or future events. This is how divination became associated with Samhain.

The Celts did not believe in devils or demons, but they did believe in the Fairy Folk, whom they thought inhabited the land of the dead (the land in-between). Fairies were thought to be resentful of humankind for taking over their land. Because time and space could be conquered on Samhain, fairies were said to roam countryside creating mischief and kidnapping a human or two now and then—just for fun, you understand.—except the humans never came back. Here then is the root of the scary stuff associated with Halloween. The mischief, of course, was caused by living humans, and accepted by the Celts as a psychological release before the onset of winter gloom—though I doubt they would explain it in those terms.

Is it odd, gross, or unusual that a group of people should set aside a day for the dead? Nope. Different cultures and religions have followed such a practice for centuries. Let’s get on our broom again and check out Rome and its contributions to Halloween.

A Fly-BY of Ancient Rome

Rome had the habit of changing rulers as many times as you empty the lint trap in your dryer. Between 14 and 37 CE, Christianity had begun its rise in Rome. By 41 CE, Claudius had distinguished himself with the conquest of Britain. The Romans also had a harvest festival, so the Celts didn’t have much trouble blending the two holidays together after they came into contact with the Romans. It was around 314 CE when Constantine the Great declared the Roman Empire to be Christian, and the fate of Samhain and Druids was sealed.

 The Advent of Christianity

By the fourth and fifth centuries , Celtic Christianity had oozed into Ireland. St. Patrick has his hands full, and here is where the kettle starts to boil. At, first, the Pagans openly welcomed Christianity, but as Christianity filtered into the Celtic system, church officials had a few problems—mainly the Celtics didn’t want up their holidays or folk practices. The people were not willing to throw out traditions that were ingrained into their social structure. If you can’t get someone to completely change, what do you do? Compromise. And that’s exactly what happened. Samhain was changed to All Hollow’s Eve. To make the Pagan peoples adhere more closely to this new religion of Christianity, the clergy of the day taught the peasants that fairies were really demons and devils (remember, a concept totally unknown to Celtic belief or history) and their beloved dead were horrid ghosts and ghouls. The early Christian erroneously associated the Celtic land of the dead with the Christian concept of Hell.

To help the belief in Christianity along, Druids priestess were systematically murdered. Early Christians also taught the area peasants that their Lord of the Underworld was in fact Satan, which is ridiculous, as the two mythos don’t have anything in common. It appears that Christians misunderstood what the word Samhain meant: because the peasants use this celebration to honor the dead, Christians assumed that Samhain was the incorrect pronunciation of a Pagan deity in the Bible, recorded as Samuel, from the Semitic Sammael, meaning God of the under world.

The Witches

So far, we’ve talked about the land of the dead, how the early Christians managed to superimpose Satan onto Samhain, and how fairies got zapped into demons, but there has been no mention of Witches, commonly associated in our time with Halloween. Where did Witches come from?

During the Dark Ages, the Church sought to eradicate the Pagans and wise women from the countryside so that the church could amass both power and property. First, they had to devalue women because women kept the holy days, trained the children, and provided the cohesive socialization of the culture, thus women held the power to shape society. The church taught, among other things, that women had no souls. Once this teaching had occurred, it was only a small step to make them inhuman, and the Church was able to incite the superstitious populace.

The Celtic women were the strong hold of the family environment, and although the Celts accepted Christianity at first, they did not want to give up their family traditions or their lifestyle. The Church was not into free thinking—therefore anything that did not follow the church dictates was evil. Hence, the Witches (really the women) became evil. Since Samhain was a primary festival of the Celts and the Church had already determined that Samhain was evil, the association between Witches and Halloween was born.

All Saints’ Day / All Hallow’s EVE / Halloween

All Saints’ Day and All Hallow’s Eve (Halloween) were first introduced in the seventh century CE. All Saints’ Day was originally celebrated in the spring. The date was changed to November 1 to supplant Pagan beliefs because those pesky Pagans just refused to cough up their original Samhain. The day was to honor God and all his saints, known and unknown. All Saints’ Day later became Hallowmass, a mass to honor the dead. The Eve of All Hallow’s Day, October 31, became All Hallow’s Eve, which evolved into the word Hallowe’en. Although the church wished this time to be one of somber prayer and quite custom, the Celtics continued their customary bonfires and fortune telling.

All Souls’ Day is a bit different. This festival falls on November 2, a day to offer prayers and alms to assist the souls of those departed that manage to get stuck in purgatory, an in-between place that is neither heaven nor hell. Over the succeeding centuries, Halloween, like Christmas, picked up various customs and discarded others, depending on the complex socialization of the times and religious dictates.

Halloween Comes to America

Our first inkling of Halloween coming to America revolves not around a specific set of people (many indicate the Irish) but with William Penn’s motley collection of refugees from Europe. In 1663, Penn wrote a promotional tract about the Americans. As a result, fifty ships dropped the anchors in the Delaware River. They discharged persecuted souls from England, Ireland, Wales, and the Rhineland (now Germany). Collectively, the Germans and Irish shared Celtic heritage. Therefore many of the folk customs resonated together—including Halloween.

From 1684 through 1930, Halloween was more a time for tricking rather than for treating. Many of the tricks the German and Irish communities became universal, such as overturning outhouses, dismantling a wagon and putting it back together on top of a house or barn, and tying cows to church bells. The tricks often served as social function, such as mildly chastising a neighbor who exhibited antisocial behavior.

By 1910, several American manufactures were making or importing party products just for the American holiday Halloween. From noisemakers to costumes, a new holiday meant new business and an opportunity to make money.

The drawback to the new holiday came in the form of the “declared” Mischief Night, Goblin Night, or Devil’s night on October 30. Minor offenses, such as trying several garbage cans together and hanging them from a light pole, soaping windows with lard, and later, bars of hand soap, abounded. As the pranks grew to vandalism shopkeepers would bribe youngsters to ward off destruction of their property.

In an effort to stop the criminal behavior, the Boy Scouts, in conjunction with local town councils, cities, boroughs, instituted the custom of Trick-or-Treat night to help keep youngsters from naughty practices. By the 1930s the custom of trick-or-treating was well entrenched in our American culture. Halloween, like Christmas, became a holiday for children, and parents strove to make the holiday as much fun as possible for the enjoyment of their youngsters.

During he 1950s. ’60s, and ’70s our American Halloween stayed primarily the same, but in the ’70s and ’80s, with a recession coupled by a candy scare, groups and organizations once again sought to find appropriate avenues to make Halloween safe for America’s children. Halloween practices extended through the entire month of October. Haunted houses, parties, hay rides, plays, story hours, and numerous other events were held throughout the month.

In the mid-to-late 1990s certain sects of the Protestant Christian church declared war on Halloween. using the same erroneous propaganda cultivated hundreds of years ago. Other groups size Halloween for their own political agendas—hosting haunted houses showing aborted babies, drug addicts, and other modern day violent situations. This did not go over well, as the holiday had become an event primarily for children, not adult political issues. Radical Christian groups said that the holiday was Satanic—which, as we’ve seen from our research, is a bizarre and fantastic claim, based on misinformation, politicking, personal agendas and fear. With America’s policy of separation of church and state the battle for destroying Halloween in the United States is an uphill battle.

The original Samhain marked the the close of the agriculture season and functional third harvest festival. In America, Halloween has become the first holiday in our end-of-year rush for partied gaiety. Our Halloween functions as the opening of the three-month-long celebratory fest that includes Thanksgiving, Christmas, Yule, Kwanzaa, and Chanukkah, and ends with the popular American New Year.

As our children crave pumpkins with delightful chatter, adults find solace in a night when they can be whatever they want to be. We have little doubt about the joy this holiday bring to the American people. I am sure we will forever love the haunted house, the harvest Moon, the thrills and chills of a well-wrought tale—and, of course, the deliciously scary things that go EEEEK! in the night.

 Harvest Moon, velvet sky, pumpkins glowing, children laughing, costumes, candy, scary stories—just where did this autumn gaiety begin? Let’s look through those cobwebby corridors of time to unearth the exciting genealogy of the American Celebration we call Halloween!

Nothing is ever as simple as it seems—especially when dealing with history. Too often events and circumstances of our past were written or re-written by people who, for whatever reason, operated under an agenda, or simply wanted history to reflect how it should have been, rather than how it was. How, then, do we determine what is fact and what is fiction? In some cases, we can’t. In other situations, we dig.

Llewellyn’s Witches’ Datebook1999 Pages 24 to 29

International Observe The Moon Night – Global Moon Party

From NASA.gov (USA) National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Plan Your Event and Celebrate with Us

View our recorded Event Planning Webinar, and join the virtual Global Moon Party on October 9, for resources and activities that can take your International Observe the Moon Night to the next level.

Capture the moment like a pro! Check out our Moon photography tips for cell phones, professional cameras, and more.

The Moon is Earth’s constant companion, the first skywatching target pointed out to us as children. We watch its face change as the month progresses, and see patterns and pictures in its geological features.

It’s the object in the night sky that humanity knows best ― and the one that’s easiest to study. Whether your tools are a telescope, a pair of binoculars, or just your eyes, you can find plenty of features on the Moon.

We only ever see one side of the Moon from Earth. That’s because the interplay of gravity between Earth and Moon slows the Moon into a rotation that paces its own. The Moon rotates, but it rotates at the same speed that it orbits around Earth. This keeps the same side always turned toward us. We call this being “tidally locked.

The Moon has no glow of its own, but shines with the reflected light of the Sun. During its crescent phase in the twilight or dawn, you can also sometimes see the dark portion of the Moon glowing faintly in the sunlight that reflects off Earth, an effect called earthshine.

You can look at the Moon during any of its illuminated phases, but for better viewing of craters and mountains, try phases other than the full Moon. The shadows on the surface will be more pronounced, and help distinguish features you might otherwise miss.

Eyeballing the Moon

Looking at the Moon with only your eyes, you see mostly areas of white and gray. These gray patches are solidified volcanic lava flows. In the Moon’s youth, its interior was still molten, and magma would erupt onto its surface. These dark areas formed when massive asteroid or meteorite impacts on the Moon’s surface created basins. Because the impact basins were often the lowest places on the Moon’s surface, they would begin to fill with erupting lava. The lava was similar to the basalt that erupts on Earth and, like on Earth, cooled to form a relatively dark-colored rock. We call these areas the lunar seas, or maria.

The lighter-colored areas are called the highlands, and show the earliest crust on the Moon, dominated by a type of rock called anorthosite, which is primarily made up of the white mineral anorthite or plagioclase.

What you see on the Moon with your eyes only will vary depending on your eyesight. Give yourself plenty of time for your eyes to adjust and look carefully. You may be able to see some of the larger impact craters on the Moon’s surface if your vision is sharp enough, including Copernicus, Kepler, and Aristarchus and Tycho. You may even be able to see some of the bright streaks that are ray systems emanating from the Copernicus or Tycho craters, created when material was thrown outward by the force of the original impacts.

Lunar Sightseeing

Pick up a pair of binoculars, and the Moon transforms.

With binoculars, you’ll still see the entire Moon at once, but now it’ll have terrain. Smooth-looking patterns of gray and white resolve into craters and large mountain ridges. You’ll be able to tell where the Moon is relatively undisturbed and where it’s been pockmarked by impacts. Binoculars introduce texture, especially when you look at the Moon when it’s in any other phase other than full. Focus particularly along the terminator line between light and dark, where features will cast long shadows that make them clearer. Choose binoculars with a magnification of 7 at a minimum. Though a magnification of 10 or 15 will provide more detail, you may need a tripod to steady them.

Under the gaze of a telescope, the Moon becomes too big to take in at once. Now you’ll see real mountains, and not just craters but the crater chains created when impact debris splashes around the main craters. You’ll see valleys, and the cracks in the Moon’s surface called rilles, formed when the lava that once filled a basin cooled and contracted. If this is your first time looking at the Moon through a telescope, you may feel the same wonder Galileo felt seeing that familiar orb in the sky transform into another world. Be sure to examine the Moon at many different phases and on different days. Parts of the Moon near the edge of the disk come into view at some times but not others, a wobbling phenomenon known as libration. Experienced observers can take advantage of favorable librations to see about 59 percent of the lunar surface.

Published: September 20, 2021

Take on a Moon Observing Challenge from the Astronomical League. This activity challenges you to complete each of the following tasks:

  • Do an outreach activity. This could be an International Observe the Moon Night event or any activity that encourages observing the Moon in general.
  • Observe the Moon with just your eyes. No equipment is required.
  • Estimate the Moon’s percent illumination. Not illuminated at all would be 0%, half-illuminated would be 50%, and completely illuminated would be 100%.
  • Make a sketch or capture an image of the Moon that includes at least ten of the features below. Indicate your chosen features on your sketch or image:
    • Mare Crisium
    • Mare Fecunditatis
    • Mare Frigoris
    • Mare Imbrium
    • Mare Nectaris
    • Mare Nubium
    • Mare Serenitatis
    • Mare Tranquillitatis
    • Crater Copernicus
    • Crater Tycho
    • Crater Rays from Crater Copernicus
    • The Woman in the Moon

For more information about this challenge, and to learn how to submit your sketch or image, visit the Astronomical League website.

Note: You may make your observation any time between October 15, 2021 and October 22, 2021. The deadline for submission is November 22, 2021. You do not need to be a member of the Astronomical League to participate in this challenge.

A lot more Activities to do with People and Our Moon Goddess

Astronomy Picture of the Day

The picture the part of the Orion Nebula known as M43 
in great detail including many find streams of dust.
Please see the explanation for more detailed information.

M43: Streams of Orion

Image Credit & Copyright: Jari SaukkonenExplanation: Where do the dark streams of dust in the Orion Nebula originate? This part of the Orion Molecular Cloud ComplexM43, is the often imaged but rarely mentioned neighbor of the more famous M42. M42, seen in part to the upper right, includes many bright stars from the Trapezium star clusterM43 is itself a star forming region that displays intricately-laced streams of dark dust — although it is really composed mostly of glowing hydrogen gas. The entire Orion field is located about 1600 light years away. Opaque to visible light, the picturesque dark dust is created in the outer atmosphere of massive cool stars and expelled by strong outer winds of protons and electrons.

 

October 6th Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondences

From Ancient Pathway

Wednesday
Magickal Intentions:
Communication, Divination, Writing, Knowledge, Business Transactions, Debt, Fear,Loss, Travel, Money Matters
Incense:
Jasmine
Lavender
Sweet Pea
Planet:
Mercury
Chiron
Sign:
Virgo
Angel:
Colors:
Orange
Light Blue
Grey
Yellow
Violet
Herbs/Plants:
Fern
Lavender
Hazel
Cherry
Perriwinkle
Stones:
Aventurine
Bloodstone
Hematitie
Moss Agate
Sodalite

Wednesday’s Angel

From Angelorum.com

Angel is Raphael, ruler of Mercury. Raphael is the patron of healers and travellers. He will keep you safe on all of life’s journeys and help you to communicate in a way that promotes healing and peace.

The colours are green and yellow. Yellow calcite and green agate are crystals that can help you connect with this gentle angel. Some scents used to invoke archangel Raphael are chamomile, lemongrass and sandalwood.

Tuesday, October 5th Witchcraft/Magickal

Witchcraft/Magickal

From Flying The Hedge

Tuesday

The name Tuesday comes from the Germanic God Tiu, like the Roman god Mars, is associated with war. Like Monday, it is full of male energy, but focuses on the more raw nature of the male aspect; think courage, success, war, and lust. This is a good time to deal with issues of violence, competition, conflict, endurance, and survival.
Color: Red, orange, black
Planet: Mars
Deities: Lilith, Mars, Aries, Morrighan, Tiwaz
Crystals: Garnet, ruby
Herbs: Thistles, holly, coneflower, cactus
Associations: War, conflict, courage, victory, rebellion, success, protection,

From Angelorum.com

Angel: Camael, ruler of Mars. He is a warrior angel and will help you do battle against injustice or apathy in any form. Camael will protect you against violence as well as help you stand up for yourself and those considered ‘the underdog.’