Goddesses – Egyptian Mut

Egyptian Goddess – Mut

Mut is the Egyptian goddess of Creation. She is a mother goddess who came to prominence during the New Kingdom (c. 1550 – c. 1070 BC) as a result of her relationship with the god Amun. She is often represented as a vulture or a woman that at times may have wings.

Later, as she took on the attributes of other Egyptian goddesses, she was also depicted as a woman with a lion’s head. Sometimes she wore the royal crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt and sometimes the vulture headdress of the queens of the New Kingdom.

Mut Facts

Name(s): Mut (Mother)
Rules over: Creator Goddess / Primordial Water
Gender: Female
Symbols: Crown of Upper and Lower Egypt
Sacred animals: Vulture, Cobra, Lionness
Parents: Ra
Siblings: Hathor, Sekhmet, Bastet
Greek Similar: Gaia, Ancestral Mother of Life
Roman Similar: Terra


Mut is believed to have originated as a local goddess in the Nile River delta, after which she replaced and assimilated many other Egyptian goddesses over the course of millennia. She was originally linked to the primeval waters of the universe, from which all things were born. Her identity as mother of the cosmos gave her aspects of a creator goddess.

Mut became a national goddess when Amun, king of the gods and god of the wind, became patron of Thebes during the Eleventh Dynasty around the 21st century B.C. She took the place of Amun’s original wife Amaunet, the invisible goddess. With Amun being the god of the pharaohs, she became their mother and was closely associated with the queens.

After Amun’s authority waned and he merged with the son god Ra, Mut was assimilated into Hathor, the mother of Horus, who was also identified as Ra’s wife. She was later absorbed into the Heliopolitan Ennead.


Myth has it that as the great mother from who everyone was brought forth, Mut had no parents. In some depictions of her she also has male parts. Although she was the mother goddess, she did not give birth to her own children. Instead, she first adopted Menthu, the war god, and then Khonsu, the moon god.


Mut is most often affiliated with vultures. Other animals she may be affiliated with include cobras and lionesses.


Mut, Amun, and their son Khonsu were worshiped as the Triad of Waset. Waset was the ancient Egyptian name for Thebes, and became the capital of the pharaohs during the New Kingdom. A large temple complex, commonly referred to as the Temple of Karnak, was constructed in Waset (Thebes) to worship the triad.

The Karnak Temple Complex consists of various precincts, one of which is the Mut Precinct. The other two precincts are the Precinct of Amun-Ra and the Precinct of Montu.

Inside the Mut Precinct are six temples. These include Mut Temple Proper, the Contra Temple, and temples labeled as A, B, C and D. All six of these temples are surrounded by a wall made of mud and mud-brick.1

The Mut Temple Proper is surrounded by a lake in the shape of a horseshoe. During the festival of Mut, a boat with a statue of the goddess was sailed around the lake. Interior reliefs from the temple in Karnak show evidence of daily devotions by the queen and her priestesses. No other examples exist of exclusively female worship in ancient Egypt.

Evidence exists that it was the pharaohs Hatshepsut and Thothmose III who were responsible for the earliest versions of the Mut Precinct. Excavations at the precinct first led archeologists to believe that the temples were built by Amenhotep III because of the presence of several statues of the goddess Sekhmet bearing his name. However, it is now believed that they were brought here after his death at a time when Mut and Sekhmet were closely associated.

Over the centuries, more additions and improvements to the Mut temple precinct were done by pharaohs such as Rameses II, Rameses III, and Taharqa, who was also king of the Kush.

Facts About Mut

  • Mut’s name is written with the hieroglyph for vulture;
  • The many titles given to Mut over the years included Mother of the Gods, World-Mother, and Lady of Heaven;
  • Mut became the eye of Ra after Amun merged with Ra;
  • The custom of depicting Mut wearing the Double Crown of Egypt was begun by Hatshepsut. Stating that she was one of Mut’s descendants, Hatshepsut brought prominence to the goddess in the ancient Egyptian pantheon;
  • One of the many aspects of Mut was a composite deity by the name of Mut-Isis-Nekhbet, known as the Great Mother and Lady. In this form she was depicted as a winged goddess with three heads – that of a lion, a vulture, and a woman with different headdresses. She also had lion-like feet and an erect penis;
  • Her’s temple precinct at Karnak was called an Isheru and remained an important religious center for nearly 2,000 years. Fed by an underground spring, it is the largest preserved Isheru in Egypt today;
  • The Greek Ptolemaic dynasty maintained the temple of Mut, adding their own decorations;
  • After the conquest of Egypt by Rome at around 30 BC, the Roman emperor Tiberius rebuilt the site when it was flooded. While some of his successors maintained its upkeep, it eventually fell into disuse.

Goddesses – Selene, 2nd Generation Greek Titan

Selene – Greek Titan Goddess of the Moon

Selene, goddess of the moon, truly represented the moon itself to the Greeks. Although she counts as a goddess in her own right, Selene often gets associated with archer goddess, Artemis, who is also a moon goddess. These two goddesses have additional association with HECATE.

Selene is a Titan goddess. Titan gods and goddesses were actually the divine beings that preceded the OLYMPIAN GODS and goddesses. The first of these divine beings emerged from the primordial and originally called GAEA mother and URANUS father.

Titan Gods and Goddesses and Cross-Cultural Origins

Among the first generation of the Titans were PHOEBETHEMIS, and CRIUS. Some of the stories about these GODS AND GODDESSES may have been borrowed from cultures like Mesopotamia, ancient Egypt, and Persia. (This area was known as the ANCIENT NEAR EAST.)

Selene, however, was not directly related to Uranus and Gaia. Rather was the child of Titan goddess and god, Theia and HYPERIONEOS, goddess of the dawn, and HELIOS, god of the sun, were Selene’s siblings.


Name(s): Selene
Rules over: The Moon
Title: Titan Goddess Of The Moon
Gender: Female
Symbols: Crescent (Lunar), Torch, Bull Horns
Sacred animals: Horses
Items: Chariot, Billowing Cloak
Parents: Hyperion and Theia
Consort: Endymion
Other significant others: Retinue: – Hesperus, Astra. Siblings: – Helios and Eos
Children: Fifty daughters (The Menai) and Narkissos to Endymion;

Pandia, Nemea and Ersa to Zeus;

Four Horae to Helios; Mousaios

Roman name: Luna

Selene’s Distinction Among Moon Goddesses

Additionally, although the ancients considered Hecate and Artemis counted as lunar goddesses, only Selene was the moon itself. She is said to have driven the moon chariot. This heavenly vehicle got its power from white horses. It drove across the sky, providing the night with its light.

The moon goddess love a mortal man named Endymion. It is said that Selene watched him while he slept beside his cattle. According to some legends, the pair had 50 daughters. One account even makes Endymion and Selene as the parents of NARCISSUS, the hunter of the ancient world who felt infatuated by his own beauty.

An Affair With Zeus

Although most often associated with Endymion, some accounts tell of Selene’s affair with ZEUS. This pair also had quite a few children, according to some retellings of the legend. In other stories, it is said that it was Zeus himself who gave Endymion immortality.

This divine magic trick made Endymion forever young. However, it came with a cost. Endymion was given the choice (by Zeus) of when he would die. The mortal opted for eternal sleep, thus granting him his youth, but it was a youth he could not enjoy. Selene visited Endymion each night in his place of rest near Mount Latmos.

Titans, Shamans, and Mystery Religions

Scholars who study the TITANS say that some of the rituals and stories associated with gods and goddesses like Selene existed to support ancient shamanistic practices.

As Selene’s Greek identity morphed into its Roman one, Selene became LUNA. Although some legends say that she as well as Hecate and Proserpina were triune goddesses, that wasn’t necessarily the case. Rather, the identities of these goddesses became one over the course of time.

Luna/ Selene was the moon goddess. As such, she was revered as on of the most important deities for agriculture. Luna/ Selene was given a temple on Palatine Hill. A mystery cult revering Luna/ Selene rose up. This would support the assumption that the stories of goddesses like Luna/ Selene were part of ancient shamanistic rituals in daily life

These rituals started first in families and clans, according to THE MET, and then were adopted by society itself until they were celebrated nationwide within the city-states of the ancient world.

The Purpose of Mystery Cults

Mystery cults in the ancient world have an air of secrecy to them. According to some scholars, these religious cults existed so that people could perform birth and death rituals.

It should additionally be noted that Selene sometimes merges with Diana/ARTEMIS as the same goddesses. In this form, she then also becomes the goddesses of the hunt. However, even as the goddess of the hunt, she is ever and always still a moon goddess.

Her Depiction

Selene (and her counterparts) are depicted in ancient art wearing a moon symbol (usually crescent.) While she is most often shown as riding horses, some portrayals have her driving an oxen team. When this happens, her crescent moon is formed from the bull’s horns.

Who was the Greek Goddess of the Moon?

The Greek goddess of the moon was Selene. She was often depicted as a beautiful woman with a crescent moon on her forehead, riding a chariot pulled by two horses or oxen.

In Greek mythology, Selene was the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia, and the sister of Helios (the sun) and Eos (the dawn).

Selene was also associated with the goddess Artemis, who was sometimes referred to as the “Mistress of Animals” and was known to hunt by moonlight.

SOURCE: <a href=”https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/selene/”>Selene: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net</a&gt; – Greek Gods & Goddesses, February 7, 2017

Goddess – Tykhe, also known as Tyche, Greek Goddess of Chance, Fate and Fortune

Greek Goddess – Tykhe, also known as Tyche

Tykhe, also known as Tyche, was the Greek goddess of chance, fate and fortune. She represented not only the positive aspects of these characteristics but also the negative ones. The ancient Greeks thought she was the reason for unexpected events in their lives, good and evil. For example, if someone had much success in life without having to try hard, people said that Tyche blessed him at birth. When someone worked hard but still had bad luck, they thought this goddess was responsible.


Who Were Tyche’s Parents?

According to Hesiod, a Greek poet, she was the daughter of OCEANUS and TETHYS while others thought that ZEUS was her father. People from various Greek regions worshiped Tyche, but she was especially popular in Athens. Athenians believed that this goddess favored their city. Some of her other famous sites of worship included temples at Argos and THEBES.


Tyche’s Appearance & Traits

When the ancient Greeks honoured her beneficial traits, they usually referred to her as Eutychia or Eutiykhia, goddess of prosperity, success and good fortune. Tyche was usually pictured with wings, a regal staff and a crown. However, many images also showed her with other items. These objects related to various traits. For example, when she was pictured holding rudders or a wheel, it meant that she was directing world events.

If she had a horn of plenty, she was a giver of abundant prosperity and wealth. When Tyche was balancing on a ball, it symbolized unstable fortune that could come and go, just like a ball might roll in any direction. In later times, she appeared wearing a blindfold and was shown with other assorted items that suggested risk and uncertainty.

In Rome, this goddess was known as Fortuna. To the Romans, Fortuna was much more important than Tyche to the Greeks. Additionally, Fortuna was not pictured with wings or a ball, especially in later times. This suggests that the Romans only saw her as a goddess of good luck who blessed mankind with beneficial fortune.

SOURCE: <a href=”https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/tyche/”>Tyche: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net</a&gt; – Greek Gods & Goddesses, September 13, 2018

Goddesses and Gods – The 21 Main Egyptian Gods and Goddesses

The Egyptian pantheon includes all the gods created by the falcon-headed Sun god Ra. Egyptian gods include many gods with animal heads (Horus, Set, Anubis, Thoth, Bastet, Sekhmet, Ra) and others with human heads (Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, Amun).

We will see together in this article:

  • The gods Ra, Apep, Aten, and Sekhmet involved in the creation of the Universe
  • The gods Set, Osiris, Isis, Nephthys, and Horus involved in the tragedy called “myth of Osiris”
  • The gods Anubis, Thoth, and Ammit involved in the judgment of the Egyptian dead
  • The other important gods: Khepri, Amun, Ptah, Taweret, and Sobek

Let’s begin without further ado by discovering the first of these gods and the creator of the Egyptian world: Ra, the falcon Sun god.

 Ra –

The creation of all the other gods by Ra

The primordial function of Ra in the Egyptian Universe



















click here to read information presented about the 21 main Egyptian Gods and Goddesses

Goddesses and Gods – A List of Sun Deities

I will use this list to do a more in-depth post on these deities in the future.

Name Nationality/Religion God or Goddess? Notes
Amaterasu Japan Sun Goddess Major deity of the Shinto religion.
Arinna (Hebat) Hittite (Syrian) Sun Goddess The most important of three Hittite major solar deities
Apollo Roman Sun God
Freyr Norse Sun God A fertility god associated with the sun.
Helios Greek Sun God Before Apollo was the Greek sun god, Helios held that position. Helios road a chariot.
Huitzilopochtli (Uitzilopochtli) Aztec Sun God
Hvar Khshaita Iranian/Persian Sun God
Inti Inca Sun God The national patron of the Inca state.
Liza West African Sun God
Lugh Celtic Sun God
Mithras Iranian/Persian Sun God
Ra Egypt Mid-day Sun God An Egyptian god shown with a solar disk. Center of worship was Heliopolis. Later associated with Horus as Re-Horakhty. Also combined with Amun as Amun-Ra, a solar creator god.
Shemesh/Shepesh Ugarit Sun goddess
Sol (Sunna) Norse Sun Goddess She rides in a horse-drawn solar chariot.
Sol Invictus Roman Sun God The unconquered sun. The title was also used of Mithras.
Surya Hindu Sun God Rides the sky in a horse-drawn chariot.
Tonatiuh Aztec Sun God
Utu (Shamash) Mesopotamia Sun God

Goddesses and Gods – 7 Ancient Pagan Gods We Still Love Today

The old pagan gods—those legendary figures out of Norse, Greek, Roman, and many more belief systems—are fascinating subjects. These gods had all of the emotional fallibility of human beings, yet the all the power of the gods they were, and in their stories, they proved capable of shocking levels of pettiness, jealously, and downright cruelty. They were also, however, capable of great kindness, heroism, and justice, making for a set of truly interesting characters. They were us, but moreso.

It’s no wonder, then, that many of these gods that featured in stories thousands of years ago are still prominent in our contemporary fiction. We see them in our superheroes and action stars, who can be thought of as the great grandchildren of the original pagan gods.

But those gods that have survived the millennia with their names and stories intact are the ones we love the most—something about their personalities, their struggles, or their stories intrigues us. They’re the most compelling of them all, so let’s explore them by taking a look at 7 ancient pagan gods we still love today.

Click here to read about the following Gods and Goddesses








The Immortality of Entertainment

The fact that we’re still telling stories about these gods and goddesses thousands of years after their heyday is amazing, and these particular 7 beings have a special appeal that goes beyond the norm.

Maybe it’s because they’re powerful. Or perhaps it is because we wish we could affect the world like they do. But likeliest of all is that their larger-than-life personalities and stories simply allow us a glimpse of the extremes of life that few of us ever get to experience.

And that is why the gods will never die.

Goddesses and Gods – Celtic – Medb – Legendary Queen of Ireland and Belenos – The Shining God

Celtic Goddess Medb – Legendary Queen of Ireland

The story of Queen Medb is one of Ireland’s greatest legends. This goddess in the flesh was fierce, seductive, beautiful, and most importantly powerful. No man could be king of Ireland’s ancient sites of Tara or Cruachan without first becoming her husband.

Table of Contents

Celtic God – Belenos The Shining God

A Celtic Deity, also known as Belen, Belenus, Belinus, Bellinus, Bélénos, Belennos, Belenos, Bel, Bilé: The Shining God

Belenos is unusual in Celtic belief, as this deity (under the various version of his name) is known throughout the Celtic world. He is also remembered in place names and personal names throughout the Celtic lands. His symbols are the horse an wheel and his name means ‘The Shining God’. He is one of the Celtic high gods, and is probably a solar deity.

Possibly one of the most widespread of all the Celtic deities he is known from Italy (Cis-Alpine Gaul), Gaul, Britain and Ireland.

In Britain the personal name Bellinus occurs at Binchester (Vinovia), County Durham a name derived from the god-form Belenus, the native Brythonic form of which would be Belenus. Traces of this name having been found at Maryport. To the continental Brython the Cult of Belenus possessed a particular status in that it is mentioned in a number of Classical Literary sources. Ausonius was a poet from Bordeaux, writing in the later 4th century AD and alludes to sanctuaries to Belenus in Aquitania. Tertullian talks of the cult of Belenus in the Norican Alps (Apologeticus 24,7); and Herodian mentions Belenus’ worship at Aquileia in North Italy (History of the Empire after Marcus,8,3.6). In Ireland Beli is known as Bilé and is referred to as ‘The Father of Gods and Men’.

The Celtic fire festival on the first of May, known as Beltane, (the fires of Bel) is probably derived from the name of this deity. Beltane fires were lit to encourage the sun’s warmth. These fires also had restorative properties and cattle were herded between them before being loosed on the new spring pastures. From this it is likely that Beli was a fire deity, a patron of flame and the sun’s restorative powers (which explains his classical association with Apollo). Originally he may have been a pastoral deity and in Cymric myth is associated with cattle, sheep and cropt. Though this may be because Beltane was the time that herds were moved to the high pastures.

His symbols were the horse (as shown, for example, by the clay horse figurine offerings at Belenos’ Sainte-Sabine shrine in Burgundy), and also the Wheel (as illustrated on the famous Gundestrup Cauldron).

The Irish Bilé is a god of death and husband to Dana. In the tale of Lludd and Llefelys, the folk memory of Beli represents him as Belen o Lŷn, son of Manogan and father to Lludd and Llefelys. Both Beli and Lludd lend their names to sites in London; Billingsgate and Ludgate, respecitvely. Beli’s name is also found in the name of one of the most notable Brythonic chieftains before the Roman invasion, Cunobelinos (or, in Brythonic, Cunobel), the hound of Bel.

In Gaulish mythology Belenus’ consort was the goddess Belisama.

It is unlikely, as some have suggested, that the Cymric deity Beli Mawr is etymologically related to Belenos, as though the migration of Brython to old and middle Cymric this is far more likely to yield the name Belen or Belyn. Indeed, this is the name which we see in the Cymric form (Cynfelen) of the Catuvellauni leader during the Claudian invasion of Britain, Cunobelinos (the hound of Belinos). Inded, the tribe name Catuvellauni itself means ‘The Host of Belinos’ and their most well-known leader Cassivellaunos’ name means ‘The Devotee of Belenos’. There is also the figure of ‘Belen o Leyn’ who figures in triad 62 0f the Trioedd Ynys Prydain and is preserved today in the place-name Tyddyn Belyn near Tudweilog on the Llŷn Peninsula ELlSG. Rather, Beli Mawr is more likely derived from the name of the Gaulish deity Bolgios.

Belenos’ name is derived from the reconstructed proto-Celtic elements *belo- (bright/shining), the deicific particle -n- and the masculine ending -os. Thus Belenos is ‘The Shining God’.

Goddesses and Gods – Greek Titans – Rhea, Goddess of Fertility and Motherhood and Hyperion, God of Light and Sunlight

Greek Titans – Rhea, goddess of fertility and motherhood

Rhea (Rheia, Opis, Ops) was a Titan goddess of fertility and motherhood. She was very gentle and comfortable. Her name actually means “ease” as “at ease” and therefore this was probably the reason she was interpreted and worshiped as a goddess of comfort and ease. According to some authors, she is also described as the supreme mother goddess, just like her mother Gaea was and what later her daughter Hera became, but in Orphic hymn Rhea was even described as the supreme goddess, mother of all gods and men and it is said that even Uranus and Gaea derived from her. And as if there were not enough confusion yet, according to various authors, Rhea is also described as Cybelean goddess whose home was in Phyrgia which means that they are equating her with Cybelle, Anatolian earth goddess, but to return back to mainstream belief, backed by most authors, Rhea was a daughter of Uranus and Gaea and, because she was married to her brother Cronus, she was also a queen of the Cosmos. Together they represented “eternal flow” as they gave birth to a new generation of gods who then took control of the world, just like they and other titans had done it in the past. Therefore, she was also identified as a goddess of generations.

Birth of Olympians and plot against Cronus

Rhea was very much like her mother and loved her children unconditionally but unfortunately Cronus was like his father, jealous of his children’s powers and in fear of being overthrown. She became mad when Cronus forced her to give him their children to swallow upon birth. She started plotting against him and by the time he had swallowed HestiaHeraPoseidonHades, and Demeter, Rhea decided that enough is enough. She gave birth to her last childZeusin secrecy and gave Cronus a rock, wrapped in a blanket, to swallow instead. Cronus was pleased, not knowing that Zeus was still out there, and thought he was safe from the prophecy. In Hesiod’s Theogony, it is said that Rhea brought infant Zeus to Crete and gave it to Gaea to look after him. Gaea then guided him to the secret cave beneath Mount Aegeum or Mount Dicte. Zeus was raised there and, when grown up, came to Mount Othrys as a cupbearer and mixed a potion into Cronus’ drink which made him vomit all of his children. Later, in a ten-year war, Zeus and Olympians defeated Cronus and the Titans. They became the next rulers, just like Cronus and his brothers had done in the past, when overthrowing Uranus. In the end, Rhea was the main reason that history repeated itself.

According to Diodorus Siculus, it is said that Poseidon too had escaped the cannibalism of his father and that it was Rhea who had given him to the Telchines to look after him. However, according Pausanias, Rhea had hidden Poseidon among a flock of lambs when he was next to be swallowed.

The desire of motherhood

Like mentioned in Ovid’s Fasti, Rhea was mad and angry because she was often pregnant but never truly a mother of her children due to cannibalism of Cronus who ate most of them while Zeus and, variously, Poseidon on the other hand had to be hidden away from Cronus. She was mentioned to be often in company of lions which she nursed and took care of. The goddess is also said to have helped nurturing the young Dionysus when he was brought to her by Hermes, on Zeus’ orders who had to hide him from jealous and angry Hera. She was also, according to Homeric hymn to Apollo, involved in the birth of Apollo on the island of Delos. Upon the god’s birth, she, along her sisters Tethys and Theia, washed him with pure clean water and placed him in a white garment and took care of him until Leto recovered.

Other myths

Rhea was also involved in the return of Demeter to Mount Olympus. Demeter, in grief and sorrow, withdrew herself from the rest of the gods when Persephone was abducted. When the two were reunited, Demeter, still in anger of Persephone being bound to the underworld, declined to return. However, Rhea came to Demeter and convinced her that her place is among her brothers and sisters on Mount Olympus. In Nonnus’ Dionysiaca, Rhea is also said to had given an Amethyst to Dionysus that protected him from the tyranny of madness when drinking wine.

Greek Titan – Hyperion, god of light and sunlight

Hyperion was a Titan god of light or sunlight and was associated with watching and observation from above. He was also known as a Pillar of east. Together with his other three brothers, CriusCoeus and Iapetus, they presided as the Pillars of holding Heaven and Earth apart. He was one of six sons of Uranus and Gaea and is mentioned by Apollodorus as one of the five brothers, all but Oceanus, who participated in rebellion against Uranus and later attacked him. When they overcame him, the four brothers probably held him down while Cronus castrated him. While most of the authors are identifying Hyperion as a unique character, Homer is equating Helios and Hyperion as one and the same character and it can be seen in both of his epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey.

Establishing a rhythm of days and months

Due to his diligent observation, he was first to understand the movements of the sun and the moon, as well as the other stars and seasons. He was believed to have ordered the cycles of the sun, the moon and the dawn. During his time, he married her sister Theia with whom he had three children who presided over these cycles. Helios presided over sun, Selene over the moon and Eos presided over the dawn.

If you want to learn a bit more about Selene, check the page of Theia or Sky deities.


Although there are notes of Hyperion participating in Titanomachy, there is no reference of his role in the war. It is only known that he sided with his brothers and fellow Titans against younger Olympians. And that he was in the end, after losing the war, imprisoned in Tartarus with his brothers and relatives. However, according to Aeschylus’ lost play , he was later released byZeus from Tartarus with the rest of the titans.


Goddesses and Gods – Who are the main Celtic Gods and Goddesses?

(The lists below name the more well known Irish Celtic gods and goddesses. There are lessor know ones as well.)

Who are the Celtic Gods and Celtic Goddesses?

Celtic pagan gods and goddesses were thought to have special influential powers over aspects of daily life and the natural world.

The ancient Celts were polytheistic and are thought to have worshiped over 400 Celtic gods and goddesses, although it is difficult to pinpoint an exact figure.

Some of these gods and goddesses of Celtic mythology were revered across the Celtic world, whereas others seemed to have been less well known and worshiped only in certain regions or specific locations.

Table of Contents

1 Who are the Celtic Gods and Celtic Goddesses?

2 Celtic Deities vs Roman Deities

3 Who are the main Celtic Gods and Goddesses?

4 Celtic Gods and Goddesses in Irish Mythology

5 Irish Gods

6 Irish Goddesses

7 Celtic Deity Types

The names of Celtic gods and the names of Celtic goddesses that occur often in Celtic mythology are listed below.

List of Celtic Gods

Lugh – Celtic God of Justice and Mischief

The Dagda – Celtic God of Agriculture, Fertility and Seasons and King of the Gods

Aengus – Celtic God of Love, Youth, Summer and poetry

Manannan – Celtic God of the Sea

Cú Chullain – Demigod and Warrior Hero

Belenus – Celtic God of Fire

Donn – Celtic God of Death

Neit – Celtic God of War

List of Celtic Goddesses

Danu – Celtic Mother Goddess

The Morrigan – Celtic Goddess of War

Áine – Celtic Goddess of Love, Wealth and Sovereignty

Brigid – Celtic Goddess of Healing, Poetry and Blacksmithing

Flidas – Celtic Goddess of Cattle and Fertility

Bébinn – Celtic Goddess of Birth

Airmed – Celtic Goddess of Herbalism

Celtic Gods and Goddesses in Irish Mythology


Goddesses and Gods – Irish Celtic – Aine and Lugh – God of Justice and Oaths and Master of Crafts

Áine – Goddess of Love, Summer and Wealth

As the goddess of summer and wealth, Áine represents the abundance that the land has to offer during its most plentiful season.

Good, fruitful harvests were required to provide for the people and animals, therefore much emphasis was placed on gods and goddesses that represent fertility, such as Áine.

The goddess Áine is strongly associated with the feast of midsummer and the summer sun. She too, like the Morrigan is thought to have the ability to shapeshift and is represented by a red mare, known for its speed.

Áine is sometimes referred to as the Irish goddess of Love or as the Faery Queen.

There are several stories that connect Áine to rape, including one where she bites off the ear of the King of Munster after an unconsented encounter. By disfiguring him, the Celtic goddess of love made him ineligible to be king (only flawless, unmarred men could rule)  and so he was removed from his throne.

In another story of rape, Áine exacted revenge by turned her offender, Gerald, Earl of Desmond into a goose.

The Hill of Knockainy (or Cnoc Áine) in County Limerick was an important site, where ritual blessings to this Irish goddess were carried out.  Offerings to Áine have also been made at Lough Gur in County Limerick.

Lugh – God of Justice and Oaths and Master of Crafts

The god Lugh, (also spelled Lug or Luga) is one of the most notable of all the Irish deities and equates to the pan-Celtic god of Lugus.

Lugh was the god associated with justice and held power over oaths and law. He was also connected with rightfulness, especially in terms of kingship.

He was king of the glorified race of the Tuatha dé Danann, who were known for their superior skills and knowledge, particularly on the battlefield. The inscriptions on some early texts suggest that the Tuath dé Danann were deities, while others allude more to them having magical powers, including shapeshifting.

Lugh was a master craftsman and skilled warrior, known for his ability to throw a spear a very long distance and hence his other name Lugh Lámhfhada. This name means Lugh of the long arm in Irish.

He is believed to have led the Tuatha dé Danann to victory over the invading army of Fomorians as depicted in the Battle of Mag Tuired.

It is said that Lugh initiated a special games event, known as the Tailteann Games or Assembly of Tailti that focused on horse racing and martial arts that ran over the last two weeks in July and culminated with the start of the harvest celebration of Lughnasadh on 1 August. It is said that the games were founded in memory of Lugh’s foster mother Tailtiu, who was also thought to be a goddess.

Legend states that Lugh was also a bit of a trickster and is sometimes known as the Celtic god of mischief.

Lugh is thought to have been the father of demi god and famous Irish warrior, Cú Chulainn.

Are Celtic gods immortal? Seemingly not all of them, Lugh is said to have been speared and drowned in Loch Lugborta (or Loch Lugh) in County Westmeath, by the sons of Cermait after he killed their father.

Both the gods of Lugh and the Dagda are supposedly buried in the sacred center of the island of Ireland, Uisneach.

Goddesses and Gods – Greek Titans – Phoebe, Goddess of Prophetic Radiance and Crius, God of Heavenly Constellations

Greek Titans – Phoebe, goddess of prophetic radiance

Phoebe (Phoibe) was a Titan goddess of prophetic radiance, often associated with Selene (goddess of the moon). She, however, had never been referred as the goddess of the moon. The misinterpretation probably comes because her granddaughter Artemis was also called Phoebe, after her, just like her grandson Apollo was called Phoebus. And latin authors were all referring Phoebe as the moon goddess or moon itself, but they clearly had Artemis in mind doing so. That is why the Titaness is often misidentified as the moon goddess. To the Greeks it was pretty simple and obvious that Selene was the correct goddess. Romans on the other hand associated Artemis, Hera and Selene to the moon amongst others, but there was no mentioning of Titaness Phoebe. However, some researchers believe that Artemis (Diana, Phoebe) became known as the goddess of the moon because of her grandmother whom she got the name after. Anyhow, Phoebe was rather associated with being prophetic, like her sister Themis and her mother Gaea. She was also one of the twelve titans who were the descendants of Uranus and Gaea. She was, like all of her sisters, never involved in the war between Titans and Olympian gods, and was spared from being imprisoned in Tartarus. Instead, she took her place at the oracle of Delphi.

Prophet of the Delphic Oracle

She became the third prophet at the Oracle of Delphi, where she was believed to have heard her mother’s voices. Her predecessors were Gaea and Themis. Gaea honorably gave away her place to her daughter Themis who then gave it to her sister Phoebe. However, according to Aeschylus‘s myth, Phoebe had felt like having extreme burden to carry and gave away her place to her grandson Apollo as a present for his birthday, probably to motivate him. Apollo then presided over the prophetic power of light and heavens.

Asteria and Leto

Phoebe consorted with her brother Coeus, with whom she had two daughters. One of the daughters, called Leto, plays an important role in the later ages, in the time of Olympians. In those times, Phoebe had also developed a lust for mortal men, but her affairs never came to any fruition. According to Hyginus, who also mentions Asteria and Leto, she was also the mother of Perses and Pallas by Coeus.


Asteria – Titan goddess of oracles and prophecies. With her cousin Perses, she gave birth to goddess Hecate. She was also very beautiful like her sister and therefore pursued by Zeus. However, in order to escape from his embraces, she transformed herself into an island Asteria, later known as Delos.

Leto – Titan goddess of modesty and motherhood. She had very beautiful eyes, with which she charmed Zeus and he soon got her pregnant. Because of it, she was pursued relentlessly by jealous Zeus’s wife Hera who drove her from island to island, preventing her to rest and give birth. In the end Leto was finally provided with refuge by her sister Asteria who welcomed her to literally reside on her.

Greek Titans – Crius, god of heavenly constellations

Crius (Krios, the Ram, Aries) was a Titan god of heavenly constellations and was also known as a Pillar of the south pole. Crius, which means “Ram”, was often referred as a starting season of the Greek year, because his constellation was called Aries which nowadays means the start of spring. Together with his other three brothers CoeusHyperion and Iapetus, they presided as the Pillars of holding Heaven and Earth apart. He was one of six sons of Uranus and Gaea and is mentioned by Apollodorus as one of the five brothers, all but Oceanus, who participated in rebellion against Uranus and later attacked him. When they overcame him, the four brothers probably held him down, while Cronus castrated him. According to Pausanias, Crius was the father of Python, a dragon slain by Apollo, and was also closely related with the island of Euboea. The author even names two rivers after the titan.


In a time of war, he was mentioned siding with the Titans against the younger Olympian gods. After the war, where the titans had lost, Crius was along his brothers and many relatives imprisoned in Tartarus beneath the underworld. Although there is no clear statement made, he was supposed to be condemned to eternal punishment. However, according to Aeschylus’ lost play , he was later released byZeus from Tartarus with the rest of the titans.

Father of the Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses

In his time, he consorted with his half-sister Eurybia, a daughter of Gaea and Pontus. Together they had three children:

Astraeus – Titan god of the stars and the art of astrology. He was also the god of the dusk and father of the Four Winds and the Stars of the Heaven by Eos(goddess of dawn). They also had children who are often associated with the time of twilight.

Pallas – Titan god of warcraft who was defeated during Titanomachy by younger goddess Athena. He was a father of RivalryVictoryStrength and Power.

Perses – Titan god of destruction. He was married with his cousin Asteria with whom he fathered Hecate.

Goddesses – Don (Welsh – Celtic)

Don – Welsh Celtic Goddess of the Heavens, Air, Sea, and the Moon

Dôn was a Welsh mother goddess, the counterpart of the Irish Danu. She is the mother of Arianrhod, Gwydion, Gilfaethwy, Gofannon, Eufydd, Elestron and Amaethon. Llys Dôn (“The Court of Dôn”) is the traditional Welsh name for the constellation Cassiopeia.

She is the power of family and trust, and the powers of fertility that nourish the soil as well as the water of the earth. Don and her children represent all that is light, and battle darkness and evil. The Donwy River is named after her. In some refrences are so ancient she is sometimes known as a goddess and a god. She is all aspects of the triple goddess, maiden, mother and crone, She was also a ruler of the otherworld where the entrances were always in the burial mounds of the sidhe.

–~Attributes and Correspondences~–

Area of Influence:
Heavens, Air, Seas, Moon


Abode:Animals:Snakes, Fish, Mares, Seagull, Goats

Colours:Green, Silver, Blue, Black


Crystal:Onyx, Jet, Amber,H ag stones, Lead, Gold

Day:Direction:North, East, West

Element:Earth, Air, Water

Incense:Holly, Juniper, Yew, Myrrh, Cypress

Musical Instrument:Offerings:Planet:Cassiopeia

Plant/Tree:Comfrey, Elm, Ivy, Juniper, Apple trees


Tarot Card:The Empress

Time:Yule, Imbolc

Goddesses – Mnemosyne, Greek Titan Goddess of Memory and Remembrance

Mnemosyne, Greek Titan Goddess from greek-gods.org

Mnemosyne (Mnemosine, Juno Moneta, Memory) was a Titan goddess of memory and remembrance. She was believed to be the inventress of speech and writings. In Hesiod’s Theogony, her daughters, the Muses, are described as the spirits who possessed kings and poets, whom the gods favoured and gave them special powers of authoritative speech and wisdom. Mnemosyne was one of the six daughters of primeval deities Uranus and Gaea in the first generation of Titans. Mnemosyne was also known to be a mother of Muses and represented the memorisation of stories and myths preserved in history before the discovery of writing.

The mother of Muses

Mnemosyne dwelled over the hills of Eleuther (in Pieria, near Mount Olympus) where Zeus came to lie with her for nine nights, away from other immortal gods. Together in those nine nights they gave birth to nine Muses:

Calliope – muse of epic poetry was believed to have possessed Homer and gave him inspiration for the Odyssey and the Iliad. She is often depicted as carrying a book or a writing tablet. She was also the mother of two sons by Apollo, called Linus and Orpheus. (Side Note Calliope has been helping me write since before I had my first website. Not a witchy one but for dog obedience training – really I was training humans to be kind to their companion when correcting them 😄)

Clio – muse of history. She is usually depicted of holding an open scroll or is seated beside a chest of books.

Erato – muse of love and erotic poetry. Most of the time she is depicted playing a kithara or a lyre, but in some cases she is shown with a wreath of myrtle and roses.

Euterpe – muse of music. She is often depicted sitting on a chair and playing her double flute.

Melpomene – muse of tragedy. However, she was originally a muse of singing and dancing which came from her name or more precisely from greek verb melpô (“to celebrate with dance and song.”). She is usually depicted wearing cothurnus boots(boots worn by tragic actors) and holding a tragic mask in her hand.

Polyhymnia – muse of sacred hymns. She is depicted as serious or meditative, often standing, wearing long cloak and supporting her arm with a part of the cloak.

Terpsichore – muse of dancing. Usually, she is depicted in a sitting position and playing a lyre with her special plectrum. She is also mentioned to be the mother of Sirens.

Thalia – muse of comedy. Most of the time, she is depicted holding a comic mask in her hand and wearing a cloak and a crown made of ivy.

Urania  muse of astronomy. She is depicted with a globe in her hand. Urania was believed to be able of fortelling the future by arrangement of the stars and is often associated with Universal Love and the Holy Spirit.

Goddesses – Gaea Greek Earth or Land

Greek Goddess Gaea ( Gaia ) from greekgodsandgoddesses.net

Known as both Gaia and Gaea, the Goddess Gaia is a figure from Greek mythology. Her name essentially means earth or land and shows that she was the human version of the earth. Some refer to her as the ancestral mother and claim that she gave birth to all of the elements of the world. Gaia birthed URANUS, also known as Ouranos and THE TITANS as well as other major figures such as the Gigantes and CYCLOPES. Terra is the Roman version of the goddess.

In the creation myth, CHAOS came before everything else. He was made of Void, Mass and Darkness in confusion; and then earth in the form of Gaea came into existence. From “Mother Earth” sprang the starry heavens, in the shape of the SKY GOD Uranus, and from Gaea also came the mountains, plains, seas and rivers that make up the Earth we know today.

Meaning of Her Name – Gaia/Gaea

Though some Greek gods and goddesses have names that scholars later established, Gaia’s name dates back to before Greek civilization. Her name in other languages includes Doric and Attic, but all of the names mean earth. Mycenean Greeks called her Ma-Ka or Ma-Go, both of which mean Mother Gaia.


Name(s): Gaia/ Gaea
Rules over: The Earth
Title: Goddess Of The Earth Mother Earth
Gender: Female (primoridal elemental)
Symbols: Fruit, Grain
Sacred animals:
Items: The Earth
Consort: Uranus, Pontus, Aether and Tartarus
Other significant others: Retinue: – Carpi, Horae, Panes
Children: Uranus, Pontus, Nereus, Thaumus, Phorcys, Ceto, Eurybia, Aergia, Typhon, Python, and Antaeus the Ourea, the Hecatonchires, the Cyclopes, the Titans, the Gigantes
Roman name: Terra

The Titans and Earth

Gaia was the first of the immortals. She arose during the chaos period. Greeks refer to this period as the time before gods and goddesses. Christians use the same term to describe the world before God separated heaven and earth. She would become the eternal seat on Mount Olympus where all Olympians sat. Many refer to those men and women as the 12 Olympians. During the early years, many called her Mother Earth.

As soon as she arose, she took possession of Mount Olympus and began overseeing the world. TARTARUS was the next immortal and known for helping pave the earth, followed by EROS who was the god of love. After spending many years as the only creature, she became so lonely that she created Uranus. To make him happy, she gave him control over the sky and heaven. She believed that he would help and protect her. Gaia then created both PONTUS to oversee the ocean and OUREA to take over the mountains. These two beings were unique in that she created them alone and without the assistance of a father/male.

The creation of the Titans was equally as interesting. One night, the goddess and her son lay together. This resulted in the birth of CRONUS, who was the original Titan. While her other children loved and respected their mother, Cronus was different. He thought his mother was lusty and sinful. Knowing the truth behind his birth, he was often awful to her and acted out.

Other Children

As one of the more prolific goddesses in Greek mythology, Gaia had multiple children. Their births helped her become known as Mother Goddess. She and Uranus laid together a second time and sired Cyclopes. They also had Brontes and STEROPES, who became known as Thunder and Lighting along with Arges known as Bright. HECATOCHIRES, Gyges, Cottus and Briareos were other children the mother and son had together. Legend says that all three had 50 heads and 100 arms. Worried about their creation, Uranus tucked them away and hid his children from the world.

Gaia was unhappy but didn’t know to take control of the situation until she came up with a new plan. She used a piece of gray flint to create a sickle and convinced her other children to help with her plan. Uranus returned to his mother with amorous plans. He instead found Cronus who grabbed the sickle and cut off his father’s testicles. Even as his blood ran, Gaia used him to father more children. Sh bore both the MELIAE who were tree nymphs and the Giants as well as Erinyes. Many know this group as the furies. As his blood rushed into the sea, Aphrodite sprung forward.

After laying with her son Pontus, the goddess of the earth had several more children. These children include EURYBIANEREUS and CETO as well as Thaumas and PHORCYS. All of her children with this son are sea deities. This led to her connection to both the water and earth. She also had Triptolemos wit her son OCEANUS.
Cronus later became obsessed with a warning He received from both Uranus and Gaia.

They told him that he would have success in life but that one of his children would gain control over him. When he lay with Rhea who was his sister, he was so worried about what might happen that he swallowed their children immediately after she birthed them. RHEA wanted to have children. After becoming pregnant again, she went to her parents for help. They helped her protect the child and created a stone that they wrapped in cloth. Cronus thought this was his child, which gave Rhea time to escape with their actual child. This baby was ZEUS.

Years later, Zeus went to war with the Titans. Though his mother was a Titan and Gaia was the mother of the Titans, she agreed to help him. Zeus won in his battle and brought an end to the group who wanted to defeat him. Though she helped him, the earth mother and Tartarus had a son Typhon. Not only was TYPHON her last so, but he would later go up against Zeus.

Night and Day

Hyginus claimed that Gaia had a child with Sea and Heaven, which resulted in the births of AETHER and HEMERA. These two children later became known as night and Day. Another early biography of the goddess claims that she and Tartarus were the parents of ECHIDNA. Echidna was a monster who was part snake and part human. She spent much of her life living in a hidden cave and birthed some of the more popular monsters in
Greek mythology.

Gaia often appeared in different ways in early artwork. One of the oldest vase paintings from Athens depicts her as an older woman with half of her body still in the ground and a matronly figure. Other vases show her in a similar position with Erichthonius in her hands. This scene shows her giving the future king of the city to ATHENA who raised him. Other paintings show her as a more beautiful and younger woman relaxing on the ground with small gods nearby.

Gaea – Epithets and Cults

The most common epithet associated with Gaia is Anesidora, which is also one of the oldest names given to her. It means giver of gifts and shows that she gave to those in need. Others referred to her as Pandoros, Eurusternos and Calligenaia. In most stories, people followed both her and DEMETER and worshiped them equally. Some legends claim that her followers sacrificed black animals in honor of her. They would bring a white animal for the Sun and a black animal for the Earth.

Gaia Temples

As one of the more popular GREEK GODDESSES, many people worshiped Gaia and built temples in her honor. One legend claims that she was the creator of Delphi. It says that while clad as a tree, she stood in the center of town and spoke to a stone, which came to life. Before breathing life into the stone, Gaia was the original oracle. When she grew tired of the position, she appointed a nymph by the name of Daphnis to take over. A different legend claims that both Gaia and Poseidon shared the oracle. While she allowed the oracle the freedom to speak, Poseidon only allowed his to say what he wanted him to say. Her share of the oracle would later go to Apollo who eventually gave it back to POSEIDON.

There were other temples dedicated to her honor outside of Delphi. When Homer began writing GREEK MYTHOLOGY, he noted that APOLLO was in control of Delphi. He gained control after murdering Python, who was the goddess’s son. Hera was so unhappy at what he did that she banished him. Apollo worked as a shepherd for nine years before she allowed him to return.

Pausanias mentioned in his early books that there were three temples for Gaia worshippers. One was Gaion, which was a short ride from Krathis. He claimed this was the oldest of her temples and held many wooden images of her. This temple allowed women to apply for priestesses’ roles. They had to drink bull’s blood and then answer a series of questions honestly. When multiple women wanted the position, they competed in a series of challenges. The temple was unique because it allowed female priestesses who previously had relations with men as long as they were never with more than one man at a time.

Another temple designed for Gaia was in Sparta in an area known as Ge Gasepton. It was also a sanctuary of Nurse of the Young and not far from Athens. Like other temples of the time period, it had multiple altars where people could pray and worship her. Priestesses marked other areas as sacred spots designed for other gods and goddesses. EILEITHYIA had a sanctuary in Tegea that had an altar dedicated to her. There were similar altars in both Delphi and Olympia.

The connection she shared with Demeter is clear in the statues found in his temple. One of those is in Achaia and is known as the Temple of Demeter. His followers chose the location because it was in a quiet grove not far away from the ocean. When the weather was nice, followers could take long walks and enjoy their time outside. The area had both a temple to APHRODITE and one to Apollo. The Temple of Demeter has a STATUE of Demeter and Persephone along with one of Gaia. There is also a painting of her on display that shows her in a seated position.

As the mother of Zeus, it’s not surprising that some of his temples also pay homage to her. One of those is the Zeus Olympios in Athens near Kronos. It has a bronze sculpture of the god along with multiple antiques and artifacts. Inside is a portion of the floor with an open section in the middle. It originally had water that came down from the mountains. Visitors would mix honey and wheat into the water to pay their respects once a year. Deukalion built the sanctuary in honor of Zeus and added the water feature for Gaia, but it’s unknown when they did so.

Athens had another statue of the goddess that disappeared years ago. It showed Gaia standing on the Acropolis with a distraught look on her face as she begged Zeus to make it rain. The Areopagus court in Athens also had a statue of her, which was close to those of HERMES and Plouton. Near the statues was a sign that named each one.


There are many modern interpretations about Goddess Gaia that are different than those from the early years. Walker and Mellaart are among those who believe she has a connection to the Great Mother. During Neolithic times, followers worshiped the Great Mother and viewed her as the ultimate ideal of femininity and fertility. She often appears in sculptures and status as a seated woman with a serene look on her face. Scholars on this side believe that the Great Mother concept started in one region and made its way to ancient Greece where it became the Gaia legend.

Other experts in Greek mythology such as Staples and Ruck believe that both Demeter and Gaia were originally the same person. Some take this a step forward and add in the PERSEPHONE legend along with Hectate stories. They believe that all of the stories were originally about the same woman and that Greeks attributed them to different women later. A few books also claim that the story of Potnia came from Gaia. She was a woman known as the Mistress or the Mistress of Animals who later became associated with ARTEMIS. Potnia was a popular deity in Crete.

Mother Earth disappeared from popular mythos for many years until James Lovelock brought her back. Lovelock is a British scientist who released Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth in 1979. This book introduced the Gaia hypothesis, which is a theory backed by other scientists. The theory claims that both inorganic compounds and living organisms on the planet must work together. Lovelock chose to name his theory after the earth goddess known as the personification of the earth. Though he won several awards for his work, he also attracted some controversy.

During the 1990s, the hypothesis gained attention from those interested in preserving the environment. They claimed that this concept would minimize the risk humans had on the world at large. New age enthusiasts also celebrated the concept.

The controversy came from those who felt it had no scientific basis. One biologist even claimed that the idea belonged in the dark ages. Others thought that humans caused more damage to the environment when they attempted to protect it. Some even thought that it went against the concepts of natural selection and evolution. Many wonder what the goddess would think about the idea if she was around today.

Quick Facts About Goddess Gaia

Gaia had more than 60 children with her sons and grandsons along with her consorts and other romantic partners.

The goddess is unique because she was born without a father and had several children on her own.

Delphi, one of the oldest and most recognizable of all oracles, was a possession of Gaia’s who she created after creating mystical vapors.

Despite the fact that she never settled down with one man, many chose her to oversee their weddings.

At least 11 of her children only occasionally appear in legends as hers. Other legends claim they had different parents.

Ancient Greeks believed that all life and elements of the earth came from her.

LETO, Uranus, Apollo and Aphrodite are among the Olympians in Gaia’s family tree.

The most common names attributed to her are Gaea and Gaia.

SOURCE: <a href=”https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net/goddesses/gaea/”>Goddess Gaea ( Gaia ): https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net</a&gt; – Greek Gods & Goddesses, November 29, 2021

Goddesses – Cerridwen (Welsh Celtic)

Cerridwen Welsh Celtic – Goddess of the Cauldron from deity-of-the-week.blogspot.com

In Welsh medieval legend, Ceridwen ( /ˈkɛrɪdwɨn/ kair-id-wən), also spelled Cerridwen, was an enchantress, mother of Morfran and a beautiful daughter Creirwy. Her husband was Tegid Foel, and they lived near Bala Lake (Llyn Tegid) in north Wales. Medieval Welsh poetry refers to her as possessing the cauldron of Poetic Inspiration (Awen) and the Tale of Taliesin recounts her swallowing her servant Gwion Bach who is then reborn through her as the poet Taliesin. Ceridwen is regarded by modern Wiccans as the Celtic goddess of rebirth, transformation, and inspiration.

There are several possible interpretations of the name ‘Ceridwen’. The earliest recorded form, found in the Black Book of Carmarthen, is Cyrridven.[1] This was interpreted by Sir Ifor Williams as “crooked woman” (cyrrid < cwrr “crooked or bent”? + ben “woman, female”), although the precise meaning of cyrrid is uncertain.[2][3] Another possible meaning for the second element, based on the much more common form ‘Ceridwen’, is “fair, beloved” or “blessed, sacred” (gwen, mutated here to -wen, is a common element in female saints’ names, e.g. Dwynwen).[4]

According to the late medieval[5] Tale of Taliesin, included in some modern editions of the Mabinogion, Morfran (also called Afagddu) was hideously ugly, so Ceridwen sought to make him wise. She had a magical cauldron that could make a potion granting the gift of wisdom and poetic inspiration. The mixture had to be boiled for a year and a day. Morda, a blind man, tended the fire beneath the cauldron, while Gwion Bach, a young boy, stirred the concoction. The first three drops of liquid from this cauldron gave wisdom; the rest was a fatal poison. Three hot drops spilled onto Gwion’s thumb as he stirred, burning him. He instinctively put his thumb in his mouth, and instantly gained great wisdom and knowledge.

Ceridwen chased Gwion. He turned himself into a hare. She became a greyhound. He became a fish and jumped into a river. She turned into an otter. He turned into a bird; she became a hawk. Finally, he turned into a single grain of corn. She then became a hen and ate him. When Ceridwen became pregnant, she knew it was Gwion and resolved to kill the child when he was born. However, when he was born, he was so beautiful that she couldn’t do it. She threw him in the ocean instead, sewing him inside a leather-skin bag. The child did not die, but was rescued on a Welsh shore – near Aberdyfi according to most versions of the tale – by a prince named Elffin ap Gwyddno; the reborn infant grew to became the legendary bard Taliesin.

From: Wiki

Cerridwen was worshipped by the people of Wales — who call themselves the Cymri or friends, for the term “Welsh” means “foreigner” in the language of their British neighbors.

Cerridwen lived on an island in the middle of Lake Tegid with her two children — the beautiful Creidwy and the ugliest boy in the world, Afagdu. To compensate her son for bestowing such a body on him, the goddess brewed a magical formula that would make her son the most brilliant and inspired of men. For a year and a day, she kept herbs simmering in her caldron, which she left under the care of a little boy named Gwion.

One day, while the goddess was out collecting more herbs for her brew, a few drops of the bubbling liquid splattered onto Gwion’s finger. Scowling in pain, he stuck his hand instantly into his mouth. Miraculously, he was able to hear everything in the world and to understand the secrets of both the past and the future.

His enchanted foresight showed him how angry Cerridwen would be when she found a mere mortal had acquired the inspiration intended for her son. So he ran away; the all-knowing Cerridwen realized what had happened and pursued him. Gwion changed himself into a hare; Cerridwen pursued him as a greyhound. So they ran: he as a fish, she as an otter; he as a bird, she as a hawk; he as a grain of wheat, she as a hen.

It was in the final form that she caught and devoured him, bearing him nine months later as a child. She threw the baby into the water where he was caught by a prince and grew into the poet Taliesin, the greatest poet in his language. Thus the Welsh expressed their understanding that death and rebirth were necessary for true inspiration to be brought into this world, showing the Muse, the goddess of inspiration, in a somewhat more terrible form than she appears in other cultures.

Crone of Wisdom:

In Welsh legend, Cerridwen represents the crone, which is the darker aspect of the goddess. She has powers of prophecy, and is the keeper of the cauldron of knowledge and inspiration in the Underworld. As typical of Celtic goddesses, she has two children: daughter Crearwy is fair and light, but son Afagddu (also called Morfran) is dark, ugly and malevolent.

The Legend of Gwion:
In one part of the Mabinogion, which is the cycle of myths found in Welsh legend, Cerridwen brews up a potion in her magical cauldron to give to her son Afagddu (Morfran). She puts young Gwion in charge of guarding the cauldron, but three drops of the brew fall upon his finger, blessing him with the knowledge held within. Cerridwen pursues Gwion through a cycle of seasons until, in the form of a hen, she swallows Gwion, disguised as an ear of corn. Nine months later, she gives birth to Taliesen, the greatest of all the Welsh poets.

The Symbols of Cerridwen:
The legend of Cerridwen is heavy with instances of transformation: when she is chasing Gwion, the two of them change into any number of animal and plant shapes. Following the birth of Taliesen, Cerridwen contemplates killing the infant but changes her mind; instead she throws him into the sea, where he is rescued by a Celtic prince, Elffin. Because of these stories, change and rebirth and transformation are all under the control of this powerful Celtic goddess.

The Cauldron of Knowledge:
Cerridwen’s magical cauldron held a potion that granted knowledge and inspiration — however, it had to be brewed for a year and a day to reach its potency. Because of her wisdom, Cerridwen is often granted the status of Crone, which in turn equates her with the darker aspect of the Triple Goddess.

As a goddess of the Underworld, Cerridwen is often symbolized by a white sow, which represents both her fecundity and fertility and her strength as a mother. She is both the Mother and the Crone; many modern Pagans honor Cerridwen for her close association to the full moon.

Cerridwen (“White Sow”, or “White Crafty One”) is the Welsh grain and sow-goddess, keeper of the cauldron of inspiration and goddess of transformation. Her son Afagddu was so horribly ugly She set to making a brew of wisdom for him, to give him a quality that could perhaps overcome his ugliness. Every day for a year and a day She added herbs at the precise astrological times, but on the day it was ready the three magical drops fell instead on the servant boy, Gwion Bach, who was set to watch the fire. Instantly becoming a great magician, the boy fled from Her wrath, and as She pursued him they each changed shape–a hound following a rabbit, an otter chasing a salmon, a hawk flying after a sparrow–until finally the boy changed to a kernel of wheat, settling into a pile of grain on a threshing-floor. Cerridwen, becoming a black hen, found him out and swallowed him down.

Nine months later she gave birth to Taliesin, who would be the greatest of all bards.

Called “the White Lady of Inspiration and Death”, Cerridwen’s ritual pursuit of Gwion Bach symbolizes the changing seasons. Her cauldron contains awen, meaning the divine spirit, or poetic or prophetic inspiration. Her link as the Mother of Poetry is seen in Her reborn son Taliesin, and in the Welsh word that makes up part of Her name, cerdd, which also means poetry.

From: ThaliaTook.com

The image of her cauldron, holding the magickal potion of wisdom, is the mythical origin of the Halloween image of a cauldron-stirring hag, making up her witch’s brew 11 . The brew had to simmer for a year and a day, a common passage of time in Celtic lore, and a standard time before magickal initiation. Today, many Druidic pagans believe that her shape-shifting chase after Gwion was meant to represent the different elevations of Druidic initiation rites 12 . The chase can also be seen as representative of the many changes our souls must make, into different forms, and over different human lifetimes, before we can discover the very reason for our existence 13 .

The potent nature of her brew has, today, transformed Cerridwen, in some eyes, into a goddess of fertility, creativity, harvest, inspiration, knowledge and luck 14 . A festival in her honor is celebrated on July 3rd, and the pink sow, a symbol of fertility, good fortune and enrichment, is said to be her matron animal 15 .

From: Here

Neud amug ynghadeir o beir Cerridwen!
Handid rydd fy nhafawd
Yn adddawd gwawd Ogyrwen.

Is not my chair protected by the cauldron of Cerridwen?
Therefore, let my tongue be free
In the sanctuary of the praise of the Goddess.
The Bard Taliesin

The Welsh Goddess Cerridwen brewed a magical potion for her son, to make him the most brilliant and inspired of men. She set a boy named Gwion to stir and guard the cauldron, and a few drops bubbled onto his hand. Gwion instinctively sucked the burned hand, and instantly all the wisdom and knowledge of the universe was apparent to him. Cerridwen, angered, pursued Gwion as he shapeshifted from one animal to another and finally to a grain of corn, whereupon Cerridwen, who had shapeshifted as well and was now in the guise of a hen, ate him.

Nine moons later, Cerridwen gave birth to Taliesin, the greatest of all bards. In him was all the wisdom of his mother’s magic. Cerridwen’s cauldron is but one of many magical cauldrons and vessels in Celtic lore. It is a powerful symbol of transforming magic, and of the lessons learned through change and experience, as well as divine creative inspiration.

Also see:

A List of Celtic Gods and Goddesses

(When reading this list keep in mind that the word “Celtic” covers many different areas of Britian and centuries ago different parts of Europe there may be a difference in what they believe or how they follow a god or goddess different from another area of Celts. The Druids also have their own way of following a deity.)

A List of Celtic Gods and Goddesses from thoughtco.com

The Druid priests of the Celts did not write down the stories of their gods and goddesses but instead transmitted them orally, so our knowledge of the early Celtic deities is limited. Romans of the first century BCE recorded the Celtic myths and then later, after the introduction of Christianity to the British Isles, the Irish monks of the 6th century and Welsh writers later wrote down their traditional stories.


The Celtic god Alator was associated with Mars, the Roman war god. His name is said to mean “he who nourishes the people”.


The Celtic god Albiorix was associated with Mars as Mars Albiorix. Albiorix is the “king of the world.”


Belenus is a Celtic god of healing worshiped from Italy to Britain. The worship of Belenus was linked with the healing aspect of Apollo. The etymology of Beltaine may be connected with Belenus. Belenus is also written: Bel, Belenos, Belinos, Belinu, Bellinus, and Belus.


Borvo (Bormanus, Bormo) was a Gallic god of healing springs whom the Romans associated with Apollo. He is depicted with helmet and shield.


Bres was a Celtic fertility god, the son of the Fomorian prince Elatha and the goddess Eriu. Bres married the goddess Brigid. Bres was a tyrannical ruler, which proved his undoing. In exchange for his life, Bres taught agriculture and made Ireland fertile.


British goddess connected with river and water cults, equated with Minerva, by the Romans and possibly linked with the goddess Brigit.


Brigit is the Celtic goddess of fire, healing, fertility, poetry, cattle, and patroness of smiths. Brigit is also known as Brighid or Brigantia and in Christianity is known as St. Brigit or Brigid. She is compared with the Roman goddesses Minerva and Vesta.


Ceridwen is a Celtic shape-shifting goddess of poetic inspiration. She keeps a cauldron of wisdom. She is the mother of Taliesin.


Cernunnos is a horned god associated with fertility, nature, fruit, grain, the underworld, and wealth, and especially associated with horned animals like the bull, stag, and a ram-headed serpent. Cernunnos is born at the winter solstice and dies at the summer solstice. Julius Caesar associated Cernunnos with the Roman Underworld god Dis Pater.

Source: “Cernunnos” A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. James McKillop. Oxford University Press, 1998.


(SIDE NOTE: this goddess are evolved into the goddess of all domestic animals in some modern traditions)

Epona is a Celtic horse goddess associated with fertility, a cornucopia, horses, asses, mules, and oxen who accompanied the soul on its final journey. Uniquely for the Celtic goddesses, the Romans adopted her and erected a temple to her in Rome.


Esus (Hesus) was a Gallic god named along with Taranis and Teutates. Esus is linked with Mercury and Mars and rituals with human sacrifice. He may have been a woodcutter.


Latobius was a Celtic god worshipped in Austria. Latobius was a god of mountains and sky equated with the Roman Mars and Jupiter.


Lenus was a Celtic healing god sometimes equated with the Celtic god Iovantucarus and the Roman god Mars who in this Celtic version was a healing god.


Lugh is a god of craftsmanship or a solar deity, also known as Lamfhada. As leader of the Tuatha De Danann, Lugh defeated the Fomorians at the Second Battle of Magh.


Maponus was a Celtic god of music and poetry in Britain and France, sometimes associated with Apollo.


Medb (or Meadhbh, Méadhbh, Maeve, Maev, Meave, and Maive), goddess of Connacht and Leinster. She had many husbands and figured in the Tain Bo Cuailgne (Cattle Raid of Cooley). She may have been a mother goddess or historical.


(SIDE NOTE: this goddess is properly referred to as “the Morrigan” amongst other names)

Morrigan is a Celtic goddess of war who hovered over the battlefield as a crow or raven. She has been equated with Medh. Badb, Macha, and Nemain may have been aspects of her or she was part of a trinity of war goddesses, with Badb and Macha.

The hero Cu Chulainn rejected her because he failed to recognize her. When he died, Morrigan sat on his shoulder as a crow. She is usually referred to as “the Morrigan”.

Source: “Mórrígan” A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. James McKillop. Oxford University Press, 1998.


Nehalennia was a Celtic goddess of seafarers, fertility, and abundance.


Nemausicae was a Celtic mother goddess of fertility and healing.


Nerthus was a Germanic fertility goddess mentioned in Tacitus’ Germania.


Nuada (Nudd or Ludd) is the Celtic god of healing and much more. He had an invincible sword that would cut his enemies in half. He lost his hand in battle which meant that he was no longer eligible to rule as king until his brother made him a silver replacement. He was killed by the god of death Balor.


Saitada was a Celtic goddess from the Tyne Valley in England whose name may mean “goddess of grief.”

Sources and Further Reading 

Monaghan, Patricia. “The Encyclopedia of Celtic Mythology and Folklore.” New York: Facts on File, 2004.

Rutherford, Ward. “Celtic Mythology: The Nature and Influence of Celtic Myth from Druidism to Arthurian Legend.” San Francisco: Weiser Books, 2015. 

MacCana, Prosinsias. “Celtic Mythology.” Rushden, England: Newnes Books, 1983.

McKillop, James. “Fionn mac Cumhail: Celtic Myth in English Literature.” Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986. 

SOURCE: Gill, N.S. “A List of Celtic Gods and Goddesses.” ThoughtCo, Apr. 5, 2023, thoughtco.com/celtic-gods-and-goddesses-117625.

Gods and Goddesses – Other Greek deities, minor gods and divine beings

Other Greek deities, minor gods and divine beings

Other Deities

Agricultural deities

Chthonic deities

Health deities

Rustic deities

Sky deities

Water deities

Gods and Goddesses – Overview of the Olympian Gods and Goddesses

I am using just one website greek-gods.org for this overview of Greek Olympian Gods and Goddesses so, if I missed any please let me know in the comments section. Thank you!

If you studied Greek mythology in school these would be the deities you might be most familiar with. There are other names mentioned in books on Greek mythology which I will list tomorrow but will probably not be doing individual posts on in the future.

The Olympian gods, main Greek gods

The Olympian gods or Olympians are younger gods who got the name after their mythical place Mount Olympus. They had gained rank as the rulers of the world after dethroning the elder gods, known also as the Titans, in a ten-year war called Titanomachy. The Olympians, as they called themselves, were the main gods of Ancient Greece and were representing civilization of the world.

The first generation Olympians were descendants of a titan couple Cronus and Rhea. Together they gave birth to six children, three sons and three daughters. The sons were PoseidonHadesZeus and daughters HeraHestia and Demeter. Zeus, Poseidon, Hera and Demeter are always considered as Olympian gods while Hestia and Hades are only included at some point of their existence. Hades was supposed to live on Mount Olympus and had every honour and right to but was given the realm of death under his control, when the three brothers had to split the cosmos after the victory over titans. And Hestia lived there just for a short period. After being granted a place on Mount Olympus by Zeus she eventually, because of her modesty, gave away her place to keep peace among gods because there were only twelve places on Mount Olympus, and the desire for these was huge among gods. The second generation Olympians were AthenaAresHermesDionysusApolloArtemis and HephaestusAphrodite is also sometimes considered as the second generation goddess but is in general referred to be from the titans generation. Anyway, all of these gods are referred as Olympian gods and together they presided over every aspect of human life.

The Olympian Gods

Titans generation

First generation

Click on the hyperlink for each God or Goddess for more information about them. I will post on each individually in the days and weeks to come.

Gods and Goddesses – An Overview of Greek Titans Gods

I am using just one website greek-gods.org for this overview of Greek Titans Gods and Goddesses so, if I missed any please let me know in the comments section. Thank you!

The Titans, elder Greek gods and first divine rulers

The mighty Titans were a powerful race that ruled the world before Olympians, in a time of the Golden Age of men. They were immortal giants of incredible strength and knowledge of old religion rituals and magic. They are also known as the Elder Gods and their dwelling place was at Mount Othrys. In Greek culture they were interpreted as personifications of the earth (Gaea) and the sky or heavens (Uranus).

The first generation of Titans were descendants of Gaea and Uranus who originally gave birth to Twelve Titans, six males and six females. Males were CoeusCronusCriusHyperionIapetus and Oceanus and females were MnemosynePhoebeRheaTheiaThemis and Tethys. They arose to power when Cronus, in a plot with his mother and his brothers, castrated his father Uranus and took the rulership of Cosmos from him. More details about this conflict can be found in the Genesis

During this reign, the titans and other primeval gods decided to pass on the godly genes and gave birth to the second generation of Titans. Hyperion and Theia gave birth to EosHelios and Selene, while Coeus and Phoebe brought forth Leto and Asteria. Oceanus and Tethys gave birth to Oceanids and Potamoi who are in general not referred as Titans. However, an Oceanid Clymene, a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, helped Iapetus to continue the next generation and bore him AtlasPrometheusEpimetheus and Menoetius. Crius and his half-sister Eurybia, a daughter of Gaea and Pontus, brought forth AstraeusPallas and Perses and, eventually, Cronus and Rhea gave birth to younger gods, ZeusHadesPoseidonHeraHestia and Demeter who rebelled against Cronus and his followers and later defeated them in a ten-year war, known as Titanomachy. They called themselves the Olympian Gods, after Mount Olympus which was their main dwelling place, and became the new rulers of Cosmos.

The Titans

Click on the hyperlink for each God or Goddess for more information about them. I will post on each individually in the days and weeks to come.

First generation











Second generation






Not a Goddess but a Wife of a God – Enarete