WOTC’s Lady Carla Beltane’s Grimoire is NOW LIVE on Patreon

Link for WOTC’s Lady Carla Beltane’s Grimoire on Patreon

Looking for more advanced spells and rituals than are posted on WOTC? Want to get the next copy of Life in The Craft magazine? Well look no further you can get all of this and somedays more by choosing one of four different tiers on Patreon.

Tier 1 “Luxury Witch” subscribes you to just the Life in The Craft magazine. Which is published 12 times a year and includes information on both hemisphere’s Sabbats when applicable, a recipe or two, looking deeper into Rider-Waite tarot card deck, and more The issues will come out around the 15th of every month. For $3.00 USD per month.

Tier 2 “Buy a Witch a Cup of Tea” has a seven-day trial period.  You will have access to a new spell every week going live every Wednesday or Thursday that will never appear on WOTC website. For $5.00 USD per month

Tier 3 “Friend of WOTC” you will have access to the spell posted every week plus either a Esbat (Full or New Moon) or a Sabbat for the northern and southern hemisphere once a month. The rituals will post a minimum of a week before the Esbat or Sabbat Date. For $10.00 USD per month

Tier 4 “The Reigning Supreme” (This name was used as a nod to American Horror Stories – Coven season) Combines the 3 tiers above so you will get the spell of the week, the ritual of the month and the current issue of Life in The Craft magazine. For $17.00 per month

A word of caution about the spells and rituals that will be posted on Pateron as a witch you should have a working knowledge on how to do spell work and rituals safely.

Any questions please write to Lady Carla Beltane at ladybeltane@witchesofthecraft.com.

Sacrificial altar among 13,000 relics unearthed at Sanxingdui archaeological site in China

A turtleshell-shaped box and a sacrificial altar are among a treasure trove of 13,000 relics dating back over 3,000 years discovered by archaeologists in southwest China.

The relics – many made of gold, bronze and jade – were unearthed in six sacrificial pits at the Sanxingdui archaeological site, near Chengdu, Chinese state media reported Monday, June 14, 2022.

Historians know relatively little about the Sanxingdui culture, which left behind no written records or human remains, though many believe it to be part of the ancient kingdom of Shu. It’s hoped the latest finds will shed light on the kingdom, which ruled in the western Sichuan basin along the upper stream of the Yangtze River until it was conquered in 316 BC.

A joint team of archaeologists from Sichuan Provincial Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute, Peking University, Sichuan University and other research institutions have been excavating the six pits at the site since 2020.

In the most recent excavation, archeologists found 3,155 relatively intact relics, including more than 2,000 bronze wares and statues, China’s state news agency Xinhua reported.

New finds from the past

Researchers described a turtleshell-shaped box made of bronze and jade as among their more intriguing finds, saying it was the first time they had uncovered such an item.

“It would not be an exaggeration to say that the vessel is one of a kind, given its distinctive shape, fine craftsmanship and ingenious design. Although we do not know what this vessel was used for, we can assume that ancient people treasured it,” Li Haichao, a professor at Sichuan University, told Xinhua.

A bronze altar nearly 3-feet tall (0.9 meters) was also found in one of the pits, where people of the click here to read the rest of this article

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – Watchtowers or Quarters

From moonlitpriestess.com

Today’s Word is


Another name for the four cardinal directions–north, east, south, & west. (See also: Watchtowers, the) Generally linked to the Elements in many Wiccan and Pagan traditions today.

Watchtowers, The

Another name for the four elements in some traditions; earth, air, fire, water. Sometimes used in reference to the spirits of the four directions–north, east, south, west–regardless of Elemental association. May also be in reference to the Archangels Raphael, Michael, Gabriel, and Uriel in similar fashion. As the Watchtowers, the spirits serve as protection within a magickal working.

From Spells8.com


The four corners and/or watchtowers associated to each cardinal direction in a magickal circle. They are symbolic structures called upon to guard over a circle during a ritual.

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – Absolute

Pagan & Magickal Terms and Definitions

From moonlitpriestess.com

Some terms listed on this page may seem like common-sense words; however, they’re defined here as most often used in Wicca, Witchcraft, and general Paganism. Some terms have a different meaning in general society, other religions, and other sub-cultures. Please keep this in mind when learning the terms as they’re listed here.

Today’s Word is


concentrated, highly aromatic mixture similar to essential oils.

The Nine Sacred Woods for Your Beltane Fire Printable

(SIDE NOTE: These are also the types of wood you need to make Ogham Staves.)

Special Edition of Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondences, Rituals and Other Things for Beltane


Beltane is a cross-quarter holiday on the Wheel of the Year that honors the return of summer, the return of the fertility of the Earth, and the element of fire. It’s a nature-based holiday that many of our ancestors celebrated for a long time, and now we get to carry that tradition forward.

Like Samhain, Beltane is a time when the veil is thin. This holiday is a particularly beautiful time to connect with nature spirits, as well as any other beings you’re wanting to create a connection with.

At Beltane, we honor the goddess as part of us. We honor the body, pleasure, sensuality, and sexuality. We bask in the fiery energy of the sun and the fertile energy that’s present.

In this blog, I’m sharing three rituals and suggested tools for Beltane that you can work with to honor this sacred holiday. Keep scrolling to watch a video and read more!


Feel free to add any of the symbols and tools outlined below to your Beltane rituals or altar. They each correspond with the energy of Beltane. They are not necessary and should be viewed as optional layered energy in your rituals.

Crystals: Rose quartz, garnet, pink tourmaline, rhodochrosite, emerald, malachite, and moonstone

Scents and plants: Sandalwood, ylang-ylang, lilac, angelica, jasmine, and rose

Candle colors: Pink, orange, and red

Element: Fire

Tarot: Empress

Rune: Berakno

Goddess: Venus/Freya

Tools and Symbols: Cowry shell, flowers, and anything that represents pleasure and creativity to you


Click here to read the rest of the rituals from cassieuhl.com

Beltane Correspondences

From paganpages.org

Also known as: Bealtaine, Beltane, Bhealtainn, Bealtinne, Festival of Tana (Strega), Giamonios, Rudemass, and Walburga (Teutonic), Cetsamhain (opposite Samhain),Fairy Day,Sacred Thorn Day, Rood Day, Roodmas (the Christian term for Rood Day, Old Beltane, Beltain, Baltane, Walpurgis Night, Floriala (Roman feast of flowers from April 29 to May 1), Walpurgisnacht (Germanic-feast of St. Walpurga), Thrimilce (Anglo-saxon), Bloumaand (Old Dutch)

Date: May 1

Animals: Swallow, dove, swan, Cats, lynx, leopard

Deities: Flower Goddesses, Divine Couples, Deities of the Hunt, Aphrodite, artemis, Bast, Diana, Faunus, Flora, Maia, Pan, the Horned God, Venus, and all Gods and Goddesses who preside over fertility.

Tools: broom, May Pole, cauldron

Stones/Gems: emerald, malachite, amber, orange carnelian, sapphire, rose quartz

Colors: green, soft pink, blue, yellow, red, brown

Flowers & herbs: almond tree/shrub, ash, broom, cinquefoil, clover, Dittany of Crete, elder, foxglove, frankincense, honeysuckle, rowan, sorrel, hawthorn, ivy, lily of the valley, marigold, meadowsweet, mint, mugwort, thyme, woodruff may be burned; angelica, bluebells, daisy, hawthorn, ivy, lilac, primrose, and rose may be decorations, st. john’s wort, yarrow, basically all flowers.

Incense: frankincense, lilac, rose

Symbols & decorations: maypole, strings of beads or flowers, ribbons, spring flowers, fires, fertility, growing things, ploughs, cauldrons of flowers, butterchurn, baskets, eggs

Food: dairy, bread, cereals, oatmeal cakes, cherries, strawberries, wine, green salads

Activities & rituals: fertilize, nurture and boost existing goals, games, activities of pleasure, leaping bonfires, making garlands, May Pole dance, planting seeds, walking one’s property, feasting

Wiccan mythology: sexual union and/or marriage of the Goddess and God

It’s association with fire also makes Beltaine a holiday of purification.

Wiccan weddings are frequently held on or around Beltaine.

Beltane Foods to Bring to your Fire Festival

From PlentifulEarth.com

A beautiful, spring sun shines overhead on a beautiful Beltane morning, bringing blessings of warmth, love, and passion to every Witch present at the festival of Beltane. A bright fire burns in the distance, marking the celebration between Ostara and the Summer Solstice. The Green Man and Mother Earth each bless handfastings while dozens of Witches happily maypole dance to celebrate the fertility of this beautiful Sabbat.

45 minutes into the Beltane celebration, you think to yourself, “Is it time for the cakes and ale? I’m so ready for the feast! Oh! Hail and welcome!” We’ve literally all been there. Good news; food is a huge part of Wiccan and Pagan celebrations!

In this article, we’ll share the fruits, vegetables, meats, and foods that are best for a Beltane fire festival.

Beltane Recipes and Food Correspondences




Herbs & Spices


  • Banana Bread
  • Bannock Bread
  • Oatcakes


  • Goat’s Cheese


  • Beef
  • Goat
  • Rabbit
  • Oysters



  • Chocolate Sauce
  • Curry Sauces
  • Honey
  • Hot Sauce
  • Olive Oil

1 Persons Opinion on What Does It Actually Mean To Be A Witch?

What Does It Mean To Be A Witch? By: Laurie Rihiimaki |on gaia.com

The term, ‘witch’ gets thrown around in everyday life soaked with a long history of negative connotation.‘Witch’ derives from the Old English noun, ‘wicca’ meaning a male witch and ‘wice’ meaning a female witch or sorceress. However, this negative stigma has recently been viewed as outdated and tired. So, what does it mean to be a witch?

Definition of A Witch

In general, witches today can be defined in three ways: someone who actively practices magical rituals or spells, someone who has a spiritual connection such as a psychic medium or a tarot reader, or someone who worships the Pagan gods.

The reality of what it means to be a witch today carries many traditions of the Pagan religion; something which was previously thought to be tied to the devil or satanic rituals. Modern day witchcraft often includes the lighting of candles, meditation, yoga, incense, the smudging of sage, crystals, dream analysis, and other rituals connected to Pagan roots.

However, witchcraft is simply about using the power of the universe and the mind to attract wants and desires. It’s about being in tune with Earth’s natural resources and using them to mystically quench a spiritual thirst.

How to Spot A Witch

Spotting a witch today compared to the 1600s is an entirely different puzzle. Nowadays, it’s rather easy to determine who’s a witch because they are generally proud of their mystical practice. We now know you can’t simply label someone a witch based on their physical appearance or outspokenness.

But, in the late-1500s to mid-1600s in Eastern Europe and early colonial America, witches were named purely based on societal suspicion. For example, if a woman was outspoken, she was a witch. If she owned land or had a great deal of assets, she was a witch. If a woman was widowed or a spinster, she was considered out of the ordinary, therefore, she was deemed a witch.

After the label ‘witch’ was plastered on a woman in the community, there were many ways to theoretically prove her connection to the feared and mysterious craft. One of these tests included the bizarre witch cake; a rye flour cake baked with the urine of the accused, which was then fed to a local dog that the community observed to determine if it showed the same behaviors as the ‘witch.’ People believed the urine would transmit satanic juices to the dog because of its supposed association with the devil.

There were many other devised strategies to determine the presence of a witch in the community including:

  • Weighing the accused against a stack of bibles
  • Asking them to recite the Lord’s prayer
  • Counting the number of pets they had
  • Counting the number of marriages they had
  • Asking them if they had dreams that included Native Americans or their culture
  • Observing if they talk to themselves


These tests and many others determined a community member’s right to continuing living.

The accused was also searched for the physical mark of a witch, including birthmarks, scars, or extra nipples. These mysterious physical marks, which we now discern as common biological features, were considered signs of the devil’s presence. The accused were pricked with knives on these marks; if the mark did not bleed, they were deemed a witch.

The Destigmatization of Witches

Witchcraft is not as highly feared as it once was. There are no widespread witch hunts or constant fear associated with the neighborhood spinsters and widows. The destigmatization of witches is seen more and more in our everyday lives as popular stores sell tarot cards and crystals. While smudging with sage and owning a spell book is a trending lifestyle add-on visible all over Instagram.

While this destigmatization of witches may seem trendy on the surface, as it’s popularly marketed, the spread of witch-awareness is closely related to a greater cause: the women’s empowerment movement rapidly spreading across the world.

Today, people recognize the need for a change in energy relating to the female’s place in society, but often women are feared for being strong-willed and outspoken. Then, like now, powerful women or those with important titles often face greater challenges than their male counterparts. In the 1600s they were burned at the stake or stoned to death; today, they can face belittlement of their accomplishments, their morality questioned, or reputations intentionally tarnished.

With that being said, one could argue that witchcraft is a necessary addition to modern society as it illuminates the daily struggles of women on various levels. With that feminist insight in mind, it’s vital to remember that witchcraft is not just one single thing across the board. It’s certainly not just the performance of spell casting or the donning of crystals. It’s an understanding of one’s own spirituality. And, at this period in time, which is faced with drastically polarizing viewpoints, it is essential to have beliefs that we can mold to our own specific needs.

Can I Be A Christian Wiccan or Witch? (1 Person Opinion)

Many people in the Pagan community were raised in a religion that wasn’t Paganism, and sometimes, it can be a challenge to set aside the beliefs with which you were raised. Occasionally, however, you’ll encounter people who didn’t set their beliefs aside at all, but have found a way to blend their Christian upbringing with Wicca or some other Pagan path that they’ve discovered later in life. So, that begs the question, what about that whole “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live” thing that appears in the Bible? There’s an argument in some circles that the word witch was a mistranslation, and that it’s actually supposed to be poisoner. If this is the case, does that mean it’s possible to be a Christian Wiccan?

Christian Wicca

Unfortunately, this is one of those questions that has to get broken down into a bunch of really small bits, because there’s no simple answer, and no matter how it gets answered, somebody is going to be upset with the response. Let’s try to break this down a bit, without turning it into a debate on Christian theology.

First, let’s clarify one thing right off the bat. Wicca and witchcraft are not synonymous. One can be a witch without being Wiccan. Wicca itself is a specific religion. Those who follow it—Wiccans—honor the deities of their particular tradition of Wicca. They don’t honor the Christian god, at least not in the way that Christianity mandates that he be honored. In addition, Christianity has some pretty strict rules about what gods you get to worship—pretty much none other than theirs. You know, there’s that “thou shall have no other gods before me” bit. By the rules of Christianity, it’s a monotheistic religion, while Wicca is polytheistic. These make them two very distinct and very different religious belief systems.

So, if you go strictly by the very definition of the words, one could not be a Christian Wiccan any more than one could be a Hindu Muslim or a Jewish Mormon. There are Christians who practice witchcraft within a Christian framework, but this is not Wicca. Do keep in mind that there are people who declare themselves to be Christian Wiccans, or even ChristoPagans, honoring Jesus and Mary as god and goddess together. It’s generally rude to argue with how people self-identify, but if you go by actual semantics, it seems that one would rule out the other.

There are some practitioners who follow what they call Trinitarian Wicca, which “is a tradition based on American Wicca, boasting no direct lineage. Trinitarians work exclusively with the Goddess-inclusive Christian Pantheon. This tradition is not eclectic nor is it ChristoPagan because our devotion lies exclusively with the Christian pantheon.”

Witch, or Poisoner?

Let’s move on. Let’s assume that you’re interested in becoming a witch, but you plan on remaining Christian. In general, the witch community isn’t going to care—after all, what you do is your business, not ours. However, your local pastor might have quite a bit to say about it. After all, the Bible does say “thou shall not suffer a witch to live.” There’s been a great deal of discussion in the Pagan community about that line, with many people arguing that it’s a mistranslation, and that originally it had nothing to do with witchcraft or sorcery, but that the original text was “thou shall not suffer a poisoner to live.”

In general, the notion of the line in the Book of Exodus applying to poisoners and not witches is one that is popular in Pagan circles but has been repeatedly dismissed by Jewish scholars. This theory of mistranslation of the word “poisoner” as “witch” is acknowledged as being patently false, and based upon ancient Greek texts.

In the original Hebrew, the text is very clear. In the Targum Onkelos, which is an ancient translation of the Torah into Aramaic, the verse in question reads M’khashephah lo tichayyahwhich loosely translates into “A M’khashephah you shall not let live.” For the early Jews, a M’khashephah was a witch who used herbal magic as a form of sorcery. While herbalism could have involved herbal poisons, if the Torah had meant to say poisoner, it would have used a different word, rather than one that meant, specifically, witch.

While this doesn’t need to turn into a discussion on Biblical theory, many Jewish scholars have asserted that the passage in question does in fact refer to witchcraft, which seems fairly sensible, since they’re the ones who speak the language best. Keeping that in mind, if you choose to practice witchcraft under the umbrella of Christianity, don’t be surprised if you run into some opposition from other Christians.

The Bottom Line

So can you be a Christian Wiccan? In theory, no, because they’re two separate religions, one of which forbids you from honoring the gods of the other. Can you be a Christian witch? Well, maybe, but that’s a matter for you to decide for yourself. Again, the witches probably don’t care what you do, but your pastor may be less than thrilled.

If you’re interested in practicing witchcraft and magic within a Christian framework, you may want to look into some of the writings of Christian mystics, or perhaps the Gnostic Gospels, for further ideas.

SOURCE: Wigington, Patti. “Can I Be A Christian Wiccan or Witch?” Learn Religions, Apr. 5, 2023, learnreligions.com/can-i-be-a-christian-wiccan-or-witch-2562901.


This is a beautiful, harmonious, and healing full moon as we head into spring in the northern hemisphere. Ruled by Venus, the goddess of love, relationships, beauty and abundance, there is a focus for the middle two weeks of April on beautifying and harmonizing our lives. Venus is positioned at 24 degrees of Taurus, the other of the two signs that she presides over. Venus’ rulership of air sign Libra is focused on the inter-personal aspect of abundance and harmony whereas Venus’ rulership of earth sign Taurus is focused on these qualities in the natural world, the organic beauty and interdependence of all things. During this full moon we rather have the best of both worlds.

It is especially significant to have an air sign full moon now, just after Pluto has moved into fellow-air sign Aquarius after a 15 year residency in earthy Capricorn. There is a “lightening up” of certain layers of density and a fresh buzz in the air. All of this will be highlighted and strengthened by the Libra full moon. And it is the ONLY air sign full moon we have this year with Pluto in Aquarius, since Pluto retrogrades back into Capricorn in June before the next air sign full moon which is on August 1st. So we are being tasked with harnessing the breezes of inspiration, insight and fresh connections that are coming our way. Perhaps so we can move them forward in a more assertive or concrete way during the upcoming eclipse season.

The first eclipse season of 2023 begins on April 20th with a new moon solar eclipse in Aries. This is significant for several reasons. First, because it click here to read the rest of this article from vibrational-astrology.com

A History of the Chakra Energy Systems by Siofra_Strega Spell Mechanic

From spells8.com

A Brief History of Energy Systems throughout Time

Between 1500 & 500 B.C. the first mention of the Chakra systems is in the Indus Valley Civilizations. They had a figure with three faces & wearing horned headgear that was in a yogic trance & surrounded by various animals such as elephants, lions, & the like… yoga at the time was practiced under Guru’s direction & the spiritual guidance was of utmost importance. Yoga exercises were built into the Upsana meditation techniques. Chakra is a term that is used to describe how “energy keeps moving” throughout the body. Yoga is often times used to direct or balance the energy centers through poses & meditation. They are believed to be spinning sources of energy or wheels for areas of the body and around the fields of energy surrounding the body.

Whether or not they have always been or if it’s a modernized tradition, the main seven Chakra centers are believed to also correlate to skills, expressions, kinds of health, nerve centers, & internal organs among other things spiritual, and physical, mental, and emotional states. The subtle (“energy”) body is made up of approximately 72,000 nadis that the subtle energy flows through. When several of the nadis cross it makes up an energy center. With so many nadis, depending on the system there can be up to 144 Chakras, but within each system of chakras, the main seven are the ones most people are referring to. So the Chakra is an energy center. Chakras are spinning to stay open & aligned while running along the spine keeping the flow of energy even & balanced. Chakra is a Sanskrit word that translates to “wheel” or “spinning wheel”

As psychic centers of awareness, along with the 600 B.C. Yoga Upanishads are also referred to in Pat Anjali’s Yoga Sutras in 200 B.C. The Yoga Upanishads are a collection of The Cudamini Upanishads, the Yoga Shikka Upanishad, The Shri Jabala Darshana Upanishad, & the Shandilya Upanishad. They all mention chakras, but they are spelled cakra. The systems were passed down through oral traditions by Indo-European people. Historically, they became an Eastern Concept until New Age writers connected with the concept & then by building on earlier beliefs and writings made the information more accessible and then written very well.

The Vedas are the oldest yoga scriptures also written around the same time in India between 1500 & 500 B.C. In Indian academics, it is thought that the chakra systems are much older due to oral traditions before recorded scriptures & long before Indo-Europeans arrived. As such even today information & skills are passed through teachers & students through examples or oral history of the chakra systems. The history of Sri Amit Ray extends beyond 114 Chakras also.

The primary source of chakras making their way west is the translation by Arthur Avalon in his book The Serpent Power which was published in 1919. The Sat Cakra Nirupana was published in 1577 by Swami Purnananda, & the Padaka Pancaka both written in the 10th century & they both include descriptions & associations of the centers. The Gorakshashatakam has directions for meditation on the chakras. Today’s knowledge of Kundalini yoga, energy, and chakra theory is based on those writings. In the West, these writings are the main source of information on the chakras.

It is believed that the oral traditions being passed down, actually began 12,000 to 1000 BCE & then translated when the Avestan speaking peoples & those that have descended from the Indo-European & the Russian civilizations. The ideas were mixed with each other’s cultures & intertwined within the Indigenous cultures of the Indus Valley. Historians are of the belief that the Vedic texts actually reflect both philosophies, which also include information from more ancient cultures such as the Indians or the Dravidians.

Many cultures & countries around the world have different interpretations of the Chakras. The West tends to relate the chakras to bodily organs & the physical body… however they aren’t a static reality, they are a fluid reality with a flowing energy type of nature to them.

The psychological states that are now associated with the chakras in the West are actually an innovation that was from Carl Jung’s archetypal theories & isn’t usually found in the Sanskrit texts.

  • Example: The Solar Plexus Chakra
  • Associated with power & purpose in the modern Chakra systems but in the ancient context, it would associate with each lotus petal of the Chakra with a distinct emotional state.

The cross-cultural takeaway is that Chakras “can be used as general tools to heal & balance the energetic, physical, spiritual, & emotional bodies.” However, across the world, this varies a bit when you compare the systems with each other.

The Hermetic Texts of Egypt, India, & Persia almost all embrace the belief in intangible energy.

In Africa, the Kemetic Tree of Life came with the Egyptians who practiced magic & mystery teachings daily. Their focus was an energy body referred to as ka & worked with the Kemetic Tree of Life as a pathway from Earth to the Heavens.

Jewish mystics adopted the Kabbalah under the Egyptian influence of the time back to Moses leading the Israelites out of Egypt. Early Egyptian energy contains concepts similar to the chakras & subtle energy bodies such as sekhem and “life force energy”. The ba is the soul that represents nonphysical energy.

The Yoruba tribe of Africa practiced magic & they had orishas or Spirits that dwell within the body, which happened to correlate to Hindu Chakra concepts.

“The Dogon tribe worked with sacred geometry & information received directly from their home star, Sirius, to help control living conditions & heal tribal members. The information they received from the stars was extremely mathematically accurate, far surpassing their technological abilities. Some say that these ancient cultures were always connected to galactic gateways, which allowed this transfer of universal knowledge.” (Complete Guide to Chakras)

In Hinduism energy of the ka body is considered to be prana (breath, life-giving force) or kundalini (energy that is coiled up at the base of the spine). In the Hindu text, Bhagavata-purana there are six Chakra centers indicated & two for other spiritual centers weren’t added until later for the higher spiritual practices.

Buddhist philosophy & the continuation of Tantric & yogic ideas, the Chakras are considered to be wheels that help to achieve emptiness or enlightenment. Sometimes there are fewer or more wheels (4, 5, 7, or 10) they all rely on tummo (Kundalini) for the ultimate awakening & integration of the full Chakra system.

The Middle East is loaded with different variations of the Chakra system. The Zoroastrians who are the authors of the scripture Avesta had the holy system Amesha Spentas or Divine Emanations which closely translated a six Chakra system.

The Sufis & the Jewish are rich in mystical cosmology also, and both have discussions around their vital energy bodies in sacred texts and teachings that relate the metaphysical realms to eternal creation lies within each one of us.

In North, South, & Meso America the Mayans, Incans, Andeans of Peru, the Huicholes, and other native cultures throughout time worked with the elements and physical locations of the Chakras on the body. Shamanic teachings and temple iconography show extensive knowledge of energy bodies and spirits from the land and sky.

In North America, the Cherokee had mystical connections to Pleiades & highlight body & Earth matrices, meridians, & interconnecting points on the body in their cosmology.

Over in Europe, the Vikings had an understanding of the Chakra systems that are symbolized by a tree with nine Norse Worlds. The Yggrdasil Tree connects the humans to Asgard, home of the Gods.

The Celts of Neolithic Britain had myths and lore of Gods & Goddesses with the contained concept of argano-rota (“silver wheel”)

It is said that in Avalon (a sacred Chakra of the Earth) the chakras were formed as the seven points of consciousness the top point being the Crown, housing the rest of the Chakras & not actually a Chakra itself.

Chakra work isn’t a replacement for medical care, it can be used as a complement to any therapy that may be necessary for your treatments or other therapies


  • Gorst, Pam. “A Brief History of the Chakra Origin – Chakra Color Origin Myth.” Tantric Academy , 14 Apr. 2022, https://tantricacademy.com/history-of-the-chakras/ 8.
  • Jackson, Charles. “Origin of the Chakra System: The History and the Legends.” Good and Great , 30 Apr. 2021, Origin of the Chakra System: Good and Great 6
  • Pfender, April, and Enya Todd. The Complete Guide to Chakras: Activating the 12-Chakra Energy System for Balance and Healing , Rockridge Press, Emeryville, CA, 2020, pp. 5–8.

The (Cursed?) Original Book of Witchcraft

This article was co-researched and co-written by digital library specialist Elizabeth Gettins, who also had the brilliant idea for the piece.

An ancient tome delving into the dark arts of witchcraft and magic…a book of doom…yet it lives…at the Library of Congress.

You’re forgiven if you think we’re talking about H.P. Lovecraft’s fictional book of magic, “Necronomicon,” the basis for the plot device in “The Evil Dead” films, or something Harry Potter might have found in the Dark Arts class at Hogwarts.

But, as the darkness of Halloween descends, we’re not kidding. A first edition of “The Discouerie of Witchcraft,” Reginald Scot’s 1584 shocker that outraged King James I, survives at your favorite national library in the Rare Book and Special Collections Reading Room. (The Library has a copy of the original edition, as well as a 1651 edition.)

It is believed to be the first book published on witchcraft in English and extremely influential on the practice of stage magic. Shakespeare likely researched it for the witches scene in “Macbeth.” It was consulted and plagiarized by stage magicians for hundreds of years. Today, you can peruse its dark secrets online. How could your wicked little fingers resist? Scot promises to reveal “lewde dealings of witches and witchmongers”! The “pestilent practices of Pythonists”!  The “vertue and power of natural magike”!

Also, juggling.

It is one of the  foundational examples of grimoire, a textbook on magic, groundbreaking for its time and nearly encyclopedic in its information. Scot’s research included consulting dozens of previous thinkers on various topics such as occult, science and magic, including Agrippa von Nettesheim’s “De Occulta Philosophia,” in 1531 and John Dee’s “Monas Hieroglyphica” in 1564. The result is a most impressive compendium.

But Scot wasn’t lurking about in a hooded cape, looking for eyes of newts and toes of frogs to bewitch mortals. A skeptic, he wrote to make it plain that “witches” were not evil, but instead were resourceful and capable women who practiced the art of folk healing as well as sleight of hand. Their apparently miraculous feats were in no way wicked. He wrote, “At this day it is indifferent to say in the English tongue, ‘she is a witch’ or ‘she is a wise woman.’ ”

Born in 1538 in Kent under the rule of Henry VIII, Scot was landed gentry. He was educated and a member of … Click here to read the rest of this article from blogs.loc.gov/loc

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – Valknut

The Norse Valknut: True Origins & Meanings of the Triangle Knotfrom nordicperspective.com

The symbol we today call Valknut, or Valknútr, has long captured the fascination of people interested in Norse mythology and Viking culture. With its distinctive interwoven triangles, this symbol has been found on a variety of ancient artifacts, and has been the subject of much speculation and study. But what does the Valknut actually mean? Was it actually called Valknútr? Where did it originally come from? And was it really used by the Vikings? Let’s delve into the mysterious origins and meanings of the Valknútr and explore its place in Norse mythology, as well as its links to other symbols and enduring legacy in our modern world.

As you will learn in this article, the symbol we call Valknut may have had a completely different name during the Viking Age, i.e. when it started appearing on stones, jewelry, and wooden objects in and around Scandinavia. What that name is we do not know, so for the sake of simplicity I will refer to it as the Valknut throughout the article.

Table of contents

The Appearance of the Valknut, Earliest Known Use & Associations

Valknut Etymology: Origins and Alternative Names

What Does the Valknut Actually Mean and Symbolize? Explaining All the Theories

    1. A Symbol of the Power of Odin to Bind and Unbind the Fates of Men (The Most Likely Theory)
    2. A Symbol of The Heart of Hrungnir or Heart of the Slain (The Heart Theory)
    3. A Symbol of the Ideal, Steady Heart of the Brave Slain Hero, Dead Warriors, or That of a Worthy Adversary (The Romantic Theory)
    4. A Symbol of Life, Death, and Eternity (The Universal Theory)
    5. A Germanic Symbol of Prestige & Riches (The Scaetta Theory)
    6. A Symbol of The Nine Worlds (The Neo-Pagan Theory)

Different variations of the Valknut symbol

    1. Unicursal Valknut
    2. Tricursal Valknut

Symbols Connected to the Valknut

    1. The Triquetra of Celtic Mythology
    2. Symbols Related to Valknut in Slavic Mythology

Valknut Tattoo Designs

The Valknut in Modern-day Logotypes

    1. The German Football Association (Deutsche Fußball Bund)
    2. The massive Swedish forestry company SCA

Misappropriation of the Valknut

Common Questions

    1. Can I wear a Valknut or will it be misinterpreted by others?
    2. Why do people get Valknut tattoos?
    3. Is the Valknut authentic?
    4. Did Vikings use the Valknut?

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – Deosil

Today’s Word is 


Pagan & Magickal Terms and Definitions

From moonlitpriestess.com

Some terms listed on this page may seem like common-sense words; however, they’re defined here as most often used in Wicca, Witchcraft, and general Paganism. Some terms have a different meaning in general society, other religions, and other sub-cultures.

Please keep this in mind when learning the terms as they’re listed here.

Did you come across a term on this site or another Wiccan/Pagan source that you’re unfamiliar with or uncertain of and can’t find it on this page? Please send us a message so we can add it to this page for you!

If you already know what term you’re looking for, you can use Ctrl-F (Windows) or Cmd-F (Mac) to search. Likewise, if you’re using a tablet or smartphone, you may use your browser’s “Find” setting to search this page.


(jezz-il): sun-wise movement (clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere); movement associated with positive (in terms of building, increasing, etc.) magick in Wiccan traditions. [Note: A misspelling of the word “deasil”.]

Witch Vocabulary: A List of 60+ Pagan Words and Terms

From Spells8.com


The clockwise motion of directing energy during a spell or ritual. This can be done with your hand, a wand, a knife, etc.

Magick Symbols – ELEMENTS c. 2018


The four basic elements to many pagans are earth, water, air (wind or spirit) and fire. Many consider the first two passive and feminine—and the last two active and masculine. In Wiccan or Native American rituals, the “quartered circle” (similar to the Medicine Wheel) represents a “sacred space” or the sacred earth. The four lines may represent the spirits of the four primary directions or the spirits of the earth, water, wind and fire.

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – Rabbit


What Do Rabbits Symbolize? Rabbit Symbolism Meaning from rabbitcaretips.com

Rabbits are one of the most popular pets. However, rabbits have been a part of lives, cultures, and religious practices for much longer than they have been considered pets. Historically speaking, rabbits hold a great deal of symbolic meaning. This can guide dreams, art, and even traditional dress.

Rabbits almost always symbolize prosperity, abundance, good luck, and fertility. Unlike many other animals, which have different meanings in different cultures, rabbit symbolism is consistent. In most European cultures, rabbits are springtime animals, symbolic of fruitfulness and renewal. The connection between rabbits and spring is also found in Japanese culture. In the U.S., rabbits are symbolic of cleverness, devotion to self-improvement, and good luck.

There are some cultures that see rabbits differently, however. While rabbits are the luckiest of the Zodiac animals in China, they are primarily seen as trickster animals by Native American cultures. Furthermore, while many Central American peoples see rabbits as symbols of fertility, Aztec mythology associates rabbits with drunkenness and promiscuity.


Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions

Some terms listed on this page may seem like common-sense words; however, they’re defined here as most often used in Wicca, Witchcraft, and general Paganism. Some terms have a different meaning in general society, other religions, and other sub-cultures.

Please keep this in mind when learning the terms as they’re listed here.

Did you come across a term on this site or another Wiccan/Pagan source that you’re unfamiliar with or uncertain of and can’t find it on this page? Please send us a message so we can add it to this page for you!

If you already know what term you’re looking for, you can use Ctrl-F (Windows) or Cmd-F (Mac) to search. Likewise, if you’re using a tablet or smartphone, you may use your browser’s “Find” setting to search this page.

Today’s Word is


concentrated, highly aromatic mixture similar to essential oils.

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – Ouroboros

From symbolsandmeanings.net

Rich with cultural significance and religious meaning, the ouroboros symbol embodies rebirth, eternity, self-reliance, immortality, and nature’s cyclic character. Commonly known as “the snake eating itself”, the ouroboros is among the most prominent ancient symbols found in the history of different cultures, religions and civilizations.

One surely does wonder how a single symbol managed to endure the test of time and make its mark on so many civilizations and cultural beliefs.

Let us get right into it and have a closer look at its meaning, symbolism, origin and uses throughout history.

Ancient Egyptian Tombs: The First Appearance of The Ouroboros Symbol

The ouroboros first appeared on a golden shrine in King Tut’s (Tutankhamen) tomb in Egypt in the 13th century BC. The tombs featured two ouroboroi engraved on the gilded shrine along with some strange text. These ouroboroi appeared as serpents wrapped around the head and feet of a mummified figure, which is believed to have been King Tut himself, or the sun god Ra, or perhaps an amalgamation of both.

According to expert Egyptologists, the symbol was to “refer to the mystery of cyclical time, which flows back to itself”. Since the ancient Egyptians saw time as repetitive, constantly evolving cycles instead of a linear path, the ouroboros represented the immortality of human beings and its interconnection to nature’s cycles.

Ouroboros Meaning and Symbolism

The ouroboros symbol has appeared on temples, ancient artifacts, tombs, and artwork throughout history. Pronounced as ‘oo.ruh.bo.ruhs’, this symbol represents how everything in this universe is interconnected, going back to nature and becoming one with it once again after death. The unbroken circle of the snake eating itself represents universal unity, rebirth, and renewal through death.

The term ouroboros is derived from two ancient Greek words – ‘oura’ and ‘boros’. ‘Oura’ refers to tail while ‘boros’ means eating. When we combine the two words, it results in the meaning ‘he that eats his own tail’ or even just simply ‘tail eater’.

Believed to be based on serpents shedding their skin to make place for a new one, the ouroboros is an ancient symbol of eternal life and infinite growth. Although historians are unsure of the exact origins of the ouroboros symbol, it is believed to be inspired by snakes, serpents, and lizards that curl up to protect themselves.

With numerous different interpretations, some claim it represents the cycle of life and death, with the universe remaining central to it all. Others believe it represents the recreation of life through death or even the rebirth of the dead to reach an immortal state.

Snake Eating Itself: Association with Ancient Mythology and Civilizations

Being one of the most popular ancient symbols, the ouroboros has appeared throughout history in different ancient civilizations and cultures. Like the ever-rising sun, this symbol is believed to have gone through its own journey from Egypt to the ancient Greek alchemists and eventually making its way to the modern era.

After being featured predominantly in Egyptian civilization, the ouroboros slithered out to ancient Greek mythology through the Phoenician culture, where it received a new representation.

Greek Philosophy

For Plato, the ouroboros represented self-reliance and showed a perfect being that needed nothing but itself. He further believed the symbol showed a dark side with self-destruction and the tendency to devour itself.

Historians also draw a parallel between the ouroboros and the Greek myth about Sisyphus. According to the myth, Zeus punishes Sisyphus by making him roll a boulder up a hill. As soon as he gets to the top, the boulder inevitably falls back down, and he has to roll it up once again.

Ancient Romans

The ouroboros symbolized infinity for the Romans. They also associated the symbol with the god Saturn who controlled the cycles of each year. Roman philosophy states that Saturn connected each year to the next, forming an endless loop that is depicted by the snake eating its own tail.

Norse Mythology: Manuscripts and Jörmungandr

Vikings told stories of a giant serpent called Jörmungandr, who guarded Midgard (their name for Earth). Jörmungandr was one of Loki’s three children and was thrown into the great ocean by Odin.

There, he grew into a size so big that he could eventually encircle the whole world to reach and devour his own tail. It was said that if the World Serpent, or Jörmungandr, released his tail, Ragnarok would begin. The World Serpent was closely associated with the ouroboros symbol.

Ouroboros Symbol in the Modern World: Becoming The Infinity Symbol

In recent times, the ouroboros has undergone significant reinterpretation to become the infinity symbol. This concept was initiated in the 20th century with Mobius strips, the Droste Effect, and numerous paintings depicting the symbol reproducing itself. It is commonly worn as bracelets, rings, and even tattooed on the body to serve as a constant reminder of life’s cyclic journey.

An early 20th-century psychotherapist, Carl Jung, saw the ouroboros as a symbol of the human psyche. Jung had studied the symbol in alchemy and claimed that it represented the human ability to regenerate through self-reflection, just as a serpent sheds off old skin to become anew.

He justified it through a perspective that believed humans can only become whole after integrating our conscious selves with our shadow selves.

Moreover, the ouroboros often appears in the field of cybernetics, the study of feedback loops and circular causality. Cybernetics is based on the theory that inputs create certain outputs, which are then used as inputs for further outcomes – completing the circle.

Mathematicians and philosophers both appreciate the symbol similarly, applying the cybernetics theory to justify concepts in psychology, biology, computer science, and even engineering.

Outside of the research and STEM fields, people use the ouroboros symbol to represent the constant flow of creation, symbol of destruction, and recreation that makes our world come to a full circle. It instills the belief that every part of life is connected, with joy following sorrow and failure, eventually leading to success.

We may be worlds apart from the early Egyptian civilizations and the alchemists that ran experiments in their shabby workshops, but the ouroboros continues to light our paths with wisdom.

The Snake Eating Itself, Ouroboros Tattoo Meaning

Ouroboros tattoo meaning may differ according to the shape and form of the symbol drawn. It is a rebirth symbol, that is why a person who has overcome difficulties and troubles recently might want to have an ouroboros tattoo.

On the other end, it is also the symbol of infinity, so the person carrying an ouroboros tattoo might have had it to represent something that is ‘eternal’ for them.

In that sense, when seen next to a date, an ouroboros tattoo represents the idea that something that happened on that date is eternal, e.g. getting married or meeting someone special.

And if you believe in reincarnation, an ouroboros ink is obviously just the perfect choice for you.

Did you know that this ancient symbol heavily inspired similar artwork that appeared in the immensely popular Fullmetal Alchemist Brotherhood series with many symbols created by brilliant Japanese artist Hiromu Arakawa?

This wraps up our piece on the ouroboros symbol,  the snake eating itself, its origins, symbolism and meanings.

Happy Witchy Wednesday WOTC Family and Friends – Charge of the Goddess – Part 2

(I am trying something new today to see if you like it or not. Instead of a short thing for “A Thought for Today” I decided to bring you something with a little more background on a piece of poetry and how it came about. Let me know in the comments if you like to see more of this type of post please. Thank you for your help!)

The Sources of the Charge of the Goddess

(Warning this a very informative but long article. You will find a link at the bottom of this post to read the entire thing if you wish to)

The Charge of the Goddess is the closest thing to scripture that Wicca possesses. Like scripture, it is used in rituals and to support beliefs. And like scripture, its origins are obscure.

The Charge itself claims to be the words of the Goddess, beginning “Listen to the words of the Great Mother.” When Gerald Gardner first published an excerpt from it in Witchcraft Today (1954, p. 42), he claimed it came from the Roman era . He also speculated that “a similar charge was a feature of the ancient mysteries.”

Fairly early, however, the age and origin of the Charge was questioned. Stewart Farrar, in 1971 (p. 34), pointed out that a large part of it was quoted from Charles Godfrey Leland’s Aradia. Since then more work has been done in ferreting out the Charge’s sources, especially in Farrar and Farrar (1981, p. 42) and Kelly (1991, pp. 52 – 4, 114 – 5). The purpose of this essay will be to gather this work together, add more sources to it, and then analyze the relative contributions of the authors of the Charge.

The earliest form of the Charge (given by Kelly, 1991, p. 53), was a prose version put together by Gerald Gardner, called “Leviter Veslis” (“The Lifting of the Veil”). It consists mainly of the Leland material with large quotations from Aleister Crowley added, along with very small amount of original material. Kelly dates this version to before 1948. According to Doreen Valiente’s own account (1989, 60 – 62), some time after her initiation in 1953 she wrote first a rhyming version, and then the prose version used by most Wiccans. The first prose and the rhyming versions may be found in Kelly (p. 53) and Valiente (pp. 61-2), respectively. The first prose version reads:

Listen to the words of the Great mother, who of old was also called among men Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine, Aphrodite, and by many other names.

“At mine Altars the youth of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice.

[Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and better it be when the moon is full, then ye shall assemble in some secret place and adore the spirit of Me who am Queen of all Witcheries.]

[“There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all sorcery, yet have not won its deepest secrets. To these will I teach things that are yet unknown.]

[“And ye shall be free from slavery, and as a sign that ye be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites, both men and women, and ye shall dance, sing, feast, make music, and love, all in my praise.]

For ecstasy is mine, and joy on earth. For ‘love is my law.’ Keep pure your highest ideal: strive ever toward it. Let naught stop you or turn you aside.

{There is a Secret Door that I have made to establish the way} to taste even on earth the elixir of immortality.}

Say {‘let ecstasy be mine, and joy on earth even to me, To Me} For I am a gracious Goddess. {I give unimaginable joys on earth, certainty, not faith, while in life! And upon death, peace unutterable, rest, and ecstacy, nor do I demand aught in sacrifice.”}

Hear ye the words of the {Star Goddesss}.

{“I love you: I yearn for you: pale or purple, veiled or voluptuous.}

{“I who am all pleasure, and purple and drunkenness of the innermost senses, desire you, put on the wings, arouse the coiled splendor within you, ‘Come unto me.’}

{“For I am the flame that burns in the heart of every man, and the core of every Star.}

“Let it be your inmost divine self who art lost in the constant rapture of infinite joy.

{“Let the rituals be rightly performed with joy and beauty.} Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals. So let there be {beauty and strength, leaping laughter, force and fire} within you.

(“And if thou sayest, I have journeyed unto thee, and it availed me not, Rather shalt thou say, ‘I called upon thee, and I waited patiently, and Lo, Thou wast with me from the beginning,’

For they that ever desired me, shall ever attain me, even to the end of desire.)

(The text is as published in Kelly, with corrections from Kelly, unpublished manuscript.)

The words within square brackets ([ ]) are from Leland, those within brackets ({ }) are from Aleister Crowley’s Book of the Law, and those within parentheses (( )) are from Crowley’s Liber LXV,. The passages in italics are found in Crowley’s essay “The Law of Liberty.”

The line “Hear ye the words of the Star Goddess” is not exactly the same as the line from The Law of Liberty, which reads “We have heard the voice of the Star Goddess.” However, the line in The Law of Liberty is followed by the same material as is found here, so we can be confident that that is its source. The first thing that should be noticed is how little of this version cannot be traced to published sources. Except for the introduction, this version is essentially quotations linked with a small number of connecting phrases.

The large number of quotations from “The Law of Liberty” illustrates Gardner’s method of composition especially well. He must have had that essay in front of him as he wrote, since his quotations from it are in the same order as they appear in the essay. This is especially striking in the case of the sections of the Charge wherein quotations from the essay are followed by excerpts from The Book of the Law. In all cases, these quotations are also found together in the essay.

Further, all but one of the quotations from The Book of the Law are also found in “The Law of Liberty.” In fact, except for that one phrase, all of this prose version of the Charge (except for the introduction and the short connectors) can be traced to three sources: Leland, “The Law of Liberty,” and Liber LXV. The significance of these Crowley sources will be discussed later.

In my earlier version of this article (Serith, 1996), I suggested that the only line from The Book of the Law which is found in the Charge but is not in “The Law of Liberty” (“There is a Secret Door that I have made to establish the way) would be found quoted in another of Crowley’s works. I have indeed found that work, Khabs Am Pekht. At the time that Gardner was composing the first prose version, it was to be found in The Equinox Vol. III:1, commonly called The Blue Equinox because of the color of its binding. Also published in The Blue Equinox were “The Law of Liberty” and Liber LXV.

There has been a fair amount of speculation on the connection between Crowley and Gardner. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Crowley wrote the Gardnerian rituals (Adler, 1979, 1986, p. 64, gives some examples).

Those wishing to see a strong Crowley influence have often pointed to the Charge. As I have shown, there is at this early point a fair amount of Crowley in it. Words from Crowley’s works are also found in the Great Rite and the Drawing Down the Moon rituals, as published by Stewart Farrar (1971, pp. 93-94 and 68 respectively). These are taken from the Gnostic Mass. It should come as no suprise at this point that the Gnostic Mass was published by Crowley in The Blue Equinox.

All of this material comes from the first, the earliest, layer of the Book of Shadows (Kelly’s 1949 version, and Farrar and Farrar’s (1984) Text A). There is one other identifiable quotation from Crowley in this layer, taken from “Two Fragments of Ritual” (Equinox I:10, Kelly, p. 56). The next layer (Kelly’s 1953 and Farrar and Farrar Text B) is that used by Gardner at the time of Valiente’s initiation. It contains one more piece by Crowley, the Amalthean Horn prayer (given in Kelly, p. 81, and Farrar and Farrar, 1981, p. 41), which is a slightly altered version of the poem “La Fortune,” from his Collected Works, Vol. III (p. 120). More Crowley was to enter later, under the editing of Valiente, as will be seen later. To be blunt: with one exception, all of the material taken from Crowley that has been attributed in print to the Book of Shadows in the phase during which Gardnerian Wicca was first taking shape (the 1949/Text A version) comes from one book – The Blue Equinox. Rather than there having been a strong connection between the Gardner and Crowley, then, their contact is likely to have been extremely limited.

The first entry into print of the Charge was an excerpt published In Witchcraft Today (p. 42), which reads:

Listen to the words of the Great Mother, who of old was also called among men Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine, Aphrodite and many other names. At mine altars the youth Lacedaemon made due sacrifice. Once in the month, and better it be when the moon is full, meet in some secret place and adore me, who am queen of all the magics….For I am a gracious goddess, I give joy on earth, certainty, not faith, while in life; and upon death, peace unutterable, rest and the ecstasy of the goddess. Nor do I demand aught in sacrifice…. (The ellipses are in the original.)

This is the version that Gardner says he thinks “came from the time when Romans or sirangers came in.” It should be noted that since it was published in 1954 it dates from after Valiente’s inititiation in 1953. In light of that it seems a bit odd that, as seen below in the textual comparison, it deviates quite significantly from the first prose version, and that the second prose version follows the first prose rather than the published excerpt. It is likely from this that Gardner did not consider this published version authoritative, and may have been working from memory, resulting in the differences.

Most interesting is the phase with which Gardner introduces this fragment: “Before an initiation a charge is read beginning:”That he mentions this document specifically in the context of an initiation ritual is clear evidence that the idea of a “charge” and, of course, the term itself, originated in Gardner’s Masonic roots, where such charges are part of inititiation rituals.

The sources of the final version of the Charge, as edited by Valiente, are more complex. In the following analysis, I give the exact quotations from her sources, along with the Charge itself, so that Valiente’s editing may be seen more clearly. I have included as well those sections of Gardner’s Charge (both the first prose and the Witchcraft Today versions) which survived into the final form.

I have used these abbreviations for the sources:

AL: The Book of the Law (Liber AL vel Legis).
AP: Alipilli
AR: Aradia: Gospel of the Witches.
GD: The Golden Dawn (ed. Israel Regardie, III, p. 245). (The second half of this passage, “From me … return,” is also found in Milton’s “Paradise Lost,” Book V, but since the first part is not, it is unlikely that Valiente took it from Milton.)
KJV: King James Version of the Bible KP: “Khabs Am Pekht.”
LL: “The Law of Liberty” (including quotations ultimately from The Book of the Law.)
P1: Gardner’s prose version.
P2: Valiente’s prose version
65: Liber LXV II: 59-60 (Crowley).
V: This is material that could have been drawn from any number of sources. VV: The Vision and the Voice, chapters 19 and 5 (Crowley).
WT: The Witchcraft Today version.

Full bibliographical information will be found at the end of this article.

For the text itself I have relied on Kelly,1991, pp. 114-5 (correcting what appears to be an error by changing “ideals” to “ideal”). The few differences between this and other published versions do not affect my results in any substantial manner. (Other versions may be found in Farrar, 1971, pp. 197-198; Lady Sheba, 1971, pp. 65-67; and Leek, 1971, pp. 189-191. Excerpts from it are found in Holzer, 1971, pp. 16-17; Huson, 1970, p. 221; and Johns, 1969, p. 143. Starhawk, 1979, pp. 76-77, gives an awkardly edited version in which she has removed every phrase that has the word “man” in it.) I have used the abbreviation “P2” for this version.

P2: Listen to the words of the Great mother,
P1: Listen to the words of the Great mother,
WT: Listen to the words of the Great Mother,

P2: who was of old also called among men,
P1: who … of old was also called among men
WT: who … of old was also called among men

P2: Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine,
P1: Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine,
LL: Melusine
WT: Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine,

P2: Aphrodite, Cerridwen, Diana, Arianrhod, Bride,
P1: Aphrodite,
WT: Aphrodite

P2: and by many other names. “At mine Altars the youth
P1: and by many other names. “At mine Altars the youth
WT: and many other names. At mine altars the youth

P2: of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice.
P1: of Lacedaemon in Sparta made due sacrifice.
WT: of Lacedaemon made due sacrifice.

P2: “Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and
P1: Whenever ye have need of anything, once in the month, and
WT: Once in the month, and
AR: Whenever ye have need of anything, Once in the month, and

P2: better it be when the moon is full. Then ye shall assemble
P1: better it be when the moon is full, ye shall assemble
WT: better it be when the moon is full, meet
AR: when the moon is full, Ye shall assemble

P2: in some secret place
P1: in some secret place
WT: in some secret place
AR: in some desert place, Or in a forest all together join,

P2: and adore the spirit of Me
P1: and adore the spirit of Me
WT: and adore me,
AR: To adore the potent spirit of your

P2: who am Queen of all Witcheries.
P1: who am Queen of all Witcheries.
WT: who am queen of all the magics
AR: queen, My mother, great Diana.

P2: “There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all
P1: There ye shall assemble, ye who are fain to learn all
AR: ye shall assemble She who fain would learn all

P2: sorcery, yet who have not won its deepest secrets. To
P1: sorcery, yet have not won its deepest secrets. To
AR: sorcery yet has not won Its deepest secrets,

P2: these will I teach things
P1: these will I teach things
AR: them my mother will teach all things

P2: that are yet unknown.
P1: that are yet unknown.
AR: as yet unknown.

P2: “And ye shall be free from slavery,
P1: “And ye shall be free from slavery,
AR: And ye shall all be freed from slavery, And so ye

P2: and as a sign that ye
P1: and as a sign that ye
AR: be free in everything; And as a sign that ye

P2: be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites,
P1: be really free, ye shall be naked in your rites, both
AR: are truly free, Ye shall be naked in your rites, both

P2: and ye shall dance, sing, feast,
P1: men and women, and ye shall dance, sing, feast,
AR: men And women also they shall dance, sing

P2: make music, and love, all in my praise.
P1: make music, and love, all in my praise.
AR: make music and then love in her praise

P2: “For mine is the ecstasy of the Spirit, and mine is also joy
P1: Let ecstasy be mine, and joy
LL: But ecstasy be thine and joy
AL: ecstasy be thine and joy

P2: on earth. For my Law is Love unto all beings.
P1: on earth. For “love is my law.”
LL: of earth Love is the Law
AL: of earth Love is the Law

P2: “Keep pure your highest ideal. Strive ever towards it.
LL: Keep pure your highest ideal; strive ever toward it

P2: Let naught stop you or turn you aside.
LL: without allowing aught to stop you or turn you aside,

P2: “For mine is the secret which opens upon the door of
P1: There is a Secret Door which I have made…
KP: There is a Secret door that I shall make
AL: There is a Secret door that I shall make

P2: youth and mine is the cup of the Wine of Life:

P2: and the Cauldron of Cerridwen,

P2: which is the Holy Grail of Immortality.

P1: to establish the way to taste even on earth the elixir of immortality.

P1: Say, “Let ecstacy be mine, and joy on earth even to me, To Me.

P2: “I am the Gracious Goddess who gives the gift of Joy
P1: For I am a gracious Goddess. I give unimaginable joys,
WT: For I am a gracious Goddess, I give joy
LL: Gracious Goddess I give unimaginable joys
AL: I give unimaginable joys

P2: unto the heart of Man.

P2: “Upon Earth I give the knowledge of the Spirit Eternal,
P1: on earth, certainty
WT: on earth
LL: on earth:
AL: on earth:

P2: and beyond death I give peace and freedom, and reunion
P1: And upon death, peace unutterable, rest and ecstacy,
WT: and upon death, peace
LL: upon death; peace
AL: upon death; peace

P2: with those who have gone before.

P2: Nor do I demand aught in sacrifice, for behold, I am the Mother of
P1: nor do I demand aught in sacrifice.”
WT: nor do I demand aught in sacrifice
LL: Nor do I demand aught in sacrifice.
AL: nor do I demand aught in sacrifice.

P2: all things, and my love is poured out upon earth.”

P2: Hear ye the words of the Star Goddess,
P1: Hear ye the words of the Star Goddess.
LL: We have heard the voice of the Star Goddess

P2: She in the dust of whose feet are

KJV:           dust of      feet

P2: the hosts of Heaven, whose body encircleth the universe.

KJV: host of heaven

P2: “I who am

P2: the beauty of the green earth; and the White Moon

V: the beauty of the green earth P2: amongst the Stars; and the mystery of the Waters;

P2: and the desire of the heart of man. I call unto thy soul:
VV: the blind ache within the heart of man
LL: the heart of every man
AL: the heart of every man

P2: arise and come unto me.
P1: arouse … “come unto me.”
LL: arouse … come unto me!
AL: arouse … come unto me!

P2: “For I am the Soul of nature who giveth life to the
P1: ‘For I am the
GD: O Soul of Nature giving life and energy to the

P2: Universe; 詮rom me all things proceed; and unto me, all
GD: Universe. From thee all things do proceed. Unto Thee all

P2: things must return.’
GD: must return.

P2: Beloved of the Gods and men
P2: thine inmost divine self shall
P1: Let it be your inmost divine self…
LL: He is then your inmost divine self…

P2: be enfolded in the raptures of the infinite
P1: in the constant rapture of the infinite
LL: in the constant rapture of the embraces of Infinite Beauty

P2: “Let my worship be within the heart that rejoiceth, for
VV: the heart that rejoiceth,

P2: behold: all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals;
P1: Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals.
LL: Remember that all acts of love and pleasure are rituals,

P2: and therefore let there be Beauty and Strength, Power
P1: So let there be beauty and strength,…
AL: beauty and strength

P2: and Compassion, Honour and Humility, Mirth and reverence within you.

P2: “And thou who thinkest to seek me, know that thy seeking and yearning
P1: “And if thou sayest, I have journeyed unto thee,
65: I have journeyed unto Thee,

P2: shall avail thee not
P1: and it availed me not…
65: and it availed me not.

P2:unless thou know the mystery,

P2: ‘That if that which thou seekest
AP: If that which thous seekest

P2: thou findest not within thee, thou wilt never find it without thee,
AP: thou findest not within thee, thou wilt never find it without thee,

P2: for behold; I have been with thee from the beginning,
P1: Thou wast with me from the beginning,’…
65: and Thou wast with me from the beginning.

P2: and I am that which is attained at the end of desire.”
P1: shall ever attain me the end of desire.”

The line attributed here to Alipilli, “That if that which thou seekest thou findest not within thee thou wilt never find it without thee” most likely was taken from L. A. Cahagnet’s Magnetic Magic, where it appears on the title page. It is found in other sources, such as Madame Blavatsky’s , vol. II, p. 617, where she credits it to “Abipili.” (It is more correctly Ali Puli.) However, it is Cahagnet which is found in Gardner’s library, and is therefore almost certainly Gardner’s source.

The material attributed to “Various sources” is that which is found in a number of works with which Gardner and/or Valiente could have been familiar with, and could therefore be thought of as “being in the air.” “The beauty of the green earth” is itself found in various sources. d’Este and Rankine (2008, 155) give two late 19th century examples. It is interesting that in both of their examples the phrase is used to complement “starry heavens,” and here it complements “White Moon amongst the Stars.” The opposition of earth and heaven is an obvious one, but the fact that in both cases the opposition mentions the stars makes me wonder.

“Dust of whose feet” is probably based on the King James Version of the Bible, where variations on it are found certainly four times: “dust of thy feet” (Isaiah 49:23), “dust of his feet” (Nahum 1:3), “dust of your feet” (Matthew 10:14) and “dust of their feet” (Acts 13:51). “Hosts of heaven” is easily formed from “host of heaven,” which is found 19 times in the KJV (Deut 4:19, 17:3; 1 Kings 22:19; 2 Kings 17:16, 21:3, 21:5, 23:4, 23:5; 2 Chron 18:18, 33:3, 3:5; Nehemiah 9:6; Isaiah 34:4; Jeremiah 8:2, 19:13, 33:22; Daniel 8:10; Zephaniah 1:5; Acts 7:42). “Whose body encircleth the universe” is a description of the Egyptian star/night sky goddess Nut, who, as Nuit, formed an important part of Crowley’s system, whose nature is described and name used in “The Law of Liberty.” She is depicted in the “Stele of Revealing,” upon which Crowley based his “Book of the Law.” A depiction of the stele may be found here. There are a total of 498 words in the version given by Kelly. The following table shows how many came from each source:

Valiente: 168 – (33.7%)
Leland: 93 – (18.7%)
Crowley: 83 – (16.7%)
Gardner: 66 – (13.3%)
(edited by either Gardner or Valiente): 40 – (8.0%)
Alipilli: 18 – (3.6%)
Gardner (edited by Valiente): 12 – (2.4%)
Golden Dawn: 12 – (2.4%)
King James Version: 6 – (1.2%)

Before going on to discuss the sources further, there is a non-source that I need to address, Apuleius’s The Golden Ass. In this Roman novel the main character is turned into an ass as a punishment for spying on Click here to read the rest of this article from ceisiwrserith.com

Happy Witchy Wednesday WOTC Family and Friends – Charge of the Goddess – Part 1

(I am trying something new today to see if you like it or not. Instead of a short thing for “A Thought for Today” I decided to bring you something with a little more background on a piece of poetry and how it came about. Let me know in the comments if you like to see more of this type of post please. Thank you for your help!)

Charge of the Goddess History and Variations

From learnreligions.com

Charge of the Goddess is perhaps one of the best-known pieces of ritual poetry in today’s magical community, and is often credited to author and priestess Doreen Valiente. The charge itself is a promise, made by the Goddess to her followers, that she will guide them, teach them, and lead them when they need her the most.

However, before Valiente, there were earlier variants, dating back at least as far as Charles Leland’s Aradia: Gospel of the Witches. Because, like so many other writings in today’s Pagan world, Charge of the Goddess has evolved over time, it’s almost impossible to attribute it to one single author. Instead, what we have is a constantly changing and fluid piece of ritual poetry, that each contributor has changed, modified, and rearranged to suit their own tradition.

Did You Know?

The Charge of the Goddess first appeared in an early form during the late nineteenth century.

Doreen Valiente’s version, released in the late 1950s, is the most commonly referenced variation today.

Today, several traditions use unique versions that pay tribute to their own deities of a number of different pantheons.

Leland’s Aradia

Charles Godfrey Leland was a folklorist who roamed about the Italian countryside collecting legends during the final decade of the nineteenth century. According to Leland, he met a young Italian woman called Maddalena, who provided him with a manuscript about ancient Italian witchcraft and then promptly vanished, never to be heard from again. This, obviously, led some scholars to question the existence of Maddalena, but regardless, Leland took the information he claimed to have obtained from her and published it as Aradia: Gospel of the Witches in 1899.

Leland’s text, which reads as follows, is a speech that Aradia, daughter of Diana, delivers to her pupils:

When I shall have departed from this world,
Whenever ye have need of anything,
Once in the month, and when the moon is full,
Ye shall assemble in some desert place,
Or in a forest all together join
To adore the potent spirit of your queen,
My mother, great Diana.She who fain
Would learn all sorcery yet has not won
Its deepest secrets, them my mother will
Teach her, in truth all things as yet unknown.
And ye shall all be freed from slavery,
And so ye shall be free in everything;
And as the sign that ye are truly free,
Ye shall be naked in your rites, both men
And women also: this shall last until
The last of your oppressors shall be dead;
And ye shall make the game of Benevento,
Extinguishing the lights, and after that
Shall hold your supper thus…

Gardner’s Book of Shadows and the Valiente Version

Doreen Valiente played an instrumental part in twentieth-century Pagan practice, and her deeply evocative version of Charge of the Goddess may be the best known. In 1953, Valiente was initiated into Gerald Gardner’s New Forest coven of witches. Over the next several years, they worked together in expanding and developing Gardner’s Book of Shadows, which he claimed was based on ancient documents passed down through the ages.

Unfortunately, much of what Gardner had at the time was fragmented and disorganized. Valiente took on the task of re-organizing Gardner’s work, and more importantly, putting into a practical and usable form. In addition to finishing things up, she added her poetic gifts to the process, and the end result was a collection of rituals and ceremonies that are both beautiful and workable – and the foundation for much of modern Wicca, some sixty years later.

Although Valiente’s version, released in the late 1950s, is the most commonly referenced version today, there was an incarnation that appeared a decade or so earlier in Gardner’s original Book of Shadows. This variant, from around 1949, is a blend of Leland’s earlier work and a portion of Aleister Crowley’s Gnostic Mass. Jason Mankey at Patheos says,

“This version of the Charge was originally known as Lift Up the Veil, though I’ve heard it referred to as “Gardner’s Charge” on a number of occasions… Doreen Valiente’s version of The Charge of the Goddess dates back to sometime around 1957 and was inspired by Valiente’s desire for a less Crowley influenced charge.”

Some time after writing the Charge poem that has become well known to today’s Pagans, Valiente also crafted a prose variant, at the request of some members of her coven. This prose version has also become immensely popular, and you can read it over at the official Doreen Valiente website.

Newer Adaptations

As the Pagan community grows and evolves, so do the various forms of ritual texts. A number of contemporary authors have created their own versions of the Charge that reflect their own magical beliefs and traditions.

Starhawk included her own form of the work in The Spiral Dance, first published in 1979, which reads in part:

Listen to the words of the Great Mother,
Who of old was called Artemis, Astarte, Dione, Melusine, Aphrodite, Cerridwen, Diana, Arionrhod, Brigid, and by many other names:
Whenever you have need of anything, once a month, and better it be when the moon is full,
you shall assemble in some secret place and adore the spirit of Me Who is Queen of all the Wise.
You shall be free from slavery,
and as a sign that you be free you shall be naked in your rites.
Sing, feast, dance, make music and love, all in My Presence,
for Mine is the ecstasy of the spirit and Mine also is joy on earth.

The Starhawk version, which forms one of the cornerstones of her Reclaiming tradition, may be the one that newer Pagans are the most familiar with, but – as with any other piece of poetry or ritual – it is one that many have continuously adapted to suit their own needs. Today, several traditions use unique versions that pay tribute to their own deities of a number of different pantheons.

For a complete and in-depth breakdown of the various influences upon the different versions of the Charge, author Ceisiwr Serith has a great piece on his website*, comparing Aradia, Valiente’s work, and the Crowleyan variants.

(*Appears in a post for northern hemisphere’s Wednesday morning.)

Witchcraft Symbols, Terms and Definitions – HEXAGRAM or SIX-POINTED STAR


When surrounded by a circle, it represents the “divine mind” to many occult groups throughout the centuries. Many still use it in occult rituals. But to Jewish people, it is their Star of David.