About the Roman God Janus

Janus

The Roman God

In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Janus is the god of beginnings and transitions, thence also of gates, doors, doorways, endings and time. He is usually a two-faced god since he looks to the future and the past. The Romans dedicated the month of January to Janus. His most apparent remnant in modern culture is his namesake, the month of January.

Though he was usually depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions (Janus Geminus (twin Janus) or Bifrons), in some places he was Janus Quadrifrons (the four-faced). The Romans associated Janus with the Etruscan deity Ani.

Janus was frequently used to symbolize change and transitions such as the progression of past to future, of one condition to another, of one vision to another, and of one universe to another. Hence, Janus was worshipped at the beginnings of the harvest and planting times, as well as marriages, births and other beginnings. He was representative of the middle ground between barbarity and civilization, rural country and urban cities, and youth and adulthood.


Theology and Functions

While the fundamental nature of Janus is debated, in most modern scholars’ view the set of the god’s functions may be seen as being organized around a simple principle: that of presiding over all beginnings and transitions, whether abstract or concrete, sacred or profane. Interpretations concerning the god’s fundamental nature either limit it to this general function or emphasize a concrete or particular aspect of it (identifying him with light the sun, the moon, time, movement, the year, doorways, bridges etc.) or see in the god a sort of cosmological principle, i. e. interpret him as a uranic deity.

Almost all these modern interpretations were originally formulated by the ancients.

The function of ‘god of beginnings’ has been clearly expressed in numerous ancient sources, among them most notably perhaps Cicero, Ovid and Varro. As a god of motion he looks after passages, causes actions to start and presides over all beginnings, and since movement and change are bivalent, he has a double nature, symbolized in his two headed image.

He has under his tutelage the stepping in and out of the door of homes, the ianua, which took its name from him, and not viceversa. Similarly his tutelage extends to the covered passages named iani and foremost to the gates of the city, including the cultic gate called the Argiletum, named Ianus Geminus or Porta Ianualis from which he protects Rome against the Sabines. He is also present at the Sororium Tigillum, where he guards the terminus of the ways into Rome from Latium. He has an altar, later a temple near the Porta Carmentalis, where the road leading to Veii ended, as well as being present on the Janiculum, a gateway from Rome out to Etruria.

The connexion of the notions of beginning (principium), movement, transition (eundo), and thence time has been clearly expressed by Cicero. In general, Janus is at the origin of time as the guardian of the gates of Heaven: Jupiter himself moves forth and back because of Janus’s working.

In one of his temples, probably that of Forum Holitorium, the hands of his statue were positioned to signify the number 355 (the number of days in a year), later 365, symbolically expressing his mastership over time. He presides over the concrete and abstract beginnings of the world, such as religion and the gods themselves, he too holds the access to Heaven and other gods: this is the reason why men must invoke him first, regardless of the god they want to pray or placate. He is the initiator of human life, of new historical ages, and financial enterprises: according to myth he was the first to mint coins and the as, first coin of the libral series, bears his effigy on one face.

Janus frequently symbolized change and transitions such as the progress of future to past, from one condition to another, from one vision to another, and young people’s growth to adulthood. He was represented time, because he could see into the past with one face and into the future with the other. Hence, Janus was worshipped at the beginnings of the harvest and planting times, as well as at marriages, deaths and other beginnings. He represented the middle ground between barbarism and civilization, rural and urban, youth and adulthood. Having jurisdiction over beginnings Janus had an intrinsic association with omens and auspices.

Leonhard Schmitz suggests that he was likely the most important god in the Roman archaic pantheon. He was often invoked together with Iuppiter (Jupiter).

According to Macrobius citing Nigidius Figulus and Cicero, Janus and Jana (Diana) are a pair of divinities, worshipped as Apollo or the sun and moon, whence Janus received sacrifices before all the others, because through him is apparent the way of access to the desired deity.

A similar solar interpretation has been offered by A. Audin who interprets the god as the issue of a long process of development, starting with the Sumeric cultures, from the two solar pillars located on the eastern side of temples, each of them marking the direction of the rising sun at the dates of the two solstices: the southeastern corresponding to the Winter and the northeastern to the Summer solstice.

These two pillars would be at the origin of the theology of the divine twins, one of whom is mortal (related to the NE pillar, as confining with the region where the sun does not shine) and the other is immortal (related to the SE pillar and the region where the sun always shines). Later these iconographic models evolved in the Middle East and Egypt into a single column representing two torsos and finally a single body with two heads looking at opposite directions.


Temples

 

Numa built the Ianus geminus (also Janus Bifrons, Janus Quirinus or Portae Belli), a passage ritually opened at times of war, and shut again when Roman arms rested. It formed a walled enclosure with gates at each end, situated between the old Roman Forum and that of Julius Caesar, which had been consecrated by Numa Pompilius himself. About the exact location and aspect of the temple there has been much debate among scholars.

In wartime the gates of the Janus were opened, and in its interior sacrifices and vaticinia were held, to forecast the outcome of military deeds. The doors were closed only during peacetime, an extremely rare event. The function of the Ianus Geminus was supposed to be a sort of good omen: in time of peace it was said to close the wars within or to keep peace inside; in times of war it was said to be open to allow the return of the people on duty.

A temple of Janus is said to have been consecrated by the consul Gaius Duilius in 260 BCE after the Battle of Mylae in the Forum Holitorium. It contained a statue of the god with the right hand showing the number 300 and the left the number 65, i. e. the length in days of the solar year, and twelve altars, one for each month.

The four-sided structure known as the Arch of Janus in the Forum Transitorium dates from the 1st century CE: according to common opinion it was built by the Emperor Domitian. However American scholars L. Ross Taylor and L. Adams Holland on the grounds of a passage of Statius maintain that it was an earlier structure (tradition has it the Ianus Quadrifrons was brought to Rome from Falerii) and that Domitian only surrounded it with his new forum. In fact the building of the Forum Transitorium was completed and inaugurated by Nerva in 96 CE.


Rites

The rites concerning Janus were numerous. Owing to the versatile and far reaching character of the basic function of the god, marking beginnings and transitions, his presence was ubiquitous and fragmented. Apart from the rites solemnizing the beginning of the new year and of every month, there were the special times of year which marked the beginning and the closing of the military season, in March and October respectively.

These included the rite of the arma movere on March 1 and that of the arma condere at the end of the month performed by the Salii, and the Tigillum Sororium on October 1. Janus Quirinus was closely associated with the anniversaries of the dedications of the temples of Mars on June 1 (a date that corresponded with the festival of Carna, a deity associated with Janus: see below) and of that of Quirinus on June 29 (which was the last day of the month in the pre-Julian calendar). These important rites are discussed in detail below.

Any rite or religious act whatever first required the invocation of Janus, with a corresponding invocation to Vesta at the end (Janus primus and Vesta extrema). Instances are to be found in the Carmen Saliare, the formula of the devotio, the lutration of the fields and the sacrifice of the porca praecidanea, the Acta of the Arval Brethren.

Although Janus had no flamen, he was closely associated with the rex sacrorum who performed his sacrifices and took part in most of his rites: the rex was the first in the ordo sacerdotum hierarchy of priests.The flamen of Portunus performed the ritual greasing of the spear of the god Quirinus on August 17, day of the Portunalia, on the same date that the temple of Janus in the Forum Holitorium had been consecrated (by consul Caius Duilius in 260 BC). Portunus seems to be a god closely related to Janus, if with a specifically restricted area of competence, in that he presides over doorways and harbours and shares with Janus his two symbols, the key and the stick.


Beginning of the Year

The Winter solstice was thought to occur on December 25. January 1 was new year day: the day was consecrated to Janus since it was the first of the new year and of the month (kalends) of Janus: the feria had an augural character as Romans believed the beginning of anything was an omen for the whole. Thus on that day it was customary to exchange cheerful words of good wishes.

For the same reason everybody devoted a short time to his usual business, exchanged dates, figs and honey as a token of well wishing and made gifts of coins called strenae. Cakes made of spelt (far) and salt were offered to the god and burnt on the altar. Ovid states that in most ancient times there were no animal sacrifices and gods were propitiated with offerings of spelt and pure salt. This libum was named ianual and it was probably correspondent to the summanal offered the day before the Summer solstice to god Summanus, which however was sweet being made with flour, honey and milk.

Shortly afterwards, on January 9, on the feria of the Agonium of January the rex sacrorum offered the sacrifice of a ram to Janus.


Space

Janus was also involved in spatial transitions, presiding over home doors, city gates and boundaries. Numerous toponyms of places located at the boundary between the territory of two communities, especially Etrurians and Latins or Umbrians, are named after the god. The most notable instance is the Ianiculum which marked the access to Etruria from Rome. Since borders often coincided with rivers and the border of Rome (and other Italics) with Etruria was the Tiber, it has been argued that its crossing had a religious connotation; it would have involved a set of rigorous apotropaic practices and a devotional attitude. Janus would have originally regulated particularly the crossing of this sacred river through the pons sublicius.

Janus was the protector of doors, gates and roadways in general, as is shown by his two symbols, the key and the staff. The key too was a sign that the traveller had come to a harbor or ford in peace in order to exchange his goods. The rite of the bride’s oiling the posts of the door of her new home with wolf fat at her arrival, though not mentioning Janus explicitly, is a rite of passage related to the ianua.


Myths

In discussing myths about Janus one should be careful in distinguishing those who are ancient and originally Latin and others which were later attributed to him by Greek mythographers. In the Fasti Ovid relates only the myths that associate Janus to Saturn, whom he welcomed as a guest and with whom eventually shared his kingdom in reward of his teaching the art of agriculture, and to the nymph Crane Grane or Carna, whom Janus raped and made the goddess of hinges as Cardea, while in the Metamorphoses he records his fathering with Venilia the nymph Canens, loved by Picus.

The myth of Crane has been studied by M. Renard and G. Dumezil. The first scholar sees in it a sort of parallel with the theology underlying the rite of the Tigillum Sororium. Crane is a nymph of the sacred wood of Helernus, located at the issue of the Tiber, whose festival of February 1 corresponded with that of Juno Sospita: Crane might be seen as a minor imago of the goddess.

Her habit of deceiving her male pursuers by hiding in crags in the soil reveals her association not only with vegetation but also with rocks, caverns, and underpassages. Her nature looks to be also associated with vegetation and nurture: G. Dumezil has proved that Helernus was a god of vegetation, vegetative lushiousness and orchards, particularly associated with vetch. As Ovid writes in his Fasti, June 1 was the festival day of Carna, besides being the kalendary festival of the month of Juno and the festival of Juno Moneta. Ovid seems to purposefully conflate and identify Carna with Cardea in the aetiologic myth related above.

Consequently the association of both Janus and god Helernus with Carna-Crane is highlighted in this myth: it was customary on that day eating vetch and lard, which were supposed to strengthen the body. Cardea had also magic powers for protecting doorways (by touching thresholds and posts with wet hawthorn twigs) and newborn children by the aggression of the striges (in the myth the young Proca). M. Renard sees the association of Janus with Crane as reminiscent of widespread rites of lustration and fertility performed through the ritual walking under low crags or holes in the soil or natural hollows in trees, which in turn are reflected in the lustrative rite of the Tigillum Sororium.

Macrobius relates Janus was supposed to have shared a kingdom with Camese in Latium, on a place then named Camesene. He states that Hyginus recorded the tale on the authority of a Protarchus of Tralles. In Macrobius Camese is a male: after Camese’s death Janus reigned alone. However Greek authors make of Camese Janus’s sister and spouse: Atheneus citing a certain Drakon of Corcyra writes that Janus fathered with his sister Camese a son named Aithex and a daughter named Olistene. Servius Danielis states Tiber (i. e. Tiberinus) was their son.

Arnobius writes that Fontus was the son of Janus and Juturna. The name itself proves that this is a secondary form of Fons modelled on Janus, denouncing the late character of this myth: it was probably conceived because of the proximity of the festivals of Juturna (January 11) and the Agonium of Janus (January 9) as well as for the presence of an altar of Fons near the Janiculum and the closeness of the notions of spring and of beginning.

Plutarch writes that according to some Janus was a Greek from Perrhebia.

When Romulus and his men kidnapped the Sabine women, Janus caused a volcanic hot spring to erupt, resulting in the would-be attackers being buried alive in the deathly hot, brutal water and ash mixture of the rushing hot volcanic springs that killed, burned, or disfigured many of Tatius’s men. This spring is called Lautolae by Varro.

Later on, however, the Sabines and Romans agreed on creating a new community together. In honor of this, the doors of a walled roofless structure called ‘The Janus’ (not a temple) were kept open during war after a symbolic contingent of soldiers had marched through it. The doors were closed in ceremony when peace was concluded.


Origin, Legends and History

In accord with his fundamental character of being the Beginner Janus was considered by Romans the first king of Latium, sometimes along with Camese. He would have received hospitably god Saturn, who, expelled from Heaven by Jupiter, arrived on a ship to the Janiculum. Janus would have also effected the miracle of turning the waters of the spring at the foot of the Viminal from cold to scorching hot in order to fend off the assault of the Sabines of king Titus Tatius, come to avenge the kidnapping of their daughters by the Romans.

His temple named Janus Geminus had to stand open in times of war. It was said to have been built by king Numa Pompilius, who kept it always shut during his reign as there were no wars. After him it was closed very few times, one after the end of the first Punic War, three times under Augustus and once by Nero. It is recorded that emperor Gordianus III opened the Janus Geminus.

It is a noteworthy curiosity that the opening of the Janus was perhaps the last act connected to the ancient religion in Rome: Procopius writes that in 536 CE, during the Gothic War, while general Belisarius was under siege in Rome, at night somebody opened the Janus Geminus stealthily, which had long stayed closed since 390, year on which Theodosius I’s edict banned the ancient cults. Janus was faithful to his liminal role also in the marking of this last act.

The uniqueness of Janus in Latium has suggested to L. Adams Holland and J. GagŽ the hypothesis of a cult brought from far away by sailors and strictly linked to the amphibious life of the primitive communities living on the banks of the Tiber. In the myth of Janus the ship of Saturn as well as the myth of Carmenta and Evander are remininscent of an ancient Preroman sailing life. The elements that connect Janus to sailing are summarized here below as presented in the work of Gage.

1. The boat of Janus and the beliefs of the primitive sailing techniques.

    • a) The proximity of Janus and Portunus and the functions of the flamen Portunalis.

The temple of Janus was dedicated by C. Duilius on August 17, day of the Portunalia. The key was the symbol of both gods and was also meant to signify that the boarding boat was a peaceful merchant boat.

The flamen Portunalis oiled the arms of Quirinus with an ointment kept in a peculiar container named persillum, term perhaps derived from Etruscan persie. A similar object seems to be represented in a fresco picture of the Calendar of Ostia on which young boys prepare to apply a resin contained in a basin to a boat standing on a cart, i.e. yet to be launched.

b) The Tigillum Sororium would be related to a cult of wood of the Horatii, as shown by the episodes of the pons sublicius defended by Horatius Cocles and of the posts of the main entrance of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, on which Marcus Horatius Pulvillus lay his hand during the dedication rite. GagŽ thinks the magic power of the Tigillum Sororium should be due to the living and burgeoning nature of wood.

2. Falacer and flamen Falacer as related to a sacred tree useful in shipbuilding. This flamen would be related to Janus as the flamen Portunalis is because of the association of pater Falacer and shipping.

    • a) The name of divus pater Falacer[208] would be that of a Sabine god similar to Quirinus, i.e. a spear god from the town of Falacrinae.[209] The term is related to falarica, a javelin soaked in pitch, ending with a point of inflammable material. Falas in Etruscan means pole or tower. The name could be related to that of the faba graeca the Greek lotus, imported from Syria (Celtis australis). This tree would have been used among certain communities as the wild olive was to make rolls in order to haul ships upon. The name of the flamen would reflect an ancient name of this tree later corrupted into faba.

b) Religious quality of trees as the wild olive (analogous to that of corniolum and wild fig) to sailing communities: it does not rot in sea water, thence it was used in shipbuilding and the making of rolls for the hauling of ships overland.

3. Janus and the depiction of Boreas as Bifrons: climatological elements.

    • a) The calendar of Numa and the role of Janus. Contradictions of the ancient Roman calendar on the beginning of the new year: originally March was the first month and February the last one. January, the month of Janus, became the first afterwards and through several manipulations. The liminal character of Janus is though present in the association to the Saturnalia of December, reflecting the strict relationship between the two gods and the rather blurred distinction of their stories and symbols. The initial role of Janus in the political-religious operations of January: nuncupatio votorum spanning the year, imperial symbol of the boat in the rite of opening of the sailing season of the vota felicia. Janus and his myths allow for an ancient interpretation of the vota felicia different from the Isiadic one.

b) The idea of the Seasons in the ancient traditions of the Ionian Islands. The crossing of the Hyperborean myths. Cephalonia as a place at the cross of famous winds. Application of the theory of winds for the navigation in the Ionian Sea. The type Boreas Bifrons as probable model of the Roman Janus.

The observation has been made first by the Roscher Lexicon: “Ianus is he too, doubtlessly, a god of wind” and repeated in the RE Pauly-Wissowa s.v. Boreas by Rapp. P. Grimal has taken up this interpretation connecting it to a vase with red figures representing Boreas pursuing the nymph Oreithyia: Boreas is depicted as a two headed winged demon, the two faces with beards, one black and the other fair, perhaps symbolizing the double movement of the winds Boreas and Antiboreas. This proves the Greek of the V century BC did know the image of Janus. Gage feels compelled to mention here another parallel with Janus to be found in the figure of Argos with one hundred eyes and in his association with his murderer Hermes.

Among the winds studied by Greek sailors one can number Auster and Aquilon. Favonius on the other hand is not known to the Greek but is of particular relevance to the Roman as it started to blow exactly on the sixth day before the Idi of February: it was regarded as the bringer of the Springtime renewal of life. Few days later recurred the festival of Faunus, on the idi.

c) Solar, solsticial and cosmological elements. While there is no direct proof of an original solar meaning of Janus, this being the issue of learned speculations of the Roman erudits initiated into the mysteries and of emperors as Domitian, the derivation from a Syrian cosmogonic deity proposed by P. Grimal looks more acceptable. Gage though sees an ancient, preclassical Greek mythic substratum to which belong Deucalion and Pyrrha and the Hyperborean origins of the Delphic cult of Apollo as well as the Argonauts. The beliefs in the magic power of trees is reflected in the use of the olive wood, as for the rolls of the ship Argo: the myth of the Argonauts has links with Corcyra, remembered by Ampelius.

4. The sites of the cults of Janus at Rome and his associations in ancient Latium.

    • a) Argiletum. Varro gives either the myth of the killing of Argos as an etymology of the word Argi-letum (death of Argos), which is not reliable, or the place standing upon a soil of clay, argilla. However the names in -etum are usually referred to trees. The place so named stood at the foot of the Viminal, the hill of the reeds. It could also be referred to the white willow tree, used to make objects of trelliswork. The word could also be linked to the Argei the 27 or 30 dolls thrown into the Tiber in the rite of May 15. On them the more accepted opinion (at the time, 1979) is that they represented Greeks, Argei being their ancient designation by the Romans. The rite could be a substitution rite for human sacrifices or be original as such. The most supported opinion among the Ancient was that of a rite of substitution of human sacrifices to Saturn ascribed to Hercules. At any rate the rite must be associated to a local Preroman life linked to the Tiber, to a river religion in which the reeds harvested in the river itself or its banks had a peculiar value. Janus though is not present in this rite.

b) The Janiculum may have been inhabited by people who were not Latin but had close alliances with Rome.The right bank of the Tiber would constitute a typical, commodious landing place for boats and the cult of Janus would have been double as far as amphibious.

c) Janus’s cultic alliances and relations in Latium show a Prelatin character. Janus has no association in cult (calendar or prayer formulae) with any other entity. Even though he has the epithet of Pater he is no head of a divine family; however some testimonies lend him a companion, sometimes female and a son and/or a daughter. They belong to the family of the nymphs or genies of springs. Janus intervenes in the miracle of the hot spring during the battle between Romulus and Tatius: Juturna and the nymphs of the springs are clearly related to Janus as well as Venus, that in the Ovid’s Metamorphoses cooperates in the miracle and that may have been confused with Venilia, or perhaps the two were originally one. Janus has a direct link only to Venilia with whom he fathered Canens.

The magic role of the wild olive tree (oleaster) is prominent in the description of the duel between Aeneas and Turnus reflecting its religious significance and powers: it was sacred to sailors, also to those who had shipwrecked as a protecting guide to the shore. It was probably venerated by a Prelatin culture in association with Faunus. In the story of Venulus coming back from Apulia too we see the religious connotation of the wild olive: the king discovers one into which a local shepherd had been had been turned for failing to respect some nymphs he had come across in a nearby cavern, apparently Venilia, as she was the deity associated with the magic virtues of such tree. GagŽ finds it remarkable that the characters related to Janus are in the Aeneis on the side of the Rutuli. In the Aeneis Janus would be represented by Tiberinus. Olistene, the daughter of Janus with Camese, may reflect in her name that of the olive or oleaster, or of Oreithyia.Camese may be reflected in Carmenta: Evander’s mother is from Arcadia, comes to Latium as an exile migrant and has her two festivals in January: Camese’s name does not look Latin.

5. Sociological remarks

    • a) The vagueness of Janus’s association with the cults of primitive Latium and his indifference towards social composition of the Roman State suggest the inference that he was a god of an earlier amphibious merchant society in which the role of the guardian was indispensable.

b) Janus bifrons and the Penates. Even though the cult of Janus cannot be confused with that of the Penates, related with Dardanian migrants from Troy, the binary nature of the Penates and of Janus postulates a correspondent ethnic or social organisation. Here the model is thought to be provided by the cult of the Magni Dei or Cabeiri preserved at Samothrace and worshipped particularly among sailing merchants. The aetiological myth is noteworthy too: at the beginning one finds Dardanos and his brother Iasios appearing as auxiliary figures in a Phrygian cult to a Great Mother. In Italy there is a trace of a conflict between worshippers of the Argive Hera (Diomedes and the Diomedians of the south) and of the Penates. The cult of Janus looks to be related to social groups remained at the fringe of the Phrygian ones. They might or might not have been related to the cult of the Dioscuri.

c) The ianitrices in Roman law. The term is attested by Modestinus in the Digesta 38, 10, 4, 6 and glossed by Isidorus Origines 9, 7, 17. It denotes the spouses of the brothers of one’s husband: it is attested only in the imperial period and in the juridical language. It has a symmetric correspondent in levir brother of one’s husband. It is possible to suppose that the word ianitrix may at its origin have issued from the cult of Janus, which could have given special functions to women married to the two indivisible companions while later it got fixed to a special sense of relations. This topic bears on the matrimonial practices of early Roman society which show traces of a regimen different from the classic one, i. e. monogamic with exogamy.


Janus and Juno

The relationship between Janus and Juno is defined by the closeness of the notions of beginning and transition and the functions of conception and delivery, result of youth and vital force. The reader is referred to the above sections Cultual epithets and Tigillum Sororium of this article and the corresponding section of article Juno.


Janus and Quirinus

Quirinus is a god that incarnates the quirites, i.e. the Romans in their civil capacity of producers and fathers. He is surnamed Mars tranquillus peaceful Mars, Mars qui praeest paci Mars who presides on peace. His function of custos guardian is highlighted by the location of his temple inside the pomerium but not far from the gate of Porta Collina or Quirinalis, near the shrines of Sancus and Salus. As a protector of peace he is nevertheless armed, in the same way as the quirites are, as they are potentially milites soldiers: his staue represents him is holding a spear. For this reason Janus, god of gates, is concerned with his function of protector of the civil community. For the same reason the flamen Portunalis oiled the arms of Quirinus, implying that they were to be kept in good order and ready even though they were not to be used immediately. Dumezil and Schilling remark that as a god of the third function Quirinus is peaceful and represents the ideal of the pax romana i. e. a peace resting on victory.


Janus and Portunus

Portunus may be defined as a sort of duplication inside the scope of the powers and attributes of Janus. His original definition shows he was the god of gates and doors and of harbours. In fact it is debated whether his original function was only that of god of gates and the function of god of harbours was a later addition: Paul the Deacon writes: “… he is depicted holding a key in his hand and was thought to be the god of gates”. Varro would have stated that he was the god of harbours and patron of gates. His festival day named Portunalia fell on August 17, and he was venerated on that day in a temple ad pontem Aemilium and ad pontem Sublicium that had been dedicated on that date.[229] Portunus, unlike Janus, had his own flamen, named Portunalis. It is noteworthy that the temple of Janus in the Forum Holitorium had been consecrated on the day of the Portunalia and that the flamen Portunalis was in charge of oiling the arms of the statue of Quirinus.


Janus and Vesta

The relationship between Janus and Vesta touches on the question of the nature and function of the gods of beginning and ending in Indo-European religion. While Janus has the first place Vesta has the last, both in theology and in ritual (Ianus primus, Vesta extrema). The last place implies a direct connexion with the situation of the worshipper, in space and in time. Vesta is thence the goddess of the hearth of homes as well as of the city. Her inextinguishable fire is a means for men (as individuals and as a community) to keep in touch with the realm of gods. Thus there is a reciprocal link between the god of beginnings and unending motion, who bestows life to the beings of this world (Cerus Manus) as well as presiding over its end, and the goddess of the hearth of man, which symbolises through fire the presence of life. Vesta is a virgin goddess but at the same time she is considered the mother of Rome: she is thought to be indispensable to the existence and survival of the community.


Association with non-Roman gods

The god with two faces appeared repeatedly in Babylonian art. Reproductions of the image of such a god, named Usmu, on cylinders in Sumero-Accadic art. On plate XXI, c, Usmu is seen while introducing worshippers to a seated god. Janus-like heads of gods related to Hermes have been found in Greece, perhaps suggesting a compound god.

 

–Crystalinks

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Samhain Gods – Osiris – Egyptian

Osiris

Osiris the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth in ancient Egyptian religion. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh’s beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive atef crown, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. (He was one of the first to be associated with the mummy wrap. When the brother cut him up into pieces after killing him Isis, his wife, found all the pieces and wrapped his body up.) Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning “Foremost of the Westerners”, a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called “king of the living”: ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead “the living ones”. Through syncretism with Iah, he is also the god of the Moon.

Osiris was considered the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder, and father of Horus the Younger. The first evidence of the worship of Osiris was found in the middle of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt, although it is likely that he was worshiped much earlier; the Khenti-Amentiu epithet dates to at least the first dynasty, and was also used as a pharaonic title. Most information available on the myths of Osiris is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid Texts at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, later New Kingdom source documents such as the Shabaka Stone and the Contending of Horus and Seth, and much later, in narrative style from the writings of Greek authors including Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus.

Osiris was the judge of the dead and the underworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River. He was described as “He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful” and the “Lord of Silence”. The Kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death – as Osiris rose from the dead so would they in union with him, and inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic. By the New Kingdom all people, not just pharaohs, were believed to be associated with Osiris at death, if they incurred the costs of the assimilation rituals.

Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion and Sirius at the start of the new year. Osiris was widely worshipped until the decline of ancient Egyptian religion during the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire.

Etymology of the name

Osiris is a Latin transliteration of the Ancient Greek Ὄσιρις IPA: [ó.siː.ris], which in turn is the Greek adaptation of the original name in the Egyptian language. In Egyptian hieroglyphs the name appears as wsjr, which some Egyptologists instead choose to transliterate ꜣsjr or jsjrj. Since hieroglyphic writing lacks vowels, Egyptologists have vocalized the name in various ways as Asar, Yasar, Aser, Asaru, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, Usir, Usire or Ausare.

Several proposals have been made for the etymology and meaning of the original name; as Egyptologist Mark J. Smith notes, none are fully convincing. Most take wsjr as the accepted transliteration, following Adolf Erman:

  • John Gwyn Griffiths (1980), “bearing in mind Erman’s emphasis on the fact that the name must begin with an [sic] w“, proposes a derivation from wsr with an original meaning of “The Mighty One”. Moreover, one of the oldest attestations of the god Osiris appears in the mastaba of the deceased Netjer-wser (from nṯr-wsr “Powerful God”).[citation needed]
  • Kurt Sethe (1930) proposes a compound st-jrt, meaning “seat of the eye”, in a hypothetical earlier form *wst-jrt; this is rejected by Griffiths on phonetic grounds.
  • David Lorton (1985) takes up this same compound but explains st-jrt as signifying “product, something made”, Osiris representing the product of the ritual mummification process.
  • Wolfhart Westendorf (1987) proposes an etymology from wꜣst-jrt “she who bears the eye”.
  • Mark J. Smith (2017) makes no definitive proposals but asserts that the second element must be a form of jrj (“to do, make”) (rather than jrt (“eye”)).

However, recently alternative transliterations have been proposed:

  • Yoshi Muchiki (1990) reexamines Erman’s evidence that the throne hieroglyph in the word is to be read ws and finds it unconvincing, suggesting instead that the name should be read ꜣsjr on the basis of Aramaic, Phoenician, and Old South Arabian transcriptions, readings of the throne sign in other words, and comparison with ꜣst(“Isis”).
  • James P. Allen (2000) reads the word as jsjrt but revises the reading (2013) to jsjrj and derives it from js-jrj, meaning “engendering (male) principle”.

Appearance

Osiris is represented in his most developed form of iconography wearing the Atef crown, which is similar to the White crown of Upper Egypt, but with the addition of two curling ostrich feathers at each side (see also Atef crown (hieroglyph)). He also carries the crook and flail. The crook is thought to represent Osiris as a shepherd god. The symbolism of the flail is more uncertain with shepherds whip, fly-whisk, or association with the god Andjety of the ninth nome of Lower Egypt proposed.

He was commonly depicted as a pharaoh with a complexion of either green (the color of rebirth) or black (alluding to the fertility of the Nile floodplain) in mummiform (wearing the trappings of mummification from chest downward).

Early mythology

The Pyramid Texts describe early conceptions of an afterlife in terms of eternal travelling with the sun god amongst the stars. Amongst these mortuary texts, at the beginning of the 4th dynasty, is found: “An offering the king gives and Anubis”. By the end of the 5th dynasty, the formula in all tombs becomes “An offering the king gives and Osiris“.

Father of Horus

Osiris is the mythological father of the god Horus, whose conception is described in the Osiris myth (a central myth in ancient Egyptian belief). The myth describes Osiris as having been killed by his brother, Set, who wanted Osiris’ throne. His wife, Isis finds the body of Osiris and hides it in the reeds where it is found and dismembered by Set. Isis retrieves and joins the fragmented pieces of Osiris, then briefly brings Osiris back to life by use of magic. This spell gives her time to become pregnant by Osiris before he again dies. Isis later gives birth to Horus. As such, since Horus was born after Osiris’ resurrection, Horus became thought of as a representation of new beginnings and the vanquisher of the usurper Set.

Ptah-Seker (who resulted from the identification of Creator god Ptah with Seker) thus gradually became identified with Osiris, the two becoming Ptah-Seker-Osiris. As the sun was thought to spend the night in the underworld, and was subsequently “reborn” every morning, Ptah-Seker-Osiris was identified as king of the underworld, god of the afterlife, life, death, and regeneration.

Ram god

Osiris’ soul, or rather his Ba, was occasionally worshipped in its own right, almost as if it were a distinct god, especially in the Delta city of Mendes. This aspect of Osiris was referred to as Banebdjedet, which is grammatically feminine (also spelt “Banebded” or “Banebdjed“), literally “the ba of the lord of the djed, which roughly means The soul of the lord of the pillar of continuity. The djed, a type of pillar, was usually understood as the backbone of Osiris.

The Nile supplying water, and Osiris (strongly connected to the vegetable regeneration) who died only to be resurrected, represented continuity and stability. As Banebdjed, Osiris was given epithets such as Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra, since Ra, when he had become identified with Atum, was considered Osiris’ ancestor, from whom his regal authority is inherited. Ba does not mean “soul” in the western sense, and has to do with power, reputation, force of character, especially in the case of a god.

Since the ba was associated with power, and also happened to be a word for ram in Egyptian, Banebdjed was depicted as a ram, or as Ram-headed. A living, sacred ram was kept at Mendes and worshipped as the incarnation of the god, and upon death, the rams were mummified and buried in a ram-specific necropolis. Banebdjed was consequently said to be Horus’ father, as Banebdjed was an aspect of Osiris.

Regarding the association of Osiris with the ram, the god’s traditional crook and flail are the instruments of the shepherd, which has suggested to some scholars also an origin for Osiris in herding tribes of the upper Nile. The crook and flail were originally symbols of the minor agricultural deity Andjety, and passed to Osiris later. From Osiris, they eventually passed to Egyptian kings in general as symbols of divine authority.

Mythology

Plutarch recounts one version of the Osiris myth in which Set (Osiris’ brother), along with the Queen of Ethiopia, conspired with 72 accomplices to plot the assassination of Osiris. Set fooled Osiris into getting into a box, which Set then shut, sealed with lead, and threw into the Nile. Osiris’ wife, Isis, searched for his remains until she finally found him embedded in a tamarisk tree trunk, which was holding up the roof of a palace in Byblos on the Phoenician coast. She managed to remove the coffin and retrieve her husband’s body.

In one version of the myth, Isis used a spell to briefly revive Osiris so he could impregnate her. After embalming and burying Osiris, Isis conceived and gave birth to their son, Horus. Thereafter Osiris lived on as the god of the underworld. Because of his death and resurrection, Osiris was associated with the flooding and retreating of the Nile and thus with the yearly growth and death of crops along the Nile valley.

Diodorus Siculus gives another version of the myth in which Osiris was described as an ancient king who taught the Egyptians the arts of civilization, including agriculture, then travelled the world with his sister Isis, the satyrs, and the nine muses, before finally returning to Egypt. Osiris was then murdered by his evil brother Typhon, who was identified with Set. Typhon divided the body into twenty-six pieces, which he distributed amongst his fellow conspirators in order to implicate them in the murder. Isis and Hercules (Horus) avenged the death of Osiris and slew Typhon. Isis recovered all the parts of Osiris’ body, except the phallus, and secretly buried them. She made replicas of them and distributed them to several locations, which then became centres of Osiris worship.

Worship

Annual ceremonies were performed in honor of Osiris in various places across Egypt. These ceremonies were fertility rites which symbolised the resurrection of Osiris. E.A. Wallis Budge stated “Osiris is closely connected with the germination of wheat; the grain which is put into the ground is the dead Osiris, and the grain which has germinated is the Osiris who has once again renewed his life.”

Death or transition and institution as god of the afterlife

Plutarch and others have noted that the sacrifices to Osiris were “gloomy, solemn, and mournful…” (Isis and Osiris, 69) and that the great mystery festival, celebrated in two phases, began at Abydos commemorating the death of the god, on the same day that grain was planted in the ground (Isis and Osiris, 13). The annual festival involved the construction of “Osiris Beds” formed in shape of Osiris, filled with soil and sown with seed.

The germinating seed symbolized Osiris rising from the dead. An almost pristine example was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun by Howard Carter.

The first phase of the festival was a public drama depicting the murder and dismemberment of Osiris, the search of his body by Isis, his triumphal return as the resurrected god, and the battle in which Horus defeated Set.

According to Julius Firmicus Maternus of the fourth century, this play was re-enacted each year by worshippers who “beat their breasts and gashed their shoulders…. When they pretend that the mutilated remains of the god have been found and rejoined…they turn from mourning to rejoicing.” (De Errore Profanorum).

The passion of Osiris was reflected in his name ‘Wenennefer” (“the one who continues to be perfect”), which also alludes to his post mortem power.

Ikhernofret Stela

Much of the extant information about the rites of Osiris can be found on the Ikhernofret Stela at Abydos erected in the 12th Dynasty by Ikhernofret (also I-Kher-Nefert), possibly a priest of Osiris or other official (the titles of Ikhernofret are described in his stela from Abydos) during the reign of Senwosret III (Pharaoh Sesostris, about 1875 BC). The ritual reenactment of Osiris’s funeral rites were held in the last month of the inundation (the annual Nile flood), coinciding with Spring, and held at Abydos/Abedjou which was the traditional place where the body of Osiris/Wesir drifted ashore after having been drowned in the Nile.

The part of the myth recounting the chopping up of the body into 14 pieces by Set is not recounted in this particular stela. Although it is attested to be a part of the rituals by a version of the Papyrus Jumilhac, in which it took Isis 12 days to reassemble the pieces, coinciding with the festival of ploughing. Some elements of the ceremony were held in the temple, while others involved public participation in a form of theatre. The Stela of I-Kher-Nefert recounts the programme of events of the public elements over the five days of the Festival:

  • The First Day, The Procession of Wepwawet: A mock battle was enacted during which the enemies of Osiris are defeated. A procession was led by the god Wepwawet (“opener of the way”).
  • The Second Day, The Great Procession of Osiris: The body of Osiris was taken from his temple to his tomb. The boat he was transported in, the “Neshmet” bark, had to be defended against his enemies.
  • The Third Day: Osiris is Mourned and the Enemies of the Land are Destroyed.
  • The Fourth Day, Night Vigil: Prayers and recitations are made and funeral rites performed.
  • The Fifth Day, Osiris is Reborn: Osiris is reborn at dawn and crowned with the crown of Ma’at. A statue of Osiris is brought to the temple.

Wheat and clay rituals

Contrasting with the public “theatrical” ceremonies sourced from the I-Kher-Nefert stele (from the Middle Kingdom), more esoteric ceremonies were performed inside the temples by priests witnessed only by chosen initiates. Plutarch mentions that (for much later period) two days after the beginning of the festival “the priests bring forth a sacred chest containing a small golden coffer, into which they pour some potable water…and a great shout arises from the company for joy that Osiris is found (or resurrected). Then they knead some fertile soil with the water…and fashion therefrom a crescent-shaped figure, which they cloth and adorn, this indicating that they regard these gods as the substance of Earth and Water.” (Isis and Osiris, 39). Yet his accounts were still obscure, for he also wrote, “I pass over the cutting of the wood” – opting not to describe it, since he considered it as a most sacred ritual (Ibid. 21).

In the Osirian temple at Denderah, an inscription (translated by Budge, Chapter XV, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection) describes in detail the making of wheat paste models of each dismembered piece of Osiris to be sent out to the town where each piece is discovered by Isis. At the temple of Mendes, figures of Osiris were made from wheat and paste placed in a trough on the day of the murder, then water was added for several days, until finally the mixture was kneaded into a mold of Osiris and taken to the temple to be buried (the sacred grain for these cakes were grown only in the temple fields). Molds were made from the wood of a red tree in the forms of the sixteen dismembered parts of Osiris, the cakes of ‘divine’ bread were made from each mold, placed in a silver chest and set near the head of the god with the inward parts of Osiris as described in the Book of the Dead (XVII).

Judgment

The idea of divine justice being exercised after death for wrongdoing during life is first encountered during the Old Kingdom in a 6th dynasty tomb containing fragments of what would be described later as the Negative Confessions performed in front of the 42 Assessors of Ma’at.

With the rise of the cult of Osiris during the Middle Kingdom the “democratization of religion” offered to even his humblest followers the prospect of eternal life, with moral fitness becoming the dominant factor in determining a person’s suitability.

At death a person faced judgment by a tribunal of forty-two divine judges. If they led a life in conformance with the precepts of the goddess Ma’at, who represented truth and right living, the person was welcomed into the kingdom of Osiris. If found guilty, the person was thrown to a “devourer” (such as the soul-eating demon Ammit) and did not share in eternal life.

The person who is taken by the devourer is subject first to terrifying punishment and then annihilated. These depictions of punishment may have influenced medieval perceptions of the inferno in hell via early Christian and Coptic texts.

Purification for those who are considered justified may be found in the descriptions of “Flame Island“, where they experience the triumph over evil and rebirth. For the damned, complete destruction into a state of non-being awaits, but there is no suggestion of eternal torture.

Divine pardon at judgement was always a central concern for the ancient Egyptians.

During the reign of Seti I, Osiris was also invoked in royal decrees to pursue the living when wrongdoing was observed, but kept secret and not reported.

Greco-Roman era

Hellenization

The early Ptolemaic kings promoted a new god, Serapis, who combined traits of Osiris with those of various Greek gods and was portrayed in a Hellenistic form. Serapis was often treated as the consort of Isis and became the patron deity of the Ptolemies’ capital, Alexandria. Serapis’s origins are not known. Some ancient authors claim the cult of Serapis was established at Alexandria by Alexander the Great himself, but most who discuss the subject of Serapis’s origins give a story similar to that by Plutarch. Writing about 400 years after the fact, Plutarch claimed that Ptolemy I established the cult after dreaming of a colossal statue at Sinope in Anatolia. His councillors identified as a statue of the Greek god Pluto and said that the Egyptian name for Pluto was Serapis. This name may have been a Hellenization of “Osiris-Apis”. Osiris-Apis was a patron deity of the Memphite Necropolis and the father of the Apis bull who was worshipped there, and texts from Ptolemaic times treat “Serapis” as the Greek translation of “Osiris-Apis”. But little of the early evidence for Serapis’s cult comes from Memphis, and much of it comes from the Mediterranean world with no reference to an Egyptian origin for Serapis, so Mark Smith expresses doubt that Serapis originated as a Greek form of Osiris-Apis’s name and leaves open the possibility that Serapis originated outside Egypt.

Destruction of cult

The cult of Isis and Osiris continued at Philae until at least the 450s CE, long after the imperial decrees of the late 4th century that ordered the closing of temples to “pagan” gods. Philae was the last major ancient Egyptian temple to be closed.

 

Source

Wikipedia

Samhain Gods – Anubis – Egyptian

Anubis

 

Anubis is the Greek name of a god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion, usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head. Archeologists have identified Anubis’s sacred animal as an Egyptian canid, the African golden wolf.

Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. Depicted as a protector of graves as early as the First Dynasty (c. 3100 – c. 2890 BC), Anubis was also an embalmer. By the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055 – 1650 BC) he was replaced by Osiris in his role as lord of the underworld. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. He attended the weighing scale during the “Weighing of the Heart,” in which it was determined whether a soul would be allowed to enter the realm of the dead. Despite being one of the most ancient and “one of the most frequently depicted and mentioned gods” in the Egyptian pantheon, Anubis played almost no role in Egyptian myths.

Anubis was depicted in black, a color that symbolized both rebirth and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming. Anubis is associated with Wepwawet (also called Upuaut), another Egyptian god portrayed with a dog’s head or in canine form, but with grey or white fur. Historians assume that the two figures were eventually combined. Anubis’ female counterpart is Anput. His daughter is the serpent goddess Kebechet.

Name

“Anubis” is a Greek rendering of this god’s Egyptian name. In the Old Kingdom (c. 2686 BC – c. 2181 BC), the standard way of writing his name in hieroglyphs was composed of the sound signs jnpw followed by a jackal over a ḥtp sign:

i n
p
w C6

A new form with the “jackal” on a tall stand appeared in the late Old Kingdom and became common thereafter:

i n
p
w E16

Anubis’ name jnpw was possibly pronounced [a.ˈna.pʰa], based on Coptic Anoup and the Akkadian transcription 𒀀𒈾𒉺<a-na-pa> in the name <ri-a-na-pa> “Reanapa” that appears in Amarna letter EA 315. However, this transcription may also be interpreted as rˁ-nfr, a name similar to that of Prince Ranefer of the Fourth Dynasty.

History

In Egypt’s Early Dynastic period (c. 3100 – c. 2686 BC), Anubis was portrayed in full animal form, with a “jackal” head and body.  A “jackal” god, probably Anubis, is depicted in stone inscriptions from the reigns of Hor-Aha, Djer, and other pharaohs of the First Dynasty.  Since Predynastic Egypt, when the dead were buried in shallow graves, “jackals” had been strongly associated with cemeteries because they were scavengers which uncovered human bodies and ate their flesh. In the spirit of “fighting like with like,” a “jackal” was chosen to protect the dead, because “a common problem (and cause of concern) must have been the digging up of bodies, shortly after burial, by jackals and other wild dogs which lived on the margins of the cultivation.”

The oldest known textual mention of Anubis is in the Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686 – c. 2181 BC), where he is associated with the burial of the pharaoh.

In the Old Kingdom, Anubis was the most important god of the dead. He was replaced in that role by Osiris during the Middle Kingdom(2000–1700 BC). In the Roman era, which started in 30 BC, tomb paintings depict him holding the hand of deceased persons to guide them to Osiris.

The parentage of Anubis varied between myths, times and sources. In early mythology, he was portrayed as a son of Ra. In the Coffin Texts, which were written in the First Intermediate Period (c. 2181–2055 BC), Anubis is the son of either the cow goddess Hesat or the cat-headed Bastet. Another tradition depicted him as the son of Ra and Nephthys. The Greek Plutarch (c. 40–120 AD) stated that Anubis was the illegitimate son of Nephthys and Osiris, but that he was adopted by Osiris’s wife Isis:

For when Isis found out that Osiris loved her sister and had relations with her in mistaking her sister for herself, and when she saw a proof of it in the form of a garland of clover that he had left to Nephthys – she was looking for a baby, because Nephthys abandoned it at once after it had been born for fear of Seth; and when Isis found the baby helped by the dogs which with great difficulties lead her there, she raised him and he became her guard and ally by the name of Anubis.

George Hart sees this story as an “attempt to incorporate the independent deity Anubis into the Osirian pantheon.” An Egyptian papyrus from the Roman period (30–380 AD) simply called Anubis the “son of Isis.”

In the Ptolemaic period (350–30 BC), when Egypt became a Hellenistic kingdom ruled by Greek pharaohs, Anubis was merged with the Greek god Hermes, becoming Hermanubis. The two gods were considered similar because they both guided souls to the afterlife. The center of this cult was in uten-ha/Sa-ka/ Cynopolis, a place whose Greek name means “city of dogs.” In Book XI of The Golden Ass by Apuleius, there is evidence that the worship of this god was continued in Rome through at least the 2nd century. Indeed, Hermanubis also appears in the alchemical and hermetical literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

Although the Greeks and Romans typically scorned Egypt’s animal-headed gods as bizarre and primitive (Anubis was mockingly called “Barker” by the Greeks), Anubis was sometimes associated with Sirius in the heavens and Cerberus and Hades in the underworld. In his dialogues, Plato often has Socrates utter oaths “by the dog” (kai me ton kuna), “by the dog of Egypt”, and “by the dog, the god of the Egyptians”, both for emphasis and to appeal to Anubis as an arbiter of truth in the underworld.

Roles

Protector of tombs

In contrast to real wolves, Anubis was a protector of graves and cemeteries. Several epithets attached to his name in Egyptian texts and inscriptions referred to that role. Khenty-imentiu, which means “foremost of the westerners” and later became the name of a different wolf god, alluded to his protecting function because the dead were usually buried on the west bank of the Nile. He took other names in connection with his funerary role, such as tpy-ḏw.f “He who is upon his mountain” (i.e. keeping guard over tombs from above) and nb-t3-ḏsr “Lord of the sacred land”, which designates him as a god of the desert necropolis.

The Jumilhac papyrus recounts another tale where Anubis protected the body of Osiris from Set. Set attempted to attack the body of Osiris by transforming himself into a leopard. Anubis stopped and subdued Set, however, and he branded Set’s skin with a hot iron rod. Anubis then flayed Set and wore his skin as a warning against evil-doers who would desecrate the tombs of the dead. Priests who attended to the dead wore leopard skin in order to commemorate Anubis’ victory over Set. The legend of Anubis branding the hide of Set in leopard form was used to explain how the leopard got its spots.

Most ancient tombs had prayers to Anubis carved on them.

Embalmer

As jmy-wt “He who is in the place of embalming”, Anubis was associated with mummification. He was also called ḫnty zḥ-nṯr “He who presides over the god’s booth”, in which “booth” could refer either to the place where embalming was carried out or the pharaoh’s burial chamber.

In the Osiris myth, Anubis helped Isis to embalm Osiris. Indeed, when the Osiris myth emerged, it was said that after Osiris had been killed by Set, Osiris’s organs were given to Anubis as a gift. With this connection, Anubis became the patron god of embalmers; during the rites of mummification, illustrations from the Book of the Dead often show a wolf-mask-wearing priest supporting the upright mummy.

Guide of souls

By the late pharaonic era (664–332 BC), Anubis was often depicted as guiding individuals across the threshold from the world of the living to the afterlife. Though a similar role was sometimes performed by the cow-headed Hathor, Anubis was more commonly chosen to fulfill that function. Greek writers from the Roman period of Egyptian history designated that role as that of “psychopomp”, a Greek term meaning “guide of souls” that they used to refer to their own god Hermes, who also played that role in Greek religion. Funerary art from that period represents Anubis guiding either men or women dressed in Greek clothes into the presence of Osiris, who by then had long replaced Anubis as ruler of the underworld.

Weighing of the heart

One of the roles of Anubis was as the “Guardian of the Scales.” The critical scene depicting the weighing of the heart, in the Book of the Dead, shows Anubis performing a measurement that determined whether the person was worthy of entering the realm of the dead (the underworld, known as Duat). By weighing the heart of a deceased person against Ma’at (or “truth”), who was often represented as an ostrich feather, Anubis dictated the fate of souls. Souls heavier than a feather would be devoured by Ammit, and souls lighter than a feather would ascend to a heavenly existence.

 

Source

Wikipedia

 

The Study of Pagan Gods & Goddesses: Vidar

Vidar

Vidar (Old Norse Víðarr), his name might mean “Wide Ruler” he is the son of the all-father Odin and the giantess Gríðr. Yes, you read that correctly, some of the Æsir have previously been together with the Jotuns, also known as giants. Some of the giants were so beautiful that even the Gods could not resist their beauty.

Vidar is the second strongest of the Æsir only Thor is stronger than him, Vidar might have inherited some of his strength from the giant side of the family. Vidar lives in Asgard in a great hall called Vidi, it’s a peaceful home and the inside looks like a garden.

Vidar is known for being very silent he loves being at peace with nature. Vidar sometimes sits for hours in his garden working on a special shoe.
This special shoe is the strongest of all the shoes and is being made from all bits and pieces of leather that shoemakers throw in the trash when making new shoes in Midgard. Vidar will use this special shoe to revenge his father’s death Odin at Ragnarok (Ragnarök).

This is when Vidar will fight the fearsome Fenris wolf, by placing one foot on Fenris’s lower jaw and pressing his hands on the upper jaw until Fenris’s mouth will be pulled apart. Ragnarok is the doom of the Gods and the end of the world. But from death, there also comes life, and Vidar is one of the few Gods who will survive Ragnarok and rebuilt the new world

—————————————

Hymn to Vidarr

Vidar1Hail to the Silent God
Who sees much and speaks little,
Who waits patiently for the moment
Of injustice that needs to be equalized.
Hail to the God called upon
When cruelty has gone so far
That there is no making things right,
Hail to the God of cold vengeance
Who does what is necessary
To even up the debt,
To bring Fate’s balance true
Quicker than entropy would allow.
Hail to the God of the Thick-Soled Shoe
Whose steps are silent
So that he might approach from behind.
Hail to you, son of Grid the Wise
And Odin the Powerful,
May I know to call upon you
Only as a last resort.

— Seawalker, Author

————————————————–

Vidar

It is said that Odin had an affair with the warrior goddess Grid, and that she bore him a son named Vidarr, who took after his father and became one of the honored Aesir Gods. He is one of the two Gods of Vengeance – the other being his half-brother Váli, as it seems that in ancient Norse culture one deity of vengeance was not enough.

Vidarr’s name may originally have meant “widely ruling”. He is known as “the Silent God”, meaning that he does not flaunt his vengeance; Vidarr is said to speak little, but be a fierce warrior when the moment is needed. It is also said that he is almost as strong as Thor, and that the Gods depend upon him in times of trouble. Some scholars theorize that his “silent God” appellation may have something to do with ancient rituals of vengeance; it may be that individuals who were preparing for a vengeance battle refrained from speaking as part of a ritual purification.

He is also known as the God of the Thick Shoe, as he is constantly in the process of building up the soles of his shoes. This is done so that if Ragnarok comes and he faces Fenrir, he will be able to put his foot on Fenrir’s enormous jaws and strike his heart through his throat. Traditionally, shoemakers (and before that, people who made their own shoes) were encouraged to dedicate the little scraps of leather they trimmed off of their new shoe soles to Vidarr, who would collect them and add them slowly to his own soles.

In the saga Grímnismál, Odin describes the halls of many Gods, including that of his son Vidarr:

Brushwood grows and high grass
widely in Vidar’s land
and there the son proclaims on his horse’s back
that he’s keen to avenge his father.

This latter point is a harbinger of the prophecy that if Ragnarok comes, Fenrir will be loosed and will slay Odin, but he will be slain in turn by Vidarr. Both brothers are said to survive Ragnarok and help to rebuild a new world after Surt’s fires have burnt down. To make an offering to Vidarr, give him a weapon – throw it into icy water, or a bog, or bury it in ice.

 

Reference

Norse Mythology

Odin’s Family Tribe of Asgard

List of the Most Used Gods in Witchcraft

 

Adonis: Greek – consort of Aphrodite

Anubis: Egyptian – Jackal-headed God responsible for conducting souls to the underworld. 

Apollo: Greek & Roman – God of the Sun, twin brother of Artemis 

Cernunnos/Kernunnos: Celtic – The Horned God, consort of the Lady.

Dionysus: Greek – God of wine, fertility, and vegetation. 

Eros: Greek – God of love and passion.

Herne: Celtic/Saxon – see Cernunnos.

Horus (the elder): Egyptian – God of the all-seeing eye. Has the head of a falcon and the body of a man.

Hymen: Greek – God of marriage and wedding feasts. 

Lucifer: Italian – God of light, brother of Diana.

Mithra: Persian – God of the Sun and of victory in war

Odin: Scandinavian – God of the dead and of war. Consort of Freya.

Osiris: Egyptian – Fertility God, brother and consort of Isis.

Pan: Greek – God of nature and of woodland.

Poseidon: Greek – God of the sea.

Ra: Egyptian – God of the Sun. Father of Hathor by Nut.

Shiva: Hindu – God of the cycle of birth-death-rebirth. Consort of Kali.

Thor: Scandinavian – God of the sky and of thunder. Son of Odin

Thoth: Greek – God of wisdom and of writing.

Zeus: Greek – Supreme God. Brother of Demeter.

 

Dictionary of the Gods

Dictionary of the Gods

 

Egyptian:

AAH: The Moon God. I notice that the moon is male here just as it is in
Sumer and Babylon. Aah is egyptian for Moon.

 

AMON-RE: This is Re as the “Invisible God”. He seems to be all of the
Egptian Gods combined into one unified god-head, and was not outwardly
worshipped. It simply shows that the Egyptians knew that All was part of one
underlying Unity.

 

AMMUT: The Eater of the Dead. This is the monster that sits within the
judgment chamber and devoures those who do not pass the trial. He has the head
of a crocodile, the forebody of a leapord, and the hindquarters of a
hippopotamus.

 

ANUBIS: This jackle-headed god is the one who comes to you at death and
guides you through the darkness to the judgment chamber. Messenger of the gods.
Son of Osiris and Nephthys. Guardian of the tombs.

 

ANUKIS: Wife of Khnum.

 

APIS BULL, THE: God of lust and desire for life.

 

APOPHIS (ZET): This myth is not really a creation myth, but the energies it
involves are the same. It resembles the stories of Lotan, Zu, Asag, and
Leviathan. Actually, it is the idea of the day (Re) defeating the night
(Typhon). It is also the new year defeating the old. In either case, it is an
“Order from Chaos” type story. Typhon is a serpent god who is an enemy of Re.
Re sends the gods to slay him. They are, of course, successful. In one version
of the myth, Seth himsself is the one to kill Apophis each day (which is strange
as Seth and Apophis seem to be the same basic god-form: see Seth).

 

AROUERIS (Horus the Elder): See Horus the Elder.

 

ATEN (Amon-Re-Harakhti): This God was worshipped by Akhenaten as the “One
True God”. He had only a brief worship; Akhenaten was not liked for his
break from the Atum-Re (see below) cult. However, it would seem that Moses was
affected by Akhenaten’s ideas as he (Moses) studied the Egyptian mysteries. It
seems Aten is the forerunner of Yahweh. Aten is Egyptian for Sun.

 

ATUM-RE: This is Re as he emerged out of the Nun (Primordial Sea), appointed
the Ogdoad (see below) to their proper places in the Heavens, and
single-handedly created all in existance. Also, Re is told to have seperated
the lovers Geb and Nuit from their lovemaking, setting Nuit as the Sky and Geb
as the Earth.

 

AURAMOOUTH: Daughter of Nuit. Sky-goddess of Water.

 

BAST: A cat Goddess, and a cat-headed deity. Goddess of occultism and
magick.

 

GEB: This is the Earth God, with Nuit as the Sky Goddess. Thier union
brought forth Isis and Osiris, Seth and Nephthys, and Horus the Elder.

 

HAPI: God of the Nile, and a protection deity of the North, and the small
viscerae of the deceased. Son of Horus (see Mestha, Tuamautef, and Qubhsennuf).

 

HATHOR: This Goddess is a Love/War (Passion) Goddess. She is the Eye of Re
(i.e the Sun itself) whome, when angry, even the Gods fear. She can take the
form of a Cow or Cat. She also comes to new-born children, in the form of Seven
Women, to tell them their destinies.

 

HORUS THE ELDER (Aroueris): Son of Geb and Nuit, He is a Cosmic Being who’s
right eye is the Sun and who’s left eye is the Moon. If Seth was origonally the
New Moon (see Seth), then the story of Seth removing Horus’ eye may well be a
story of a solar eclipse.

 

HORUS THE YOUNGER (Heru): The hawk-headed god is the son of Isis and the
newly resurected Osiris. He removed Seth from the Throne of Egypt and ruled as
successor to his father. He is also the one who leads the soul before Osiris
upon passing the Weighing of the Heart. In the battle against Seth, Horus lost
an eye and later regained it. This gives us the symbol of the Eye of Horus (see
Horus the Elder).

 

HU: He and his partner Sia are two aspects of the Creative Power of the Gods.

 

ISIS (Au-Seth): Wife/sister of Osiris. Goddess of Magick and Healing. She
is also much like Ishtar/Innana. (See Osiris). The Egyptian Goddess-force.

 

KHNUM: Lord of barley and wheat, fruit and flowers, birds, fish, and all
animals. Created Man on a potters wheel. He lives on the first mound of Earth
that rose from the Nun, where the Source of the Nile lies, in a Temple called
“Joy of Life”. It is He who opens the flood-gates each year.

 

KHONSU: Son of Amon and Mut.

 

MAAT: Goddess of Truth and Justice. Wife of Thoth. She existed before the
birth of the gods. (See Hokhmah of the Hebrews). Her symbol is the feather
that can be seen on the Judgment Scale.

 

MESTHA: A god of Protection of the South, and the stomach and large
intestines of the deceased. Son of Horus (see Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf).

 

MIN: A fertility God.

 

MUT: Amon’s wife. Keep in mind that Amon was fused with Re, and was not the
same Deity to begin with.

 

NEITH: Sky goddess of War and Fire.

 

NEKHBET: Symbolised as a Vulture. Guardian of Upper Egypt (See Ua-Zit).

 

NEPHTHYS: Goddess of women. Wife of Seth, and the Dark Twin of Isis. Sister
of Osiris. She is also the mother of Anubis.

 

NUIT: Goddes of Sky and sister/wife of Geb. (See Geb).

 

NUN: Nun is listed with the Ogdoad. However, I wish to single him out here
as it is from him the name of the Primordial Waters was taken. He is the
oldest of the Gods.

 

OGDOAD, THE: This myth is from the mythos where Atum-Re is the Creator God.
There were eight Ogdoad, four frogs and four snakes, who were the Primordial
Waters- the Nun. Atum-Re arose from the Nun, and appointed the Ogdoad to their
proper places in the Heavens (thus, brought order from chaos). Their names are:
Nun and his consort Naunet, Kuk and Kuaket, Huh and Huahet, and Amon and
Amaunet.

 

OSIRIS (Au-Saur): Osiris was eventually merged with Re and seems to be nearly
the same deity in many aspects (forming a kind of Divine Loop). He is a God
Force with Isis as his Goddess Force. Osiris was probably origonally a
fertility god (like Tammuz), but was elevated when associated with Re.
Mythologically, he was origonally a Pharoah who brough civilzation to the
people. He is the Egyptian God-force. As the lord of the Underworld, he is
Khent-Amenti. (His real name is Au Sar: “exceeding king”).

 

PTAH: This god is a parallel myth to the Atum-Re mythos (see above). Ptah is
equated with the Nun (the Egyptian Primordial Waters). In this mythos, Ptah
creates Atum-Re and all the other gods, as well as all in existance. Also,
patron god of Architechs.

 

QEBHSENNUF: A god of Protection of the West, and the liver and gall-bladder
of the deceased. Son of Horus (see Mestha, Hapi, and Tuamautef).

 

RE: This is the falcon-headed sun god who is born each morning, grows old by
the end of the day, and enters the land of the dead each night. He is
Khephira in the morning, Re at midday, and Atum at night.

 

SATIS: Daughter of Khnum.

 

SHU: The god of Air and the husband/brother of Tephnuit. Atum-Re fertilized
himself and brought this god, and his wife into existance. Shu and Tephnuit’s
union brought forth Geb and Nuit, the Earth and Sky. Shu was placed, by Re,
between Geb and Nuit and he acts as a support to Nuit herself.

 

SIA: His name means “mind” or “thought”. He is most often paired with Hu,
and together they are two aspects of the Creative Power of the Gods.

 

SELKIS: Scorpion Goddess.

 

SETH: This is the brother of Osiris who destroyed him and dismembered his
body in order to take his throne. He is the Dark Serpent aspect of the God.
God of drought and storm, Lord of the Red Land (the desert). In Sanscrit the
word “sat” means to destroy by hewing into pieces. In the myth of Osiris…it
was Seth who killed Osiris and cut his body into fourteen pieces. But it may be
significant that the word “set” is also defined as “queen” or “princess” in
Egyptian. Au Set, known as Isis by the Greeks, is defined as “exceeding queen”.
In the myth of the combat Seth tries to mate sexually with Horus; this is
usually interpreted as being an insult. But the most primitive identity of the
figure Seth, who is also closely related to the serpent of darkness known as
Zet, and often refered to by classical Greek writers as Typhon, the serpent of
the goddess Gaia, may once have been female, or in some way symbolic of the
Goddess religion, perhaps related to the Goddess Ua Zit, “Great Serpent”, the
cobra Goddess of Neolithic times. Lastly, there is a theory that is pure
speculation on Seth’s battle with Horus. First, we look at Horus as a Solar
Deity. Then, we look at Isis as being the Full Moon (as she is the Goddess of
Magick). Next, if we consider that Seth was origonally female, then it is easy
(or just convenient) to assign him/her to the new moon. Put these together, and
the story of Seth attempting to mate with Horus, and then taking his eye, may
very well be a story of a solar eclipse (see Horus the Elder).

 

SOTHIS: Goddess of the dog-star, and of initiation. Isis.

 

TEPHNUIT: The Goddess of Moisture, wife/sister of Shu. (See Shu).

 

THOTH: This ibis-headed god is the Scribe of the Gods and the God of Wisdom.
He is the Logos, the Word of Re. He was Self-Created before the Creation.
Husband of Maat.

 

TUAMAUTEF: A god of Protection of the East, and the heart and lungs of the
deceased. Son of Horus (see Mestha, Hapi, and Qebhsennuf).

 

TUM: It is also a name of Re, usually seen as Atum.

 

UA ZIT: “Great Serpent” Cobra Goddess, guardian of Lower Egypt (see
Nekhbet). (Also see Seth for an interesting note).

 

ZET: See Apophis.

 

*************************************************

Canaanite:

ANATH: This was a Love and War Goddess, the Venus star. She is also known
for slaying the enimies of her brother Baal much in the same way Hathor
slaughtered much of mankind (Anath is heavily related to Hathor). After the
Defeat of Mavet and Yam, a feast was thrown for Baal. Anath locked everyone
inside, and proceeded to slay everyone (as they had all been fickle toward Baal
with both Mavet and Yam, as well as Ashtar). Baal stopped her and conveinced
her that a reign of peace is what was needed. She also has confronted Mavet and
was responsible for Baal’s liberation from the underworld. She is the twin
sister of Marah. Daughter of Asherah. She is also known as Astarte. Astarte
is the Canaanite Name of Ishtar; just as Ishtar is the Babylonian Name of
Inanna. In all cases the Name means, simply, “Goddess”. Astarte itself
translates literally as “She of the Womb”.

 

ARSAY: Daughter of Baal. An underworld Goddess.

 

ASHERAH: The Mother of the Gods, Qodesh (just like El), Queen of Heaven. She
is a goddess of Love and, as Astarte, a War Goddess. She is also an Earth
Goddess. Wife of El. (see El). When the gods decided to entreat Yam to ease
his reign of tyranny, it was Asherah who went to him and even offered herself.
The gods agreed to let her do this, except for Baal who was enraged at the idea.
(See Baal). Asherah is said to have given birth to seventy gods.

 

ASHTAR: Possibly a male version of Ishtar (Astarte in Canaan), the Venus
Star. When Baal was killed by Mavet, Asherah had Ashtar, her son, placed on the
throne. However, Ashtar was not big enough to fill the position, and resigned.
I believe one of his titles is Malik (the King) and other names for him are
Abimilki and Milkilu.

 

ASTARTE: A Name of Anath which means “Goddess”, or literally “She of the
Womb”. Astarte is simply the Canaanite version of the Name Ishtar.

 

BAAL: He is the Canaanite Ruler God (like Marduk). Baal and Yam-Nahar
origonally competed for kingship of the gods. The matter was brought before El,
who decided in favour of Yam. Yam then proceeded with a reign of tyranny over
the gods, and none of them felt they had the power to defeat Yam. So, they sent
Asherah to entreat him to lossen his grip. Asherah even offered herself to Yam.
Upon hearing this, Baal was enraged, and decided to defeat Yam. Yam got wind of
Baal’s plan and sent messengers to El with the demand that Baal be delivered to
him. El, afraid, agreed. Baal then taunted the gods for their cowardice and
went to face Yam. He had two weapons made, Yagrush (chaser) and Aymur (driver).
He struck Yam on the chest with Yagrush to no avail. Then he struck him on the
forehead with Aymur and fell Yam to the earth. After Yam’s defeat, Baal had a
palace built for himself; closely resembeling the story of Marduk. It also
resembles Marduk’s story in that the Primeval Waters threatened the gods, and
the High God and others were afraid to face them, with the exception of the
soon-to-be Ruler God. The Baal epic then continues to describe his fight
against Mavet. Baal is also a Storm God like Marduk, and a fertility god like
Tammuz. Dagon is his father. Baal is the Canaanite God-force (the goddess
force seems to be split between Anath and Asherah). Baal’s proper name is
Hadad, relating to his storm-god aspect. Baal is really a title, meaning
“Lord”.

 

DAGON: A vegitation God (especially corn). Father of Baal.

 

EL: The Father of the Gods, the Creator of Created Things, The Kindly, Kodesh.
Asherah is his wife. He wears bull horns on his helmet.

 

GAPEN: A messenger of Baal. His name either means Vine or Field. Probably
the former.

 

HADAD: See Baal.

 

HIRIBI: God of Summer.

 

HAURON: A God that is related to Ninurta of Mesopotamia and Horus of Egypt.

 

KOSHAROTH, THE: The Wise Goddesses. These may be somewhat along the lines of
the Greek Graces, or the Seven Hathors of Egypt. As we see them, they are
called to set up a Wedding. They are also sometimes symbolized as sparrows,
which indicated fertility. They were Goddesses of childbirth.

 

KOSHAR U KHASIS: Craftsman of the Gods. Built the palaces of both Yam-Nahir
and Baal. He also fashioned the two clubs that Baal used to defeat Yam.

 

KOSHARTU: Wife of Koshar.

 

LEVIATHAN: Another Name for Lotan or Tannin. See Lotan.

 

LOTAN: This may be another story like Apophis, Zu, Asag, and Leviathan where
it is not an actual creation story, but still involves the same energies. On
the other hand, it may be some kind of alternate Creation story where Lotan
replaces Yam-Nahar. Lotan is a seven headed serpent defeated by Baal with the
help of Mavet. Anath also claims a role in the defeat of the Serpent. Also
known as Tannin or Leviathan.

 

MARAH: Merciful Goddess of the Waters. Twin sister of Anath. Daughter of
Asherah.

 

MAVET: God of Death and Sterility. His name means Death. A son of El.
After Baal defeated Yam, he then sent a message to Mavet demanding that he keep
his domain in the underworld where he belonged. Mavet was enraged by this and
sent a threatening message to Baal, who was afraid and attempted to flatter his
way out of it. This, however, was to no avail and Baal was forced to face
Mavet. Mavet defeated him and held him in the underworld until Anath tracked
him (Mavet) down and defeated him herself. Mavet did not actually die, as he
and Baal had to face off once more seven years later. Neither defeated the
other, but Mavet did give in (at the command of Shapash) and proclaimed Baal the
King of the Gods.

 

NIKKAL: Consort of Yarikh. (S = Ningal). Goddess of the fruits of the Earth.
Daughter of Hiribi.

 

PIDRAY: Girl of Light. A daughter or consort of Baal.

 

QADISH-U-AMRAR: The two messengers of Asherah fused into one God.

 

RAHMAYA: A goddess impregnated, along with Asherah, by El. The Goddesses
then gave birth to the twin gods Shahar and Shalem, though I don’t know who gave
birth to whom.

 

RESHEPH: Probably a War God. Lord of the Arrow. Has gazel horns on his
helmet. He destroys men in mass by war and plague. He is the porter of the sun
Goddess Shepesh (this seems to resemble Khamael of the Hebrews). He is also
called Mekal (Annialator). Related to Nergal of Mesopotamia.

 

SHAHAR: God of dawn. Either a son of Asherah, or of Rohmaya.

 

SHALEM: God of Dusk. The Contemplation of Day. Either a son of Asherah, or
of Rohmaya.

 

SHAPASH: Sun Goddess. The Torch of the Gods.

 

SIN: Moon God.

 

TALLAY: Girl of Rain. A daughter or consort of Baal.

 

TANNIN: Another Name for Leviathan or Lotan. See Lotan.

 

UGAR: A messenger of Baal. His name either means Vine or Field, probably the
latter.

 

YAHWEH: Yahweh is added here because there was a short time in which He was
simply part of the Canaanite pantheon. When the Khabiru moved into Isra-El,
their young Volcano God, known as Yahweh (or “Everflowing”), was accepted as a
Son of El. Later, Yahweh was equated with El, and Asherah became His wife. H.

 

YAM-NAHAR: Yam-Nahar is the Primordial Waters that were defeated by Baal (see
Baal and Asherah). His name means Sea-River. He was originally given kingship
by El, and ruled as a tyrant over the Gods. Baal finally rose up against him.

 

YARIKH: Moon God.

 

*****************************************************

 

Babylonian: “S” indicates a parallel in Sumer.

 

ADAD: A storm, or weather, god. (See Hadad of Canaan).

 

ADAR: See Ninib

 

ANSHAR: “Whole Heaven” He and his wife, Kishar, are the children of Lamu and
Lahamu. They are said to be the circular Horizons of the sky and earth. Their
union brought forth Ea and Anu. (See Kishar)

 

ANU: This was the Sky God. S=An

 

ANUNNAKI, THE: The 50 great gods who deside the destiny of man. S.

 

ANZU: Deamon who stole the Tablets of Destiny. See Ninurta.

 

APSU: Tiamat’s first husband, symbolising the Sweet Waters (rivers).
Origonally, he and Tiamat (The Salt Waters of the Sea) were intermingled as one,
until he was killed by Ea for plotting against the younger gods.

 

ASUSHUNAMIR: Sexless creature created by Ea to descend into the Underworld
and charm Ereshkigal into reviving Ishtar with the Waters of Life. He is
Successful. S= Kurgarru, and Kalaturru.

 

EA (Ia): The Babylonian god of Wisdom and Magick, as well as Earth and Water.
Also called Nudimmud. Also called Enki. Father of Marduk. Atfter he killed
Apsu, he built his palace in the Sweet Waters, and called it Apsu. S=Enki (only
he was a ruler god and Water God. Ki was the Earth Goddess). In Babylon, Ea
replaces the works of Enlil. H= Yah.

 

ENLIL: Lord Wind or Lord Air, a storm God. God of Air. S.

 

ENKI: See Ea.

 

ERESHKIGAL: Queen of the Underworld. S.

 

ERRA: Also called Nergal. A god of pestilence and war. Husband of
Ereshkigal and King of the Underworld. See Nergal.

 

GAD: A god of luck and fortune related to the sign of Aries. (There most
definately must be link between this god and the Hebrew tribe of Gad, also
related to Aries).

 

GIBIL: A fire god invoked, with two others, against black magick. (See Gira
and Nusku)

 

GIRA: A fire god invoked, with two others, against black magick. (See Gibil
and Nusku)

 

ISHTAR: Wife of Tammuz, Queen of Heavaen. (see Tammuz). She is a Goddess of
Love and War. The Venus Star. The Babylonian Goddess-force. S= Inanna.

 

KI: Earth Goddess, sister/wife of An. Later, mother/wife of Enlil. S.

 

KISHAR: “Whole Earth” Wife/sister of Anshar. (See Anshar)

.

LAMU: He and his wife Lahamu are said to be the silt created by the junction
of the primeval Waters, the rivers and sea. They are the Children of Apsu and
Tiamat. (see Lahamu).

 

LAHAMU: Wife/sister of Lamu. (See Lamu).

 

LAMASHTU: Demoness who steals babies from their mothers. A probable source
for much of the Hebrew Lilith.

 

MARDUK: Also known as Bel (The Lord). The son of Ea who defeated Tiamat
(because the other gods were afraid to face her), thus destroying Chaos and
reigning in Order. He was appointed High God because of this, and he took the
Tablets of Destiny from Qingu. He is the Hero of the Gods, and also a storm
deity. The story of Marduk is very similar to Baal. Marduk had no real place
among the gods until he agreed to defeat Tiamat. Baal, likewise, had no place
among the gods until he defeated Yam, and then he had a palace built for
himself. S=Nunurta (not a direct relation, but this is probably where Marduk
came from). Marduk and his son, Nabu, are, in part, solar deities much like
Osiris and Seth. For an explanation, see Nabu. Marduk is related to Jupiter,
therefore making him a Wandering God.

 

MUMMU: This is Apsu’s vizier, who was captured by Ea. He symbolised mist and
fog. This also happens to be a Name of Marduk.

 

NABU: Son of Marduk. God of Scribal Art and Wisdom. Marduk is the Lord of
the Waxing Year, and his son is the Lord of the Waning Year. I don’t know of
any mythology dealing with a defeat of Marduk, especially by Nabu. However,
there is a ritual involving both of them that embodies the Solar Cycle. At
Midsummer (Litha), two minor Goddesses (otherwise known as th hairdressers of
Marduk’s wife, Sarpanitum[?] ) would go in solomn procession from the Temple of
Marduk (The Dayhouse) to the Temple of Nabu (The Nighthouse). At Midwinter
(Yule), the two Goddesses would return to the Dayhouse. He is associated with
Mercury and is said to be the god of Science, and the guardian of the gods. He
supposedly appears as an old man, long of beard, with a crown of one hundred
horns, and a long robe. He is one of the Wandering Gods.

 

******************************************************

 

Sumerian:

 

ABU: King of plants (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

AN: An was the Sky or Heaven God. He and his wife Ki are the children of
Nammu. An is the creator of the Anunnaki.

 

ANUNNAKI, THE: These are the gods created by An, and appointed their
positions by Enki. Possibly they are children of An and Ki. There are also the
Seven Anunnaki who are the dreaded judges of the underworld. I believe there
are supposed to be 50 of them in all. The Anunnaki, and some others who may or
may not be Anunnaki, are marked with an “A”. A question mark, or course,
indicates questionable choices.

 

ASAG (KUR): Dragon of the Abyss (or Abzu). Daemon of Disease. Asag was not
seperated like Tiamat. Instead, he lived within the Abyss *after* creation and
held back the Primordial Waters from consuming the Earth. At one point, he
kidnapped Ereshkigal, and Enlil went to rescue her. The outcome of the battle
is not known. However, we do know that Enlil is the Lord of the Waters, and
that he built his home on the Sea. On the other hand, Ereshkigal herself, to
this day, is the Queen of the Underworld, as if she remained there. In any
case, Asag was not killed for, later, another god decided to destroy him for
reasons unknown. This was Ninurta (possibly a model for Marduk). (See
Ninurta). The story of Ninurta and Asag seem to parallel the myths of Typhon,
Lotan, Zu, and Leviathan. Note: Asag can be thought of as the Abyss itself.
Kur is the name of the Underworld, as well as a name for this Serpent. Perhaps
he is also an Anunnaki, but I doubt it.

 

ASHNAN: The grain goddess. She was created (along with Lahar) by Enlil and
Enki so that the Anunnunki would have food to eat and cloths to wear. However,
the two gods became drunk and could not perform their duties: it was to remedy
this that Man was created. (See Lahar).

 

BAU: Wife of NInurta (or Ningirsu).

 

DAZIMUA: Married Ningishzida (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

DUMUZI: The Sumerian God-force. A sheperd god and fertility god. Husband of
Inanna. (see Inanna). It seems he is an Anunnaki.

 

EIGHT CHILDREN OF KI, THE: (See Abu, Nintul, Ninsutu, Ninkasi, Nazi, Dazimua,
Ninti, Enshagag.) The Goddess Uttu, in the paradise of Dilmun, had born 8
plants from her union with Enki. He then proceeded to eat them all. Ki cursed
him for this and he became ill. He convinced her to remove her curse, and she
created these eight gods of healing, one for each pain he was having, to cure
him. There is a punning relation between the names of the gods and the names of
the body parts they healed.

 

EMESH: Summer. He and his brother Enten were created by Enlil. (See Enten).

 

ENBILULU: God in charge of the Tigris and Euphrates.

 

ENKI: This was the Water God, and also a lesser ruler under Enlil. It seems
Enlil created the world, and Enki was left to run it. Enlil simply resided in
his palace and issued blessings. Enki, with Ki, created Man. He is also a God
of Wisdom. Also, Enki is just a title. His name is Ea. It is not sure whoes
son he is. Also, there was one point when he became jealous of Enlil’s
superiority over him ,so he took it out on man through the “confusion of
tounges”.

 

ENKIMDU: God in charge of farm tools. He was origonally favoured by Inanna
for a husband. However, Dumuzi threatened him, and he gave Inanna up.

 

ENLIL: This was the Air God, and the supreme ruler and creator, son of An and
Ki. See Enki. Enlil also took Ki as his wife. God of wisdom and magick.
His name means Lord of the Winds, so he is also a Storm God.

 

ENSHAGAG: Lord of the Paradise City of Dilmun (see the eight children of Ki).

 

ENTEN: Winter. He and his brother Emesh were created by Enlil so that the
Earth could produce food, animals, etc… (See Emesh).

 

ERESHKIGAL: Queen of the underworld (Kur), of death, and enemy of Inanna.
All underwold deities are called Chthonic Deities. She is said to be the sister
of Inanna, making her the daughter of Nanna. She is defineitly not one of the
Seven Chthonic Anunnaki, yet she is still an Anunnaki. Most likely she is the
Destructive Forces of Saturn as Inanna is Venus.

 

GALAS, THE: The demons of the underworld.

 

GESHTINANNA: Dumuzi’s sister. Divine poetress, singer, and interpreter of
dreams.

 

GILGAMESH: A human hero who was later deified. As a psudo-god, he resides in
the underworld and organizes it, sending souls to their proper places. He was
origonally a Priest-King.

 

GUGALANNA: This god is mentioned in the myth of the Descent of Inanna. When
Neti asks why she has come, Inanna says something about Lord Gugalnna, the
husband of Ereshkigal. The text reads: “My older sister, Ereshkigal, Because
her husband, the Lord Gugalanna, had been killed to witness the funeral rites
… so be it!”

 

HAIA: Nidaba’s or Nanshe’s husband.

 

IGIGI, THE: It seems that these were very early deities who guide and control
every aspect of nature. Either they were not given much promenance later, or
they simply were never given much attention. Chances are that these are Angels
were the gods are Archangels.

 

INANNA: The Summerian Goddess-force. Inanna is the daughter of the moon,
sister of the sun, and the planet Venus. She was a War Goddess and a Love
Goddess. (see Dumuzi). Note on the myth of her descent: the myth of Enlil and
Ninlil’s descent into the underwold may combined to Inanna’s descent. If it is,
then we have a full story of the cycle of the god and goddess’ descent.

 

ISHKUR: God in charge of rain and winds

 

ISIMUD: Messenger of Enki. Has two faces.

 

KALATURRU: Sexless created created by Enki and given the Food and Water of
Life to revive Inanna in the underworld. He was created with another like it:
Kurgarru. (see Kurgarru).

 

KI: She is the Earth Goddess. Also known as Ninhursag, Nintu, or Ninma.
First, she was the wife/sister of An. After she was seperated from him by their
son Enlil…”An carried off Heaven, and Enlil carried off Earth. In this she
became the mother/wife of Enlil.

 

KULLA: God in charge of building tools and bricks.

 

KUR: The Underworld. (See Asag).

 

KURGARRU: Sexless creature created by Enki and given the Food and Water of
Life to revive Innana in the underworld. He was created with another like it:
Kalaturru. (see Kalaturru).

 

LAHAR: The Cattle God. He and Ashnan were created (by Enlil and Enki) so the
Anunnaki would have food to eat and clothes to wear. (See Ashnan).

 

LILITH: A succubis. She is known from a story where she made her home in the
trunk of Inanna’s Sacred Tree. Anzu made his home in the branches, and a
serpent had made it’s home in the roots. This infestation had caused the Tree
to cease growing. Inanna called upon Gilgamesh to rid the Tree of it’s
occupants. For this, Inanna gave him his famous Bow.

 

MARTU: God of the Semites, or Amurru (Amorites), who were still nomadic,
“barbaric” people at the time of Sumer. They later moved into the land of Sumer
and conquered it….thus arose Babylonia.

 

MESLAMTAEA: One of the three underwold gods. These are not part of the Seven
Dreaded Anunnaki, as they are children of Enlil and Ninlil. (See Ninazu and
????2).

 

MUSHDAMMA: In charge of active building. The Builder of Enlil.

 

NAMMU: The goddess who was the Primordial Waters.

 

NANNA: The Moon god. Father of Utu and Inanna, as well as all the other
planets and stars. Son of Enlil and Ninlil. Enlil had raped Enlil and was
sentenced to the Underworld for His crime. Ninlil, however, loved Him and
followed Him downward. She gave birth to a number of Underworld Gods, but Enlil
was able to remove Her from the underworld before she gave birth to Nanna.
Nanna enters the land of the dead once a month (the New Moon) and judges the
dead with his son Utu. Nanna travels the sky in a boat. He is long of beard
and carries a wand of lapis lazuli in his palm.

 

NANSHE: Goddess in charge of Sea. Goddess of Justice. Judges Mankind on
NewYears, with Nidaba at her side. Also interprets dreams for the gods.

 

NAZI: Married Nindar (see the eight children of Ki).

 

NEDU: See Neti.

 

NERGAL: King of the Underwold, the Ambusher. A god of pestilence. See
Babylonia. He is a god of War and Mars, and therefore a Wandering God.

 

NETI: The gatekeeper of the first of seven gates to the underworld. I wonder
if this is not one of the seven Chthonic Anunnaki… Also called Nedu

.

NIDABA: This goddess was a serpent who was in charge of Temple record
keeping. She is also the Goddess of Writing.

 

NINAZU: One of the three underworld deities. Child of Enlil and Ninlil (from
the begetting of Nanna). (See Meslamtaea, and ????2)

 

NINGAL: Wife of Nanna.

 

NINHURSAG: See Ki.

 

NINISINNA: Goddess in charge of Healing and the art of Medicine.

 

NINKASI: The Goddess who sates the heart; meaning the goddess of intoxicating
drink. (see the Eight Children of Ki).

 

NINKUR: Daughter of Enki and Ninsar. (from the myth of the 8 plants).

 

NINLIL: Enlil’s wife. This Goddess followed Enlil to the underworld after he
had been banished there by the Anunnaki for raping her. At this point she was
pregnant with Nanna (from the rape). In the underworld she gave birth to the
Three Underworld Deities and gave birth to Nanna after she made it back out.

 

NINSAR: Daughter of Enki and Ki. (from the myth of the 8 plants).

 

NINSHUBUR: Inanna’s messenger. Possibly an Anunnaki?

 

NINSIKI: Enki’s wife.

 

NINSUTU: Wife of Ninazu (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

NINTI: Queen of the Month (see the Eight children of Ki). Note: The part of
Enki’s body that was healed by this goddess was his rib. The Sumerian word for
rib is “Ti”. Therefore Nin-ti means “lady of the rib”. On the other hand, the
word “Ti” can also be translated as “to make live”. Therefore, Ninti can also
mean “lady who brings life”. Later, as we all know, Eve was made from Adam’s
rib. The word Eve (heb.- Havah) also means “to make live”. Perhaps, and most
likely, the Hebrew myth of Adam’s rib comes directly from this myth. However,
something was lost in the translation, as Havah has no relation to the Hebrew
word for rib.

 

NINTU: See Ki.

 

NINTUL: Lord of the city Magon (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

NINURTA: Hero of the Gods. God of the Stormy South Winds. Possible
pre-cursur to Marduk. This god owned a weapon that was alive. This weapon,
Sharur, for some reason, convenced Nunurta to destroy Asag. This he did.
However, once Asag was gone, the Waters rose up and engulfed the Earth. Nothing
could grow. So, Nunurta built a stone wall over Asag’s body that stopped and
held back the Waters. Then he took the Waters that had already engulfed the
land and dumped them into the Euphrates. This caused the overflow of the
Euphrates, and the land became abundant. Obviously, this is a myth relating to
the yearly flooding of the river. Ninurta is the son of Enlil and Ki. Also, as
Ningirsu, brother of Nanshe. See Ninurta in Babylon.

 

NIMUG: Goddess given task by Enki at the time he organized the world, but we
don’t know what.

 

NUNGAL: Ereshkigal’s daughter. Judge and protector of the Black Heads.

 

NUSKU: Messenger of Enlil.

 

SUMUGAN: Enki set him as lord of the steppe lands. He may be one of the
Anunnaki, but there is at least one indication that he was created later.

 

UTU: The Sun God. As he travels through the underworld at night (making it
daytime there), he judges the dead. Nanna, as he visits the underworld once
each month (at the New Moon), also judges with his son. He travels the sky in a
chariot drawn by four mythological beasts. He was set by Enki in charge of
cities and bounderies, or (possibly) the entire universe. This would fit as he
is the ruling deity just under Enki. Son of Nanna.

 

UTTU: Daughter of Enki and Ninkur. Goddess of plants and weaving. (from the
myth of the 8 plants).

 

????: “Who loves fish” in charge of marshlands.

 

????2: One of the three underworld deities.. Child of Enlil and Ninlil (from
the begetting of Nanna). (See Ninazu and Meslamtaea).

 

********************************************************

 

Hebraic: list does not include most Archangels and Angels. H = a Human.

 

H AARON: Aaron is another of the Seven Sheperds. He balances Moses (Netzach)
as the other Sphere of Prophesy (Hod). Aaron is the brother of Moses.

 

H ABRAHAM: Abraham is one of the Seven Sheperds, and one of the Four Legs of
the Throne in the Chariot. He is the Mild, Watery (Chesed) aspect of the Four
Legs. Abundant Love. Historically, it is said that Abraham may have been an
Amorite who had settled in Sumer before Babylon (also Amorites) conquered it.
He was the first to make a covenatnt with Yahweh (or possibly El of Canaan).

 

H ADAM: This is Adam after Eve was seperated from him. He is the Father of
Mankind. (See Eve).

 

H ADAM KADMON: Adam Kadmon is not Primordial as it relates to “before
creation”. However, his creation marked the Primordial Man. He was both Male
and Female in one being, not yet seperated into Adam and Eve.

 

ADONAI: This means “Lord”. However, the word itself is feminine in nature,
thus making it similar in nature to Elohim: both male and female. Once again,
this name could be thought of as the combined force of Yahweh and Asherah.
This, too, is a very primordial name.

 

ASHERAH: Asherah is listed here and with the Canaanites. She is the same
Goddess, but seems to have been adopted by the Hebrews as the wife of Yahweh and
the Manifest Shekinah. The Hebraic Goddess-force.

 

ASMODEUS: This is the King of the Deamons. There are two types of deamon,
the malevolent kind, and those who have accepted the Torah and live in
indifference (at best) to man. Asmodeus is the king of these latter deamons, as
the malevolent kind have no leader. Samael will often rally the malevolent
deamons himself. Asmodeus is also the husband of the Younger Lilith.

 

AURIEL: The Divine Avenger. In some instances, Auriel is seen as an Angel of
Severity and Vengence. Otherwise, she is the Archangel of Earth. Supposedly
one of the Seven, yet with her included there are eight.

 

AZAZEL: An Archangel who descended to earth with Shemhazai. (See Shemhazai).
He taught mortal woen the art of seduction and make-up. When he was told of the
coming flood, he refused to repent. For this, he was cast into a pit and
covered with darkness, to remain there until the final days.

 

BEHEMOTH: This beast was set as the King of Beasts. At the “end” of
Creation, he will be sent against Leviathan, and both Creatures will die in the
battle. Behemoth will be fed to the pious along with Leviathan.

 

H DAVID: David is one of the Seven Sheperds, and one of the Four Legs of the
Throne in the Chariot. He represents Divinity Manifested in that he is the
Founder of the Kingship of Israel. (Malkuth).

 

EHEIEH: This means “I am”. It was the Name given to Moses at the scene of
the burning bush. Basically, this name relates more to YHVH, a concept, than it
does to Yahweh, a god.

 

EL: This is another name for Yahweh, usually translated to mean “God”.
Undoubtedly this comes from the Canaanite High God El. This name is used in
conjunction with the title Shaddai (heb.- Almighty), as well as Chai (heb.-
Living). Example: Shaddai El Chai = Almighty Living God.

 

ELOHIM: This means “Gods” and basically relates to a female force enfolded in
a male force. Or, a Male God with the ability to Create like a female. This is
because the root word here is “Goddess” (Eloah), and the pluaral “im” is
masculine. Mythologically, this could be thought of as the combined force of
the Seven Archangels as They Created the World in seven days. Elohim is the
pronunciation of YHVH for Binah. It should be thought of as leaning more toward
the feminine, and is actually a very primordial name. (See Yah).

 

H ESAU: Twin brother of Jacob who sold his brithright for a bowl of soup.
Mythologically, he is the founder of Canaan before the Israelites arrived. He
later became an Angel: the Guardian Angel of Edom.

 

H EVE: This is the second wife of Adam. She is the female half of Adam Kadmon
after he was seperated and became Adam. Her name means “Life” and she is the
Mother of Mankind. As a point of interest, see Ninti of Sumeria.

 

GABRIEL: The Strength of Divinity. Gabrael is a Divine messenger and
teacher. He (sometimes a she) is the benign Angel of Death, as well as the
ArchAngel of Water. He is lord of the Ashim. One of the Seven.

 

HANAEL: Divine Grace. The Archangel of Love and Passion. He is Lord of the
Elohim. One of the Seven.

 

HOKHMAH (TORAH): This Goddess’ name means “Wisdom”. It is said that she was
created before all else. In fact, she took part in the dividing of the
Primordial Waters (Prov. 8:23, 28). She is equated with the Torah, wich is said
to have been created first, and is the embodiment of Wisdom to the Jewish
people. (See Maat of the Egyptians).

 

H ISAAC: Isaac is one of the Seven Sheperds, and also one of the Four Legs of
the Throne in the Chariot. He is the Fire to his father’s Water. Strict
Justice (Geburah). The myth of his near-sacrifice at the hand of Abraham was
the injection of Divine Severity into Abraham’s Mercy (see above). He is
Abraham’s son.

 

H JACOB: Jacob was the third Patriarch, and thus is the balancer of his
predecessor Abraham (Chesed) and Isaac (Geburah). Mercy (Tiphareth). He is
also one of the Seven Sheperds, and one of the Four Legs of the Throne in the
Chariot. He is the son of Isaac, and twin brother of Esau.

 

H JOSEPH: Joseph is one of the Seven Sheperds. He displays the ability to
resist the sexual temptation of Yesode. This is displayed in the myth of the
Egyptian woman’s attempted seduction of him. He is the Keeper of the Covenant
to the pure Yahwists. He is the son of Jacob who first went to Egypt and was
responsible for the Hebrew presence there.

 

KHAMAEL: This Archangel is the Archangel of Divine Severity, just as Samael.
In fact, the two angels are one and the same. Classical Qabalah lists Samael as
the leader of the Seraphim, but modern Qabalah has replaced the name with
Khamael. Further, the Archangel Shemhazai, who hung himself between heaven and
earth, is also Samael. This puts him in the perfect postion to fullfill his
duties as the Porter of Heaven: Khamael, who resides at the very fringes of
Heaven with hundreds of thousands of angels of destruction at his command. His
purpose there is to keep intruders from entering the Heavens. He once attempted
to stop Moses from entering, but was defeated by the Prophet. One of the Seven.

 

LAILAH: This Goddess’ name is Hebrew for “Night”. It was the Darkness
mentioned in Gen 1:2, and she was named by Yahweh in Gen 1:5.

 

LEVANAH: The Moon (goddess).

 

LEVIATHAN: This could very possibly be related to the ideas of Typhon, Lotan,
Zu, and Asag; where it resembles the creation myth, yet is seperate there-from.
In this myth, there are two Leviathan, a male and a female. Once these two
beasts are created, to rule the seas, Yahweh decides against letting the female
live. Yahweh fears that the offspring of these two great beasts would destroy
the world. The female is thusly killed. At the “end” of Creation, the male
Leviathan is going to be killed in a battle with Behemoth (the Angels having
failed at the task), and his skin will be set as a canopy over the heads of the
pious, while his meat is fed to them. Certainly, the relation to this myth and
Tiamat’s destruction, and the setting of half of her body as the Sky, can be
easily seen. Interestingly, Leviathan is thought to be another name for the
Canaanite Lotan (See Lotan).

 

H LILITH: The Hebrew form of Lilith is the first wife of Adam. She refused to
bow down to him and left the Garden. She mated with daemons and became the
patron Goddess of the Night and all it’s creatures. She represnets the
subconscious mind, that part of us that is most primal and sexual and defiant.
She is the other half of the submissive Eve. There are two forms of Lilith, the
Younger and the Elder. As the younger, she is the wife of Asmodeus (this being
when she was in her cave mating with deamons). As the older, she is the wife of
Samael (this being when she joined with him in bringing down Adam and Eve from
the Garden.

 

METETRON: The Prince of the Face. This was once the human Enoch, who was
permited to ascend to Heaven without dieing. He was transformed into the
ArchAngel with 360 eyes and 36 pairs of wings. His palace was set on high and
his word was to be followed as if it were the voice of Yahweh HImself.
Personally, I feel that Metetron and Yahweh are synonimous. Metetron is even
known as the “Lesser YHVH”, and one of his many names is Yahoel, which is Y, H,
and V (transliterated as O) with “el” added to the end. Metetron is the lord of
the Chaioth haQodesh.

 

MICHAEL: The Protector of the Divine. He is the High Priest of Heaven and
it’s main guardian. Seen to be the Guardian Angel of Israel and all of
humanity. He is the ArchAngel of Fire, and sometimes a benign Angel of Death.
He is lord of the Malachim. One of the Seven.

 

H MOSES: Moses is one of the Seven Sheperds, relateing to Netzach. In the
case of the Seven Sheperds, Netzach and Hod are Spheres of Prophesy. He is the
prophet that lead the Exodus.

 

RAHAB: This serpent is also much like Tiamat, more so than Tehom. He is
described as an Archangel in Hebrew mythos.

 

RAPHAEL: The Divine Physician. Self explanitory. Raphael is also the
ArchAngel of Air. He is lord of the Beney Elohim. One of the Seven.

 

RAZIEL: The Divine Scribe. There is a veil in Heaven that seperates the
Divine Throne from the angelic hosts. Ratziel stands behind this veil and
records all the goings on at the Merkabah into a book. This book, the Book of
the Angel Raziel, a book containing all the knowledge of heaven and earth, was
given to Adam by Raziel. The other angels, jealous, took the book and cast it
into the sea. Yahweh, upon hearing of this transgression, ressurected Rahab to
retrieve it for Adam. After this the book fades away. It resurfaces when it is
given to Noah because it contains the instructions for the Ark. From there it
passed down the family line until it reached Solomon. It is said that Solomon
obtained all of his great Wisdom from this book. Another job of Ratziel is to
stand before the Merkabah with outstretched wings, lest the breath of the
Chaioth haQodesh consume all of the Heavens. He is Lord of the Auphanim. He is
also listed as one of the seven, but with his inclusion, and Auriel’s, there are
nine.

 

RUACH ELOHIM (SHEKINAH): Ruach Elohim is the Spirit of the Gods, and the
Shekinah is the Presence of Divinity. Shekinah is also seen as a Goddess. (Gen
1:2)

 

SAMAEL: The Poison of Divinity. Samael is the greatest of Angels (excepting
Metetron HImself), with twelve wings as opposed to the normal six of the the
other ArchAngels. He is the most beautiful angel. He is the main Angel of
Death, and is the Archangel of Divine Severity. His angelic order is the
Seraphim; the Firey Serpents sent to punish Israel for it’s transgressions. He
is also the husband of the elder Lilith. See also Khamael and Shemhazai; two
other names for Samael. As Khamael, he is one of the seven.

 

SANDALPHON: She is the twin of Metetron and the Archangel of Earth (as in the
physical Universe, as opposed to the Element of Earth like Auriel). It is
written that she descended to Earth as the male prophit Elijah as a guardian and
protector. She is Ruler of the Kerubim. It is said that She stands at the foot
of the Merkabah, and weaves prayers into garlands to rest on Yahweh’s head.

 

SHADDAI: See El.

 

SHEKINAH: See Ruach Elohim.

 

SHEMESH: The Sun (god).

 

SHEMHAZAI: This Archangel, along with Azazel, descended with his angelic host
before the flood to steer Man back onto the right path. This order of Angels
became known as the Watchers. However, the angels soon fell prey to the same
vices as man and began to take wives from the Cainite women. For sex, they
would sell the secrets of Heaven to the women. They gave knowledge on
everything from making weapons of war, to the Qabalah itself. The offspring of
these unions are known as the Nephilim (giants), and were destructive giants
that plagued mankind. Others even became the heroes of ancient times (such as
Gilgamesh from Sumer). The Flood was then sent to destroy these giants. When
told of the news, Shemhazai repented his deeds and hung himself, upside-down,
between heaven and earth. To this day, he can be seen there as the consellation
Orion. Shemhazai is actually a form of the Archangel Samael. Also see Khamael.

 

TEHOM: This Goddess’ name is Hebrew for “Deep”. (Gen. 1:2). She is similar
to the Babylonian Tiamat, yet is more along the lines of the Sumerian Nammu.

 

TZADKIEL: Divine Justice. He is the Archangel of Divine Benevolence, and
Lord of the Chashmalim. One of the Seven.

 

TZAPHKIEL: Divine Contemplation. Lord of the Aralim. One of the Seven.

 

UZZA: Archangel of Egypt.

 

YAH: This, in Hebrew, is spelled “YH”. This, esetoricaly, is the combination
of the Y and H of YHVH. It is where the God and Goddess principals emerge from
the Primordial Waters and mate. Literally, it is the Hebrew version of
Babylon’s Ea (spelled IA- A and H, just like I and Y, are interchangable in this
context). It is the Name of Chockmah. In this, it should be thought of as
leaning toward the masuline (as opposed to Elohim), and is a primordial name.

 

YAHWEH: Yahweh is the God Force. Yahweh is also a War God, Storm God, and a
Volcano Deity. The name Yahweh itself may be from the Sanscrit “YHVH”, meaning
“Ever-Flowing” and thus relates him to volcanic activity. After a short time,
Yahweh became the National Deity of Isra-El, and was equated with El of Canaan.
Along with this, He adopted Asherah (the wife of El) as His own wife. Also, the
Hebrews seemed to have associated Yahweh with Baal, making the two gods (just as
with El and Yahweh) nearly identical.

 

YAM: Sea God.

 

YHVH: as differenciated from Yahweh, who was not the only god to the early
Hebrews. it is a formula to “sum up” the Ain (Nothingness)- or The One. The
Face of Divinity.

 

ZIZ SHADAI: This mighty beast is the King of Birds.

 

*****************************************

 

Hittite: B = Babylonian

 

ALALUS: Father of Anus. Anus removed him from the throne.

 

ANUS: Sky God. Removed his father Alalus from the throne, and was, himself,
removed by his son Kumarbis. B = Anu.

 

ARINNA: Sun Goddess. She sent an Eagle out in search of Telepinus. The
effort failed.

 

EA: He resides in the Apsu, just as he does in Babylonia. What he does in
the Hittite pantheon I don’t know. He is the one who decided on how to defeat
Ulikummis, by using the copper knife that was “used to seperate heaven and
earth”. B.

 

ENLIL: Enlil also makes a guest appearance in the Ulikummis myth. He saw
Ulikummis as a child and told the gods later, after the child had grown to it’s
great size, that they could not hope to defeat it.

 

HEBAT: Wife of Teshub.

 

HANNAHANNAS: Queen of Heaven. She urges Teshub to do something about
Telepinus’ disappearance. Teshub went as far as Telepinus’ own door, where he
banged on the door until he broke his hammer, and thus abandoned the quest.

 

ILLUYANKAS: A dragon slain by Teshub. There are two versions of this myth.
In the old version, they two gods fight and Illuyankas wins. Teshub” then goes
to Inaras for advice, and she devises a trap for the dragon. She goes to him
with large quantities of liqure, and entices him to drink his fill. Once drunk,
the dragon is bound, and Teshub appears with the other gods and kills him. In
the later version, the two gods fight and Teshub, again, loses. Illuyankas then
takes Teshub’s eyes and heart. Teshub then has a son, who grows and marries
Illuyankas’ daughter. Teshub tells his son to ask for his eyes and heart as a
wedding gift, and it is given. Restored, Teshub goes to face Illuyankas once
more. At the point of vanquishing the dragon, Teshub’s son finds out about the
battle; realizing that he had been used for this purpose. He demaned that his
father take him along with Illuyankas, and so Teshub killed them both.

 

illuyankas’s daughter: See Illuyankas.

 

IMBALURIS: A messenger of Kumarbis.

 

INARAS: Goddess who set a trap for Illuyankas in the old version of the myth.

 

IRSIRRA DEITIES, THE: Either the “Maidens of Heaven” or else they are
underworld deities.

 

ISHTAR: Only appears in Hittite myth in an attempt to lull Ulikummis by
undressing and singing to him. Her attempt failed as the creature didn’t see or
hear her. B.

 

KAMRUSEPAS: Goddess of healing and magick. She calms and purified Telepinus
upon his return.

 

KUMARBIS: The Hittlte High God (like El of the Canaanites), Father of the
Gods. Removed his father, Anus, from the throne. In order to keep his son
Teshub from removing him from the throne, he made Ulikummis to oppose him.

 

MUKISANUS: Vizier of Kumarbis.

 

sea goddess: Kumarbis went to this goddess for advice on how to stop Teshub
from taking the throne. Her advice seems to have lead to the creation of
Ulikummis.

 

SHAUSHKA: a Love Goddess.

 

teshub’s son: See Illuyankas.

 

TELEPINUS: He is like Tammuz, a fertility god. He becomes enraged for
reasons unknown and storms off into the stepp lands where he falls asleep.
Draught and famine ensue. He was brought back by a Bee, after extensive
searching by the gods had failed. Son of Teshub.

 

TESHUB: Ruler God (like Baal of the Canaanites), son of Kumarbis. He is also
a sun God, and a fertility God. He carries a hammer as a weapon. He defeated
Ulikummis with the help of Ea. When Kumarbis first attempted to remove his
father, Anus, from the throne, he bit off the Anus’ loins in the struggle.
Thus, Anus’ seed was implanted within Kumarbis and Teshub was born.

 

UBELLURIS: This deity is much like the Greek Atlas, who supports the world on
his shoulders. Ulikummis was placed on his right shoulder by the Irsirra
deities to grow tall and strong. Ubelluris didn’t even notice the presence
until Ea pointed it out to him.

 

ULIKUMMIS: Son of Kumarbis. He was made to oppose Teshub. There is also
mention that he destoys some of mankind. However, he is actually described as
being blind, deaf, and dumb; as well as immobile. He was made of stone and
placed on Ubelluris’ shoulder to grow. He grew until he reached heaven itself.
When the gods found him, Ishtar removed her clothing and attempted to lull him
with music, but he didn’t see or hear her (as he was a blind and deaf creature).
The gods attempted to destroy him, but had no affect (he didn’t even notice).
Finally, Ea called for the Copper Knife that had been used in the seperation of
heaven and earth. He then used the blade to sever Ulikummis from Ubelluris’
shoulder; lopping the creature off at the feet. Teshub was then able to destroy
the creature totally. It is interesting to note that this god’s name is the
same as a pair of twin volcanic mountains in Asia Minor. This may explain why
he is said to be destroying mankind, even in his seemingly catatonic state.

 

 

Study of Pagan Gods and Goddesses: Loki

Study of Pagan Gods and Goddesses: Loki

In Norse mythology, Loki is known as a trickster. He is described in the Prose Edda as a “contriver of fraud.” It’s important to remember that “trickster” does not mean someone who plays fun jokes and pranks–Loki’s trickery is all about mischief and mayhem.

Origins and History
Although he doesn’t appear often in the Eddas, Loki is generally described as a member of the family of Odin.

There is little archaeological reference to Loki (pronounced LOW-key), but in the small village of Kirkby Stephen, England, there is a tenth-century stone with a carving on it.

It is believed that the bound, horned figure carved upon the stone is in fact Loki, who was likely brought to England by Saxon settlers in the area. Also, near Snaptun, Denmark, there is a stone from around the same time as the Kirkby Stephen stone; the carving on this one is identified as Loki as well, due to scarring on the lips. In a story in which he tries to get the better of the dwarf Brokkr, Loki is disfigured and earns the nickname Scar-lip.

Appearance
Although some Norse deities are often associated with symbols–such as Odin and his ravens, or Thor and his mighty hammer–Loki does not appear to have a particular item assigned to him by the Norse eddas or sagas. While there has been some speculation that he may be associated with particular runes, there is no scholarly or academic evidence to support this. Furthermore, this is an illogical argument in the context of Norse culture; keep in mind that stories and legends were passed down orally, from one generation to the next, and not written down.

Runes were used for divination, but not for written storytelling.

As to his physical appearance, Loki was a shapeshifter and could appear any way he liked. In the Gylfaginning, which is one of the Prose eddas, he is described as being “pleasing and handsome,” but there are no details as to what those words describe.

Early carvings portray him with horns on his head, but those may be a representation of one of the shapes he adopts, rather than his regular form.

Mythology
A shapeshifter who could appear as any animal, or as a person of either sex, Loki was constantly meddling in the affairs of others, mostly for his own amusement. Disguised as a woman, Loki fools Frigga into telling him about the weakness of her son Baldr. Just for fun, Loki tricks Baldr’s blind twin, Hod, into killing him with a spear made of mistletoe. At one point, Loki spent eight years disguised as a milkmaid, and got stuck milking cows because his disguise was so convincing.

Loki is typically described as the husband of the goddess Sigyn, but he seems to have procreated with just about anyone and anything that struck his fancy. Because he could take male or female form, at one point Loki turned himself into a mare and mated with a mighty stallion, so he actually was the mother of Odin’s magical eight-legged horse Sleipnir.

Loki is known for bringing about chaos and discord, but by challenging the gods, he also brings about change. Without Loki’s influence, the gods may become complacent, so Loki does actually serve a worthwhile purpose, much as Coyote does in the Native American tales, or Anansi the spider in West African lore.

Despite his divine or demi-god status, there’s little evidence to show that Loki had a following of worshipers of his own; in other words, his job was mostly to make trouble for other gods, men, and the rest of the world.

For an excellent dissertation looking at Loki in his many forms, read Shawn Christopher Krause-Loner’s paper Scar-lip, Sky-walker, and Mischief-Monger: The Norse God Loki as Trickster. Krause-Loner says,

“[H]is ability to change shape, both sex and species, makes him an ambiguous, in-between figure. He is the only Norse deity who is depicted as having the gift of flight, either by utilizing an artifact or simply through his own ability. Loki’s kenning, Sky-Walker, speaks to his mediating position, neither bound to the ground nor of the heavens.”

Honoring Loki Today

If you’ve spent any time reading Norse mythology, you know that Loki is a bit of an outcast, slightly manic, will do sneaky things for his own amusement, and doesn’t seem to have much respect for boundaries. If you invite Loki into your life, there’s a possibility you won’t be getting rid of him until he’s good and ready to leave.

 

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LOKI

 

Loki (pronounced “LOAK-ee;” Old Norse Loki, the meaning of which will be discussed below) is the wily trickster god of Norse mythology.

While treated as a nominal member of the gods, Loki occupies a highly ambivalent and ultimately unique position among the gods, giants, and the other kinds of spiritual beings that populate the pre-Christian Norse religion.

His familial relations attest to this. His father is the giant Farbauti (Old Norse Fárbauti, “Cruel Striker”[1]). His mother is Laufey (the meaning of which is unknown) or Nal (Nál, “Needle”[2]). Laufey/Nal could be a goddess, a giantess, or something else entirely – the surviving sources are silent on this point. Loki is the father, by the giantess Angrboda (Angrboða, “Anguish-Boding”), of Hel, the goddess of the underworld; Jormungand, the great serpent who slays Thor during Ragnarok; and Fenrir, the wolf who bites off one of the hands of Tyr and who kills Odin during Ragnarok – hardly a reputable brood, to say the least. As we’ll see below, Loki demonstrates a complete lack of concern for the well-being of his fellow gods, a trait which could be discerned, in vague outline, merely by considering these offspring of his.

With his proper wife Sigyn (“Friend of Victory”[3]), he also has a son named Nari or Narfi, whose name might mean “Corpse.”[4]

Loki often runs afoul not only of societal expectations, but also of what we might call “the laws of nature.” In addition to the progeny listed above, Loki is also the mother – yes, the mother – of Sleipnir, Odin’s shamanic horse, whom Loki gave birth to after shapeshifting into a mare and courting the stallion Svadilfari, as is recounted in the tale of The Fortification of Asgard.

In the tales, Loki is portrayed as a scheming coward who cares only for shallow pleasures and self-preservation. He’s by turns playful, malicious, and helpful, but he’s always irreverent and nihilistic.

For example, in the tale of The Kidnapping of Idun, Loki, by his recklessness, ends up in the hands of a furious giant, Thiazi, who threatens to kill Loki unless he brings him the goddess Idun. Loki complies in order to save his life, and then finds himself in the awkward position of having the gods threaten him with death unless he rescues Idun. He agrees to this request for the same base motive, shifting his shape into that of a falcon and carrying the goddess back to Asgard in his talons. Thiazi pursues him desperately in the form of an eagle, but, having almost caught up with Loki as he nears his destination, the gods light a fire around the perimeter of their fortress. The flames catch Thiazi and burn him to death, while Idun and Loki reach the halls of the gods safely. Loki ultimately comes to the aid of the gods, but only to rectify a calamity for which he himself is responsible. This theme is repeated in numerous tales, such as in The Creation of Thor’s Hammer and the aforementioned The Fortification of Asgard.

After Thiazi’s death, the giant’s daughter, Skadi, arrives in Asgard demanding restitution for the slaying of her father. One of her demands is that the gods make her laugh, something which only Loki is able to do. To accomplish this, he ties one end of a rope to the beard of a goat and the other end to his testicles. Both he and the goat squawk and squeal as one pulls one way and the other pulls the other way. Eventually he falls over in Skadi’s lap, and the giantess can’t help but laugh at such an absurd spectacle. Here, Loki once again comes to the aid of the gods, but simply by being silly and outlandish, not by accomplishing any feat that a Viking Age Scandinavian would have found to be particularly honorable.

Loki alternately helps both the gods and the giants, depending on which course of action is most pleasurable and advantageous to him at the time. During Ragnarok, when the gods and giants engage in their ultimate struggle and the cosmos is destroyed, Loki joins the battle on the side of the giants. According to one Old Norse poem, he even captains the ship Naglfar, “Nail Ship,” which brings many of the giants to their battle with the gods.[5] When the battle for the world is fought, he and the god Heimdall mortally wound each other.

Loki is perhaps best known for his malevolent role in The Death of Baldur. After the death of the beloved god Baldur is prophesied, Baldur’s mother, Frigg, secures a promise from every living thing to not harm her son. Well, almost everything – no such oath is obtained from the mistletoe, which the gods think too small and safe a thing to harm Baldur. Upon discovering this omission, Loki carves a mistletoe spear, places it in the hands of the blind god Hod, and instructs him to throw it at Baldur. Hod, not knowing the origin of the weapon, complies, and Baldur is impaled and dies. The god Hermod rides Sleipnir to the underworld and implores Hel to release Baldur, pointing out how beloved he is by all living things. Hel retorts that if this is so, then it shouldn’t be difficult to compel every being in the world to weep for Baldur, and, should this happen, the dead god would be released from the grave. Every living thing does indeed cry for Baldur’s return, with one sole exception: a frost-hearted giantess named Tokk (Þökk, “Thanks”), who is almost certainly Loki in disguise. So Baldur must remain with Hel.

For his many crimes against them, the gods eventually forge a chain from the entrails of Loki’s son Narfi and tie him down to three rocks inside a cave. A venomous serpent sits above him, dripping poison onto him. Loki’s apparently very faithful and loving wife, Sigyn, sits at his side with a bowl to catch the venom. But when the bowl becomes full, of course, she has to leave her husband’s side to pour it out. When this happens, the drops of venom that fall onto him cause him to writhe in agony, and these convulsions create earthquakes. And in this state he lies until breaking free at Ragnarok.

A fascinating variant of the tale of Loki’s being bound comes to us from the medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus. In his History of the Danes, Thor, on one of his many journeys to Jotunheim, the homeland of the giants, finds a giant named Útgarðaloki (“Loki of the Utgard“). Útgarðaloki is bound in exactly the same manner as that in which Loki is bound in the tale mentioned above, which comes from Icelandic sources.[6][7] It seems that even the pagan Scandinavians themselves held conflicting views on whether Loki was a god, a giant, or something else entirely.

For the centuries that Norse mythology has been a subject of scholarly study, scholars have been unable to explain the meaning of Loki’s name in any convincing way. Most have simply thrown their hands up and declared the meaning of his name to be unknown and probably unknowable. Recently, however, the philologist Eldar Heide may have solved this puzzle. In his research into Nordic folklore from periods more recent than the Viking Age, Heide noticed that Loki often appears in contexts that liken him to a knot on a thread. In fact, in later Icelandic usage, the common noun loki even means “knot” or “tangle.” Spiders are sometimes referred to as loki in a metaphorical sense, as their webs are compared to the fish nets (which are made from a series of knots and loops) that Loki crafts in certain surviving Viking Age myths. From all of this, the most straightforward meaning of Loki’s name would seem to be “Knot” or “Tangle.”[8][9]

This proposed meaning of Loki’s name powerfully resonates with his role in Norse mythology in two ways. First, it points to his role as a maker of nets, both literal fish nets and metaphorical “nets” in the form of his cunning schemes that trap the gods in perilous situations. Second, it could indicate his being the “knot” in the otherwise straight thread of the gods and their world, the fatal flaw that ultimately brings about their demise.

Even though Loki is in some sense a god, no traces of any kind of worship of Loki have survived in the historical record.[10] Is this any wonder, given that his character is virtually the antithesis of traditional Norse values of honor, loyalty, and the like – and that he is ultimately a traitor to the divinities the Norse held in such reverence?

 

References:

Patti Wigington, Published on ThoughtCo.com

Second Part of this article can be found on Daniel McCoy’s website, Norse Mythology for Smart People

[1] Turville-Petre, E.O.G. 1964. Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. p. 127.
[2] Heide, Eldar. 2009. More Inroads to Pre-Christian Notions, After All? The Potential of Late Evidence. In Á austrvega: Saga and East Scandinavia: Preprint Papers of the 14th International Saga Conference. Edited by Agneta Ney et al. p. 363.
[3] Simek, Rudolf. 1993. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Translated by Angela Hall. p. 284.
[4] Ibid. p. 228.
[5] The Poetic Edda. Völuspá, stanza 51.
[6] Saxo Grammaticus. 1905. The History of the Danes. Book VIII.
[7] Turville-Petre, E.O.G. 1964. Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. p. 138.
[8] Heide, Eldar. 2009. More Inroads to Pre-Christian Notions, After All? The Potential of Late Evidence. In Á austrvega: Saga and East Scandinavia: Preprint Papers of the 14th International Saga Conference. Edited by Agneta Ney et al. p. 363.
[9] Heide, Eldar. 2012. p. 90-91. Loki, the Vätte, and the Ash Lad: A Study Combining Old Scandinavian and Medieval Material. In Viking and Medieval Scandinavia 7.
[10] Simek, Rudolf. 1993. Dictionary of Northern Mythology. Translated by Angela Hall. p. 195.

The Study of Pagan Gods and Goddesses- Lugh, Master of Skills

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Lugh

Master of Skills

Similar to the Roman god Mercury, Lugh was known as a god of both skill and the distribution of talent. There are countless inscriptions and statues dedicated to Lugh, and Julius Caesar himself commented on this god’s importance to the Celtic people. Although he was not a war god in the same sense as the Roman Mars, Lugh was considered a warrior because to the Celts, skill on the battlefield was a highly valued ability.

In Ireland, which was never invaded by Roman troops, Lugh is called sam ildanach, meaning he was skilled in many arts simultaneously.

Lugh Enters the Hall of Tara
In one famous legend, Lugh arrives at Tara, the hall of the high kings of Ireland. The guard at the door tells him that only one person will be admitted with a particular skill–one blacksmith, one wheelwright, one bard, etc. Lugh enumerates all the great things he can do, and each time the guard says, “Sorry, we’ve already got someone here who can do that.” Finally Lugh asks, “Ah, but do you have anyone here who can do them ALL?” At last, Lugh was allowed entrance to Tara.

The Book of Invasions
Much of the early history of Ireland is recorded in the Book of Invasions, which recounts the many times Ireland was conquered by foreign enemies. According to this chronicle, Lugh was the grandson of one of the Fomorians, a monstrous race that were the enemy of the Tuatha De Danann.

Lugh’s grandfather, Balor of the Evil Eye, had been told he would be murdered by a grandson, so he imprisoned his only daughter in a cave. One of the Tuatha seduced her, and she gave birth to triplets. Balor drowned two of them, but Lugh survived and was raised by a smith. He later led the Tuatha in battle, and indeed killed Balor.

Roman Influence
Julius Caesar believed that most cultures worshipped the same gods and simply called them by different names. In his Gallic War essays, he enumerates the popular deities of the Gauls and refers to them by what he saw as a corresponding Roman name. Thus, references made to Mercury actually are attributed to a god Caesar also calls Lugus, who was Lugh. This god’s cult was centered in Lugundum, which later became Lyon, France. His festival on August 1 was selected as the day of the Feast of Augustus, by Caesar’s successor, Octavian Augustus Caesar, and it was the most important holiday in all of Gaul.

Weapons and War
Although not specifically a war god, Lugh was known as a skilled warrior. His weapons included a mighty magic spear, which was so bloodthirsty that it often tried to fight without its owner. According to Irish myth, in battle, the spear flashed fire and tore through the enemy ranks unchecked. In parts of Ireland, when a thunderstorm rolls in, the locals say that Lugh and Balor are sparring–thus giving Lugh one more role, as a god of storms.

The Many Aspects of Lugh
According to Peter Beresford Ellis, the Celts held smithcraft in high regard. War was a way of life, and smiths were considered to have magical gifts.

After all, they were able to master the element of Fire, and mold the metals of the earth using their strength and skill. Yet in Caesar’s writings, there are no references to a Celtic equivalent of Vulcan, the Roman smith god.

In early Irish mythology, the smith is called Goibhniu, and is accompanied by two brothers to create a triple god-form. The three craftsmen make weaponry and carry out repairs on Lugh’s behalf as the entire host of the Tuatha De Danann prepares for war. In a later Irish tradition, the smith god is seen as a master mason or a great builder. In some legends, Goibhniu is Lugh’s uncle who saves him from Balor and the monstrous Formorians.

One God, Many Names
The Celts had many gods and goddesses, due in part to the fact that each tribe had its own patron deities, and within a region there might be gods associated with particular locations or landmarks.

For example, a god who watched over a particular river or mountain might only be recognized by the tribes who lived in that area. Lugh was fairly versatile, and was honored nearly universally by the Celts. The Gaulish Lugos is connected to the Irish Lugh, who in turn is connected to the Welsh Llew Llaw Gyffes.

Celebrating the Harvest of Grain
The Book of Invasions tells us that Lugh came to be associated with grain in Celtic mythology after he held an harvest fair in honor of his foster mother, Tailtiu. This day became August 1, and that date ties in with the first grain harvest in agricultural societies in the Northern Hemisphere. In fact, in Irish Gaelic, the word for August is lunasa. Lugh is honored with corn, grains, bread, and other symbols of the harvest. This holiday was called Lughnasadh (pronounced Loo-NA-sah). Later, in Christian England the date was called Lammas, after the Saxon phrase hlaf maesse, or “loaf mass.”

An Ancient God for Modern Times
For many Pagans and Wiccans, Lugh is honored as the champion of artistry and skills. Many artisans, musicians, bards, and crafters invoke Lugh when they need assistance with creativity. Today Lugh is still honored at the time of harvest, not only as a god of grain but also as a god of late summer storms.

Even today, in Ireland many people celebrate Lughnasadh with dancing, song, and bonfires. The Catholic church also has set this date aside for a ritual blessing of farmers’ fields.

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Lugh

Birth
Lugh’s father is Cian of the Tuatha Dé Danann, and his mother is Ethniu, daughter of Balor, of the Fomorians. In Cath Maige Tuired their union is a dynastic marriage following an alliance between the Tuatha Dé and the Fomorians. In the Lebor Gabála Érenn Cian gives the boy to Tailtiu, queen of the Fir Bolg, in fosterage. In the Dindsenchas Lugh, the foster-son of Tailtiu, is described as the “son of the Dumb Champion”.

A folktale told to John O’Donovan by Shane O’Dugan of Tory Island in 1835 recounts the birth of a grandson of Balor who grows up to kill his grandfather. The grandson is unnamed, his father is called Mac Cinnfhaelaidh and the manner of his killing of Balor is different, but it has been taken as a version of the birth of Lugh, and was adapted as such by Lady Gregory. In this tale, Balor hears a druid’s prophecy that he will be killed by his own grandson. To prevent this he imprisons his only daughter in the Tór Mór (great tower) of Tory Island, cared for by twelve women, who are to prevent her ever meeting or even learning of the existence of men. On the mainland, Mac Cinnfhaelaidh owns a magic cow who gives such abundant milk that everyone, including Balor, wants to possess her. While the cow is in the care of Mac Cinnfhaelaidh’s brother Mac Samthainn, Balor appears in the form of a little red-haired boy and tricks him into giving him the cow. Looking for revenge, Mac Cinnfhaelaidh calls on a leanan sídhe (fairy woman) called Biróg, who transports him by magic to the top of Balor’s tower, where he seduces Eithne. In time she gives birth to triplets, which Balor gathers up in a sheet and sends to be drowned in a whirlpool. The messenger drowns two of the babies, but unwittingly drops one child into the harbour, where he is rescued by Biróg. She takes him to his father, who gives him to his brother, Gavida the smith, in fosterage.

There may be further triplism associated with his birth. His father in the folktale is one of a triad of brothers, Mac Cinnfhaelaidh, Gavida and Mac Samthainn, and his father in the medieval texts, Cian, is often mentioned together with his brothers Cú and Cethen. Lebor Gabála Érenn Two characters called Lugaid, a popular medieval Irish name thought to derive from Lugh, have three fathers: Lugaid Riab nDerg (Lugaid of the Red Stripes) was the son of the three Findemna or fair triplets, and Lugaid mac Con Roí was also known as mac Trí Con, “son of three hounds”. In Ireland’s other great “sequestered maiden” story, the tragedy of Deirdre, the king’s intended is carried off by three brothers, who are hunters with hounds. The canine imagery continues with Cian’s brother Cú (“hound”), another Lugaid, Lugaid Mac Con (son of a hound), and Lugh’s son Cúchulainn (“Culann’s Hound”).[18] A fourth Lugaid was Lugaid Loígde, a legendary King of Tara and ancestor of (or inspiration for) Lugaid Mac Con.

Lugh joins the Tuatha Dé Danann
As a young man Lugh travels to Tara to join the court of king Nuada of the Tuatha Dé Danann. The doorkeeper will not let him in unless he has a skill with which to serve the king. He offers his services as a wright, a smith, a champion, a swordsman, a harpist, a hero, a poet and historian, a sorcerer, and a craftsman, but each time is rejected as the Tuatha Dé Danann already have someone with that skill. But when Lugh asks if they have anyone with all those skills simultaneously, the doorkeeper has to admit defeat, and Lugh joins the court and is appointed Chief Ollam of Ireland. He wins a flagstone-throwing contest against Ogma, the champion, and entertains the court with his harp. The Tuatha Dé Danann are at that time oppressed by the Fomorians, and Lugh is amazed how meekly they accept this. Nuada wonders if this young man could lead them to freedom. Lugh is given command over the Tuatha Dé Danann, and he begins making preparations for war.

The sons of Tuireann
Tuireann and Cian, Lugh’s father, are old enemies, and one day his sons, Brian, Iuchar and Iucharba spot Cian in the distance and decide to kill him. They find him hiding in the form of a pig, but Cian tricked the brothers into allowing him to transform back to a man before they killed him, giving Lugh the legal right to claim compensation for a father rather than just a pig. When they try to bury him, the ground spits his body back twice before keeping him down, and eventually confesses that it is a grave to Lugh. Lugh holds a feast and invites the brothers, and during it he asks them what they would demand as compensation for the murder of their father. They reply that death is the only just demand, and Lugh agrees. He accuses them of the murder of his father, Cian, and sets them a series of seemingly impossible quests. The brothers go on an adventure and achieve them all except the last one, which will surely kill them. Despite Tuireann’s pleas, Lugh demands that they proceed and, when they are all fatally wounded, he denies them the use of one of the items they have retrieved, a magic pigskin which heals all wounds. They die of their wounds and Tuireann dies of grief over their bodies.

The Battle of Magh Tuireadh
Using the magic artifacts the sons of Tuireann have gathered, Lugh leads the Tuatha Dé Danann in the Second Battle of Mag Tuireadh against the Fomorians. Nuada is killed in the battle by Balor. Lugh faces Balor, who opens his terrible, poisonous eye that kills all it looks upon, but Lugh shoots a sling-stone that drives his eye out the back of his head, wreaking havoc on the Fomorian army behind. After the victory Lugh finds Bres, the half-Fomorian former king of the Tuatha Dé Danann, alone and unprotected on the battlefield, and Bres begs for his life. If he is spared, he promises, he will ensure that the cows of Ireland always give milk. The Tuatha Dé Danann refuse the offer. He then promises four harvests a year, but the Tuatha Dé Danann say one harvest a year suits them. But Lugh spares his life on the condition that he teach the Tuatha Dé Danann how and when to plough, sow and reap.

Later life and death
Lugh instituted an event similar to the Olympic games called the Assembly of Talti which finished on Lughnasadh (1 August) in memory of his foster-mother, Tailtiu, at the town that bears her name (now Teltown, County Meath). He likewise instituted Lughnasadh fairs in the areas of Carman and Naas in honour of Carman and Nás, the eponymous tutelary goddess of these two regions. Horse races and displays of martial arts were important activities at all three fairs. However, Lughnasadh itself is a celebration of Lugh’s triumph over the spirits of the Otherworld who had tried to keep the harvest for themselves. It survived long into Christian times and is still celebrated under a variety of names. Lúnasa is now the Irish name for the month of August.

According to a poem of the dindsenchas, Lugh was responsible for the death of Bres. He made 300 wooden cows, and filled them with a bitter, poisonous red liquid which was then “milked” into pails and offered to Bres to drink. Bres, who was under an obligation not to refuse hospitality, drank it down without flinching, and it killed him.

Lugh is said to have invented the board game fidchell.

He had several wives, including Buí and Nás, daughters of Ruadri, king of Britain. Buí lived and was buried at Knowth. Nás was buried at Naas, County Kildare, which is named after her. Lugh had a son, Ibic, by Nás. His daughter or sister was Ebliu, who married Fintan. By the mortal Deichtine, he had another son, the hero Cú Chulainn.

One of his wives, Buach, had an affair with Cermait, son of the Dagda. Lugh killed him in revenge, but Cermait’s sons, Mac Cuill, Mac Cecht and Mac Gréine, killed Lugh in return, drowning him in Loch Lugborta. He had ruled for forty years. Cermait was later revived by his father the Dagda, who used the smooth or healing end of his staff to bring Cermait back to life.
In other cycles and traditions
In the Ulster Cycle he fathered Cúchulainn with the mortal maiden Deichtine. When Cúchulainn lay wounded after a gruelling series of combats during the Táin Bó Cuailnge (Cattle Raid of Cooley), Lugh appeared and healed his wounds over a period of three days.
In Baile in Scáil (The Phantom’s Trance), a story of the Historical Cycle, Lugh appeared in a vision to Conn of the Hundred Battles. Enthroned on a daïs, he directed a beautiful woman called the Sovereignty of Ireland to serve Conn a portion of meat and a cup of red ale, ritually confirming his right to rule and the dynasty that would follow him.
In the Fenian Cycle the dwarf harper Cnú Deireóil claimed to be Lugh’s son.
The Luigne, a people who inhabited Counties Meath and Sligo, claimed descent from him.
Ainle is listed as the son of Lug Longhand and is killed by Curnan the Blacklegged in the Rennes Dinsenchas. Ainle, whose name means “champion” is described as being renowned and glorious, but in the same poetic verse is also described as being a weakling with no grip in battle.
In the Dindsenchas, Luat the son of Scal Balb (another name of Cian) is mentioned as the husband of Bairend.
Possessions
Lug possessed a number of magical items, retrieved by the sons of Tuirill Piccreo in Middle Irish redactions of the Lebor Gabála. Not all the items are listed here. The late narrative Fate of the Children of Tuireann not only gives a list of items gathered for Lugh, but also endows him with such gifts from the sea god Manannán as the sword Fragarach, the horse Enbarr (Aonbarr), the boat Scuabtuinne / Sguaba Tuinne (“Wave-Sweeper”), his armour and helmet.

Lugh’s Spear
The lore around Lugh’s Spear is traced as follows:

Four Treasures Spear of Lugh
Lugh’s spear (sleg), according to the text of The Four Jewels of the Tuatha Dé Danann, was said to be impossible to overcome, taken to Ireland from Gorias (or Findias).

Gae Assail
Lugh obtained the Spear of Assal (Irish: Gae Assail) as fine (éric) imposed on the children of Tuirill Piccreo (or Biccreo), according to the short account in Lebor Gabála Érenn (Poem LXV, 319), which adds that the incantation “Ibar (Yew)” made the cast always hit its mark, and “Athibar (Re-Yew)” caused the spear to return.

Areadbhar
In a full narrative version called [A]oidhe Chloinne Tuireann (The Fate of the Children of Tuireann), from copies no earlier than the 18th century, Lugh demands the spear named Ar-éadbair or Areadbhair (Early Modern Irish: Aꞃéadḃaiꞃ) which belonged to Pisear, king of Persia, that its tip had to be kept immersed in a pot of water to keep it from igniting, a property similar to the Lúin of Celtchar. This spear is also called “Slaughterer” in translation.

Finest Yew of the Wood
There is yet another name that Lugh’s spear goes by: “A [yew] tree, the finest of the wood” (Early Modern Irish: eó bo háille d’ḟíoḋḃaiḃ),[34]:204-5 occurring in an inserted verse within The Fate of the Children of Tuireann. “The famous yew of the wood” (ibar alai fhidbaidha) is also the name that Lugh’s spear is given in a tract which alleges that it, the Lúin of Celtchar and the spear Crimall that blinded Cormac Mac Airt were one and the same weapon (tract in TCD MS 1336 (olim H 3. 17), col. 723, discussed in the Lúin page).

Sling-stone
Lugh used the “sling-stone” (cloich tabaill) to slay his grandfather, Balor the Strong-Smiter in the Battle of Magh Tuired according to the brief accounts in the Lebor Gabála Érenn. The narrative Cath Maige Tured, preserved in a unique 16th century copy, words it slightly different saying that Lugh used the sling-stone (here liic talma § 133, i.e. lía “stone” of the ‘tailm “sling”) to destroy the evil eye of Balor of the Piercing Eye (Bolur Birugderc).

Tathlum
A certain poem recorded by O’Curry in English translation says that the missile fired by Lugh was a tathlum (táthluib “(slingstone made of) cement”).

Nature Myth Items
Lugh’s projectile weapon, whether a dart or missile, was envisioned by symbolic of lightning-weapon. Lugh’s sling rod, named “Lugh’s Chain”, was the rainbow and the Milky Way. Unlike the rod-sling, Lugh had no need to wield the spear himself. It was alive and thirsted so for blood that only by steeping its head in a sleeping-draught of pounded fresh poppy seeds could it be kept at rest. When battle was near, it was drawn out; then it roared and struggled against its thongs, fire flashed from it, and it tore through the ranks of the enemy once slipped from the leash, never tired of slaying.

Fragarach
Lugh is also seen girt with the Freagarthach (better known as Fragarach), the sword of Manannán, in the assembly of the Tuatha Dé Danann in the Fate of the Children of Tuireann.

Lugh’s horse(s) and magic boat
Lugh had a horse named Aenbharr which could fare over both land and sea. Like much of his equipment, it was furnished to him by the sea god Manannán mac Lir. When the Children of Tuireann asked to borrow this horse, Lugh begrudged them, saying it would not be proper to make a loan of a loan. Consequently, Lugh was unable to refuse their request to use Lugh’s currach (coracle) or boat, the “Wave-Sweeper” (Irish: Sguaba Tuinne).

In the Lebor Gabála, Gainne and Rea were the names of the pair of horses belonging to the king of the isle of Sicily [on the (Tyrrhene sea)], which Lug demanded as éric from the sons of Tuirill Briccreo.

Failinis
Failinis was the name of the whelp of the King of Ioruaidhe that Lugh demanded as éiric (a forfeit) in the Oidhead Chloinne Tuireann. This concurs with the name of the hound mentioned in an “Ossianic Ballad”, sometimes referred to by its opening line “Dám Thrír Táncatair Ille (They came here as a band of three)”. In the ballad the hound is called Ṡalinnis (Shalinnis) or Failinis (in the Lismore text), and belonged to a threesome from Iruaide whom the Fianna encounter. It is described as “the ancient grayhound… that had been with Lugh of the Mantles, / Given him by the sons of Tuireann Bicreann;…”

That hound of mightiest deeds,
Which was irresistible in hardness of combat,
Was better than wealth ever known,
A ball of fire every night.
Other virtues had that beautiful hound
(Better this property than any other property),
Mead or wine would grow of it,
Should it bathe in spring water.
O’Curry’s excerpt ends here, but the subsequent verse runs “The three full-fledged heroes are called Sél, Donait and Domhnán. The dog of the fairest figure, Failinis was brought to Finn”. These threesome also appear in Acallamh na Sénorach though in that work the wonder-dog is called Fer Mac.

Name and nature

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Lugh’s name has been interpreted as deriving from the Proto-Indo-European root *leuk-, “flashing light”, and he is often surrounded by solar imagery, so from Victorian times he has often been considered a sun god, similar to the Greco-Roman Apollo though historically he is only ever equated with Mercury.[citation needed] He appears in folklore as a trickster, and in County Mayo thunderstorms were referred to as battles between Lugh and Balor, so he is sometimes considered a storm god: Alexei Kondratiev notes his epithet lonnbeimnech (“fierce striker”) and concludes that “if his name has any relation to ‘light’ it more properly means ‘lightning-flash’ (as in Breton luc’h and Cornish lughes)”. However, Breton and Cornish are Brythonic languages in which Proto-Celtic *k did undergo systematic sound changes into -gh- and -ch-.

Lugh’s mastery of all arts has led many to link him with the unnamed Gaulish god Julius Caesar identifies with Mercury, whom he describes as the “inventor of all the arts”. Caesar describes the Gaulish Mercury as the most revered deity in Gaul, overseeing journeys and business transactions. Juliette Wood interprets Lugh’s name as deriving from the Celtic root *lugios, “oath”, and the Irish word lugh connotes ideas of “blasphemy, cussing, lies, bond, joint, binding oath”, which strengthens the identification with Mercury, who was, among other attributes, a god of contracts.

It is also worth noting that parallels exist between the Irish Lugh, British Lleu, Gaulish Lugus, German Wotan, the English Woden, and Norse Odin. Odin was worshipped by the Norse as a god of war among other things, including poetry and the arts. Odin may have replaced Tyr as god of war among north Germanic peoples. As such, it may be that Lugh was also worshipped as a god of war by the Irish. On that note it is worth noting that the ultimate Irish warrior hero Cu Chulainn is cited as the son of Lugh.

Locations named after Lugh
The County of Louth in Ireland is named after the village of Louth, which in turn is named after the God Lugh. Historically, the place name has had various spellings; “Lugmad”, “Lughmhaigh”, and “Lughmhadh”. Lú is the modern simplified spelling.

 

Reference
Patti Wigington, Published on ThoughtCo 
Wikipedia

The Study of Pagan Gods & Goddesses: Hades, Lord of the Underworld

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 Hades

Lord of the Underworld

The Greeks called him the Unseen One, the Wealthy One, Pluoton, and Dis. But few considered the god Hades lightly enough to call him by his name. While he is not the god of death (that’s the implacable Thanatos), Hades welcomed any new subjects to his kingdom, the Underworld, which also takes his name. The ancient Greeks thought it best not to invite his attention.

 

The Birth of Hades
Hades was the son of the titan Cronos and brother to the Olympian gods Zeus and Poseidon.

 

Cronos, fearful of a son who would overthrow him as he vanquished his own father Ouranos, swallowed each of his children as they were born. Like his brother Poseidon, he grew up in the bowels of Cronos, until the day when Zeus tricked the titan into vomiting up his siblings. Emerging victorious after the ensuing battle, Poseidon, Zeus, and Hades drew lots to divide up the world they had gained. Hades drew the dark, melancholy Underworld, and ruled there surrounded by the shades of the dead, various monsters, and the glittering wealth of the earth.

 

Life in the Underworld
For the Greek god Hades, the inevitability of death ensures a vast kingdom. Eager for souls to cross the river Styx and join fief, Hades is also the god of proper burial. (This would include souls left with money to pay the boatman Charon for the crossing to Hades.) As such, Hades complained about Apollo’s son, the healer Asclepius, because he restored people to life, thereby reducing Hades’ dominions, and he inflicted the city of Thebes with plague probably because they weren’t burying the slain correctly.

 

Myths of Hades
The fearsome god of the dead figures in few tales (it was best not to talk about him too much). But Hesiod relates the most famous story of the Greek god, which is about how he stole his queen Persephone.

 

The daughter of Demeter, the goddess of agriculture, Persephone caught the eye of the Wealthy One on one of his infrequent trips to the surface world.

 

He abducted her in his chariot, driving her far below the earth and keeping her in secret. As her mother mourned, the world of humans withered: Fields grew barren, trees toppled and shriveled. When Demeter found out that the kidnapping was Zeus’ idea, she complained loudly to her brother, who urged Hades to free the maiden. But before she rejoined the world of light, Persephone partook of a few pomegranate seeds.

 

Having eaten the food of the dead, she was compelled to return to the Underworld. The deal made with Hades allowed Persephone to spend one-third (later myths say one-half) of the year with her mother, and the rest in the company of her shades. Thus, to the ancient Greeks, was the cycle of seasons and the yearly birth and death of crops.

 

Hades Fact Sheet
Occupation: God, Lord of the Dead

 

Family of Hades: Hades was a son of the Titans Cronos and Rhea. His brothers are Zeus and Poseidon. Hestia, Hera, and Demeter are Hades’ sisters.

 

Children of Hades: These include the Erinyes (the Furies), Zagreus (Dionysus), and Makaria (goddess of a blessed death)

 

Other Names: Haides, Aides, Aidoneus, Zeus Katachthonios (Zeus under the earth). The Romans also knew him as Orcus.

 

Attributes: Hades is depicted as a dark-bearded man with a crown, scepter, and key.

 

Cerberus, a three-headed dog, is often in his company. He owns a helmet of invisibility and a chariot.

 

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Hades
God of the Underworld

The origin of Hades’ name is uncertain, but has generally been seen as meaning “The Unseen One” since antiquity. An extensive section of Plato’s dialogue Cratylus is devoted to the etymology of the god’s name, in which Socrates is arguing for a folk etymology not from “unseen” but from “his knowledge (eidenai) of all noble things”. Modern linguists have proposed the Proto-Greek form *Awides (“unseen”). The earliest attested form is Aḯdēs (Ἀΐδης), which lacks the proposed digamma. West argues instead for an original meaning of “the one who presides over meeting up” from the universality of death.

 

In Homeric and Ionic Greek, he was known as Áïdēs. Other poetic variations of the name include Aïdōneús (Ἀϊδωνεύς) and the inflected forms Áïdos (Ἄϊδος, gen.), Áïdi (Ἄϊδι, dat.), and Áïda (Ἄϊδα, acc.), whose reconstructed nominative case *Áïs (*Ἄϊς) is, however, not attested.The name as it came to be known in classical times was Háidēs (Ἅιδης). Later the iota became silent, then a subscript marking (Άͅδης), and finally omitted entirely (Άδης).

 

Hades, Hierapolis
Perhaps from fear of pronouncing his name, around the 5th century BC, the Greeks started referring to Hades as Pluto (Πλούτων, Ploútōn), with a root meaning “wealthy”, considering that from the abode below (i.e., the soil) come riches (e.g., fertile crops, metals and so on).Plouton became the Roman god who both rules the underworld and distributed riches from below. This deity was a mixture of the Greek god Hades and the Eleusinian icon Ploutos, and from this he also received a priestess, which was not previously practiced in Greece. More elaborate names of the same genre were Ploutodótēs (Πλουτοδότης) or Ploutodotḗr (Πλουτοδοτήρ) meaning “giver of wealth”.

 

Epithets of Hades include Agesander (Ἀγήσανδρος) and Agesilaos (Ἀγεσίλαος),[12] both from ágō (ἄγω, “lead”, “carry” or “fetch”) and anḗr (ἀνήρ, “man”) or laos (λαός, “men” or “people”), describing Hades as the god who carries away all. Nicander uses the form Hegesilaus (Ἡγεσίλαος). He was also referred to as Zeus Katachthonios (Ζευς καταχθονιος), meaning “the Zeus of the Underworld”, by those avoiding his actual name, as he had complete control over the Underworld.

 

Greek god of the underworld

Greek underworld
In Greek mythology, Hades, the god of the underworld, was a son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea. He had three sisters, Demeter, Hestia, and Hera, as well as two brothers, Zeus, the youngest of the three, and Poseidon. Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings. After their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war. The war lasted for ten years and ended with the victory of the younger gods. Following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad (xv.187–93), Hades and his two brothers, Poseidon and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule. Zeus received the sky, Poseidon received the seas, and Hades received the underworld, the unseen realm to which the souls of the dead go upon leaving the world as well as any and all things beneath the earth. Some myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his turnout, but had no choice and moved to his new realm.

 

Hades obtained his wife and queen, Persephone, through abduction at the behest of Zeus. This myth is the most important one Hades takes part in; it also connected the Eleusinian Mysteries with the Olympian pantheon, particularly as represented in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, which is the oldest story of the abduction, most likely dating back to the beginning of the 6th Century BC. Helios told the grieving Demeter that Hades was not unworthy as a consort for Persephone:

 

Aidoneus, the Ruler of Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless gods for your child, being your own brother and born of the same stock: also, for honor, he has that third share which he received when division was made at the first, and is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells.

— Homeric Hymn to Demeter

Despite modern connotations of death as evil, Hades was actually more altruistically inclined in mythology. Hades was often portrayed as passive rather than evil; his role was often maintaining relative balance. That said, he was also depicted as cold and stern, and he held all of his subjects equally accountable to his laws. Any other individual aspects of his personality are not given, as Greeks refrained from giving him much thought to avoid attracting his attention.
Hades ruled the dead, assisted by others over whom he had complete authority. The House of Hades was described as full of “guests,” though he rarely left the Underworld. He cared little about what happened in the Upperworld, as his primary attention was ensuring none of his subjects ever left.
He strictly forbade his subjects to leave his domain and would become quite enraged when anyone tried to leave, or if someone tried to steal the souls from his realm. His wrath was equally terrible for anyone who tried to cheat death or otherwise crossed him, as Sisyphus and Pirithous found out to their sorrow. While usually indifferent to his subjects, Hades was very focused on the punishment of these two people; particularly Pirithous, as he entered the underworld in an attempt to steal Persephone for himself, and consequently was forced onto the “Chair of Forgetfulness”. Another myth is about the Roman god Asclepius who was originally a demigod, fathered by Apollo and birthed by Coronis, a Thessalian princess. During his lifetime, he became a famous and talented physician, who eventually was able to bring the dead back to life. Feeling cheated, Plouton persuaded Zeus to kill him with a thunderbolt. After his death, he was brought to Olympus where he became a god.Hades was only depicted outside of the Underworld once in myth, and even that is believed to have been an instance where he had just left the gates of the Underworld, which was when Heracles shot him with an arrow as Hades was attempting to defend the city of Plyus.After he was shot, however, he traveled to Olympus to heal. Besides Heracles, the only other living people who ventured to the Underworld were also heroes: Odysseus, Aeneas (accompanied by the Sibyl), Orpheus, who Hades showed uncharacteristic mercy towards at Persephone’s persuasion, who was moved by Orpheus’ music, Theseus with Pirithous, and, in a late romance, Psyche. None of them were pleased with what they witnessed in the realm of the dead. In particular, the Greek war hero Achilles, whom Odysseus conjured with a blood libation, said:

 

O shining Odysseus, never try to console me for dying.
I would rather follow the plow as thrall to another
man, one with no land allotted to him and not much to live on,
than be a king over all the perished dead.

— Achilles’ soul to Odysseus. Homer, Odyssey 11.488-491 (Lattimore translation)

 

Cult
Hades, as the god of the dead, was a fearsome figure to those still living; in no hurry to meet him, they were reluctant to swear oaths in his name, and averted their faces when sacrificing to him. Since to many, simply to say the word “Hades” was frightening, euphemisms were pressed into use. Since precious minerals come from under the earth (i.e., the “underworld” ruled by Hades), he was considered to have control of these as well, and was referred to as Πλούτων (Plouton, related to the word for “wealth”), Latinized as Pluto. Sophocles explained the notion of referring to Hades as “the rich one” with these words: “the gloomy Hades enriches himself with our sighs and our tears.” In addition, he was called Clymenus (“notorious”), Polydegmon (“who receives many”), and perhaps Eubuleus (“good counsel” or “well-intentioned”), all of them euphemisms for a name that was unsafe to pronounce, which evolved into epithets.

 

He spent most of the time in his dark realm. Formidable in battle, he proved his ferocity in the famous Titanomachy, the battle of the Olympians versus the Titans, which established the rule of Zeus.

 

Feared and loathed, Hades embodied the inexorable finality of death: “Why do we loathe Hades more than any god, if not because he is so adamantine and unyielding?” The rhetorical question is Agamemnon’s. He was not, however, an evil god, for although he was stern, cruel, and unpitying, he was still just. Hades ruled the Underworld and was therefore most often associated with death and feared by men, but he was not Death itself — the actual embodiment of Death was Thanatos, although Euripides’ play “Alkestis” states fairly clearly that Thanatos and Hades were one and the same deity, and gives an interesting description of him as dark-cloaked and winged; moreover, Hades was also referred to as “Hesperos Theos” (“God of Death and Darkness”)

 

When the Greeks propitiated Hades, they banged their hands on the ground to be sure he would hear them.[33] Black animals, such as sheep, were sacrificed to him, and the very vehemence of the rejection of human sacrifice expressed in myth suggests an unspoken memory of some distant past.[citation needed] The blood from all chthonic sacrifices including those to propitiate Hades dripped into a pit or cleft in the ground. The person who offered the sacrifice had to avert his face.

 

One ancient source says that he possessed the Cap of invisibility. His chariot, drawn by four black horses, made for a fearsome and impressive sight. His other ordinary attributes were the narcissus and cypress plants, the Key of Hades and Cerberus, the three-headed dog.In certain portraits, snakes also appeared to be attributed to Hades as he was occasionally portrayed to be either holding them or accompanied by them. This is believed to hold significance as in certain classical sources Hades ravished Kore in the guise of a snake, who went on to give birth to Zagreus-Dionysus. While bearing the name ‘Zeus’, Zeus Olympios, the great king of the gods, noticeably differs from the Zeus Meilichios, a decidedly Chthonian character, often portrayed as a snake, and as seen beforehand, they cannot be different manifestations of the same god, in fact whenever ‘another Zeus’ is mentioned, this always refers to Hades. Zeus Meilichios and Zeus Eubouleus are often referred to being alternate names for Hades.

 

The philosopher Heraclitus, unifying opposites, declared that Hades and Dionysus, the very essence of indestructible life (zoë), are the same god. Among other evidence Kerényi notes that the grieving goddess Demeter refused to drink wine, which is the gift of Dionysus, after Persephone’s abduction, because of this association, and suggests that Hades may in fact have been a “cover name” for the underworld Dionysus. He suggests that this dual identity may have been familiar to those who came into contact with the Mysteries. One of the epithets of Dionysus was “Chthonios”, meaning “the subterranean”. The role of unifying Hades, Zeus and Dionysus as a single tripartite god was used to represent the birth, death and resurrection of a deity and to unify the ‘shining’ realm of Zeus and the dark underworld realm of Hades

 

Artistic representations
Hades was depicted so infrequently in artwork, as well as mythology, because the Greeks were so afraid of him. His artistic representations, which are generally found in Archaic pottery, are not even concretely thought of as the deity; however at this point in time it is heavily believed that the figures illustrated are indeed Hades. He was later presented in the classical arts in the depictions of the Rape of Persephone. Within these illustrations, Hades was often young, yet he was also shown as varying ages in other works.Due to this lack of depictions, there weren’t very strict guidelines when representing the deity.On pottery, he has a dark beard and is presented as a stately figure on an “ebony throne.” His attributes in art include a scepter, cornucopia, rooster, and a key, which both represented his control over the underworld and acted as a reminder that the gates of the Underworld were always locked so that souls could not leave. Even if the doors were open, Cerberus, the three-headed guard dog of the Underworld, ensured that while all souls were allowed to enter into The Underworld freely, none could ever escape. The dog is often portrayed next to the god as a means of easy identification, since no other deity relates to it so directly. Sometimes, artists painted Hades as looking away from the other gods, as he was disliked by them as well as humans.

 

As Plouton, he was regarded in a more positive light. He holds a cornucopia, representing the gifts he bestows upon people as well as fertility, which he becomes connected to.

 

Persephone

Persephone and Hades: tondo of an Attic red-figured kylix, ca. 440–430 BC
The consort of Hades was Persephone, represented by the Greeks as the beautiful daughter of Demeter.

 

Persephone did not submit to Hades willingly, but was abducted by him while picking flowers in the fields of Nysa. In protest of his act, Demeter cast a curse on the land and there was a great famine; though, one by one, the gods came to request she lift it, lest mankind perish, she asserted that the earth would remain barren until she saw her daughter again. Finally, Zeus intervened; via Hermes, he requested that Hades return Persephone. Hades complied,

 

But he on his part secretly gave her sweet pomegranate seed to eat, taking care for himself that she might not remain continually with grave, dark-robed Demeter.— Homeric Hymn to Demeter

 

Demeter questioned Persephone on her return to light and air:

…but if you have tasted food, you must go back again beneath the secret places of the earth, there to dwell a third part of the seasons every year: yet for the two parts you shall be with me and the other deathless gods.

— Homeric Hymn to Demeter

 

This bound her to Hades and the Underworld, much to the dismay of Demeter. It is not clear whether Persephone was accomplice to the ploy. Zeus proposed a compromise, to which all parties agreed: of the year, Persephone would spend one third with her husband.

 

It is during this time that winter casts on the earth “an aspect of sadness and mourning.”

 

Theseus and Pirithous
Theseus and Pirithous pledged to kidnap and marry daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen and together they kidnapped her and decided to hold onto her until she was old enough to marry. Pirithous chose Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus’ mother, Aethra, and traveled to the Underworld. Hades knew of their plan to capture his wife, so he pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast; as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there. Theseus was eventually rescued by Heracles but Pirithous remain

ed trapped as punishment for daring to seek the wife of a god for his own.

 

Heracles
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c. 340 BC
Heracles’ final labour was to capture Cerberus. First, Heracles went to Eleusis to be initiated into the Eleusinian Mysteries. He did this to absolve himself of guilt for killing the centaurs and to learn how to enter and exit the underworld alive. He found the entrance to the underworld at Taenarum. Athena and Hermes helped him through and back from Hades. Heracles asked Hades for permission to take Cerberus. Hades agreed as long as Heracles didn’t harm Cerberus. When Heracles dragged the dog out of Hades, he passed through the cavern Acherusia.

 

Minthe
The nymph Minthe, associated with the river Cocytus, loved by Hades, was turned into the mint plant, by a jealous Persephone.

 

Realm of Hades
In older Greek myths, the realm of Hades is the misty and gloomy abode of the dead (also called Erebus) where all mortals go when they die. Very few mortals could leave Hades once they entered. The exceptions, Heracles and Theseus, are heroic. Even Odysseus in his Nekyia (Odyssey, xi) calls up the spirits of the departed, rather than descend to them. Later Greek philosophy introduced the idea that all mortals are judged after death and are either rewarded or cursed.

 

There were several sections of the realm of Hades, including Elysium, the Asphodel Meadows, and Tartarus. Greek mythographers were not perfectly consistent about the geography of the afterlife. A contrasting myth of the afterlife concerns the Garden of the Hesperides, often identified with the Isles of the Blessed, where the blessed heroes may dwell.

 

In Roman mythology, the entrance to the Underworld located at Avernus, a crater near Cumae, was the route Aeneas used to descend to the realm of the dead. By synecdoche, “Avernus” could be substituted for the underworld as a whole. The di inferi were a collective of underworld divinities.

 

For Hellenes, the deceased entered the underworld by crossing the Styx, ferried across by Charon kair’-on), who charged an obolus, a small coin for passage placed in the mouth of the deceased by pious relatives. Paupers and the friendless gathered for a hundred years on the near shore according to Book VI of Vergil’s Aeneid. Greeks offered propitiatory libations to prevent the deceased from returning to the upper world to “haunt” those who had not given them a proper burial. The far side of the river was guarded by Cerberus, the three-headed dog defeated by Heracles (Roman Hercules). Passing beyond Cerberus, the shades of the departed entered the land of the dead to be judged.

 

The five rivers of the realm of Hades, and their symbolic meanings, are Acheron (the river of sorrow, or woe), Cocytus (lamentation), Phlegethon (fire), Lethe (oblivion), and Styx (hate), the river upon which even the gods swore and in which Achilles was dipped to render him invincible. The Styx forms the boundary between the upper and lower worlds. See also Eridanos.

 

The first region of Hades comprises the Fields of Asphodel, described in Odyssey xi, where the shades of heroes wander despondently among lesser spirits, who twitter around them like bats. Only libations of blood offered to them in the world of the living can reawaken in them for a time the sensations of humanity.

 

Beyond lay Erebus, which could be taken for a euphonym of Hades, whose own name was dread. There were two pools, that of Lethe, where the common souls flocked to erase all memory, and the pool of Mnemosyne (“memory”), where the initiates of the Mysteries drank instead. In the forecourt of the palace of Hades and Persephone sit the three judges of the Underworld: Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus. There at the trivium sacred to Hecate, where three roads meet, souls are judged, returned to the Fields of Asphodel if they are neither virtuous nor evil, sent by the road to Tartarus if they are impious or evil, or sent to Elysium (Islands of the Blessed) with the “blameless” heroes.

 

In the Sibylline oracles, a curious hodgepodge of Greco-Roman and Judaeo-Christian elements, Hades again appears as the abode of the dead, and by way of folk etymology, it even derives Hades from the name Adam (the first man), saying it is because he was the first to enter there. Owing to its appearance in the New Testament of the Bible, Hades also has a distinct meaning in Christianity.

 

Sources:
N.S. Gill Published On ThoughtCo

Ancient sources for Hades include Apollodorus, Cicero, Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus, Ovid, Pausanias, Statius, and Strabo.
Wikipedia

Study of Pagan Gods and Goddesses: Mars, Roman God of War

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Mars, Roman God of War

Mars is the Roman god of war, and scholars say he was one of the most commonly worshiped deities in ancient Rome. Because of the nature of Roman society, nearly every healthy patrician male had some connection to the military, so it is logical that Mars was highly revered throughout the Empire.

Early History and Worship

In early incarnations, Mars was a fertility god, and a protector of cattle. As time went on, his role as an earth god expanded to include death and the underworld, and finally battle and war.

He is known as the father of twins Romulus and Remus, by the Vestal virgin Rhea Silvia. As the father of the men who later founded the city, Roman citizens often referred to themselves as “sons of Mars.”

Before going into battle, Roman soldiers often gathered at the temple of Mars Ultor (the avenger) on the Forum Augustus. The military also had a special training center dedicated to Mars, called the Campus Martius, where soldiers drilled and studied. Great horseraces were held at the Campus Martius, and after it was over, one of the horses of the winning team was sacrificed in Mars’ honor. The head was removed, and became a coveted prize among the spectators.

Festivals and Celebrations

The month of March is named in his honor, and several festivals each year were dedicated to Mars. Each year the Feriae Marti was held, beginning on the Kalends of March and continuing until the 24th. Dancing priests, called the Salii, performed elaborate rituals over and over again, and a sacred fast took place for the last nine days.

The dance of the Salii was complex, and involved a lot of jumping, spinning and chanting. On March 25, the celebration of Mars ended and the fast was broken at the celebration of the Hilaria, in which all the priests partook in an elaborate feast.

During the Suovetaurilia, held every five years, bulls, pigs and sheep were sacrificed in Mars’ honor.

This was part of an elaborate fertility ritual, designed to bring prosperity to the harvest. Cato the Elder wrote that as the sacrifice was made, the following invocation was called out:

“Father Mars, I pray and beseech thee
that thou be gracious and merciful to me,
my house, and my household;
to which intent I have bidden this suovetaurilia
to be led around my land, my ground, my farm;
that thou keep away, ward off, and remove sickness, seen and unseen,
barrenness and destruction, ruin and unseasonable influence;
and that thou permit my harvests, my grain, my vineyards,
and my plantations to flourish and to come to good issue,
preserve in health my shepherds and my flocks, and
give good health and strength to me, my house, and my household.
To this intent, to the intent of purifying my farm,
my land, my ground, and of making an expiation, as I have said,
deign to accept the offering of these suckling victims;
Father Mars, to the same intent deign to accept
the offering of these suckling offering.”

Mars the Warrior

As a warrior god, Mars is typically depicted in full battle gear, including a helmet, spear and shield. He is represented by the wolf, and is sometimes accompanied by two spirits known as Timor and Fuga, who personify fear and flight, as his enemies flee before him on the battlefield.

Early Roman writers associated Mars with not only warrior prowess, but virility and power. Because of this, he sometimes is tied to the planting season and agricultural bounty. It is possible that Cato’s invocation above connects the more wild and frenzied aspects of Mars with the need to tame, control and defend the agricultural environment.

In Greek legend, Mars is known as Ares, but was never as popular with the Greeks as he was with the Romans.

The third month of the calendar year, March, was named for Mars, and important ceremonies and festivals, especially those related to military campaigns, were held this month in his honor. Mark Cartwright of Ancient History Encyclopedia says, “These rites may also have been connected to agriculture but the nature of Mars’ role in this area of Roman life is disputed by scholars.”

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Mars

Roman God of War – Mars

Religion was an important part of daily life in Rome. It helped Romans make sense of good and bad things that happened. If terrible things like natural disasters or battle losses occurred, Romans believed it was evidence that the Gods were unhappy with the people of Rome. When good things like a battle victory or a good harvest happened, Romans believed it was evidence of help or approval from the Gods. To keep the Gods happy, Romans often participated in animal sacrifices of lambs, pigs or bulls. At one time, even prisoners of war were offered as human sacrifices, but this practice was discontinued. Romans also held festivals and built temples to celebrate the Gods.

Romans worshiped a pantheon, also thought of as a council, of 12 major gods. These 12 major gods were called the Dii Consentes. This group included six gods and six goddesses. The gods included: JUPITER, Neptune, Mars, Apollo, Vulcan and Mercury. The goddesses were Juno, Minerva, Venus, Diana, Vesta and Ceres. Jupiter ruled over the Pantheon.

In fact, the famous Pantheon in Rome was dedicated to the ROMAN GODS. The exact purpose of the building is unknown. Though it has been used as a church, historians are unsure of whether ancient Romans actually worshiped there. The Pantheon was built by the consul Agrippa between 27 B.C. and 25 B.C.

In Roman religion, Mars was a very important god. His role was second only to Jupiter, the leader of the pantheon. Mars was the son of the God Jupiter and the Goddess Juno. His father, Jupiter, was the God of the sky and thunder. Jupiter was considered the chief, or central, guardian of Rome and was often considered to be witness to solemn oaths such as those undertaken by government officials or soldiers. His mother, Juno, was the protector of Roman women and was the patron Goddess of Rome. Both his mother and father were renowned for strength and protection. Mars himself was the god of war and was, himself, seen as protector of the Roman Army. He was thought to be difficult, argumentative and unpopular among the gods, but was revered by men; especially soldiers. It was even reported that Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus, the twin brothers who were the founders of Rome.

Mars was known as the Roman god of war. He was said to love the violence and conflict. His persona represented military power and the noise and blood of battle. Since he was the father of Romulus and Remus it was believed he would come to the aid of Rome during times of conflict or war. He was the patron God of soldiers and was worshiped prior to battle. Soldiers in the Roman Army prayed to Mars before battle, asking that he might fight on their side. Soldiers hoped that their prayers would appeal to Mars and that he would protect them in battle and lead them to victory. They believed that ultimately it was Mars who decided who would win any battle. All aspects of war in Rome were associated with the God Mars. This did not only apply to military campaigns of conquest. Mars was said to protect cities from invading armies and help soldiers crush rebellion as well.

As the God of War, Mars had many symbols associated with him. The most recognizable was The Ancile. The Ancile was his sacred shield. Legend has it that this shield fell from heaven during the rule of Pompilius. It was said that if the shield remained in the city, Rome would be safe. Priests were commissioned to protect the shield and eleven copies were made, reportedly to confuse would-be thieves. The group of 12 ancilla were used in rituals. Mars was often depicted clothed on bronze armor. He carried a spear that was often depicted as covered in blood.

Other symbols surrounding the God of War included a burning torch, a vulture, dog, woodpecker, eagle and owl. Mars was a strong god and rode a chariot drawn by fire-breathing horses. The names of his horses were Aithon, Phlogios, Konabos and Phobos. Aithon means red fire, Phlogios means flame, Konabos means tumult – which is a loud confusing noise – and Phobos means fear.

Mars was celebrated twice a year in March and October. The old Roman calendar began with mensis Martius. This translates to Mars’ Month. This is what the month of March is named for. The Salii – the priests who protected and carried the ancilia – celebrated the new year on the first day of March by dressing and dancing in battle armor. This was said to be when Mars was born. Also in March, the twelve Salii carried the ancilia around the city in a parade with war trumpets, stopping at different sacred locations along the way.

Festivities complete with trumpets, dancing, feasts and sacrifices continued throughout the month of March. On the 23rd, The Tubilustrium festival was held in Mars’ honor in the Atrium Sutorium. This date was chosen because it coincided with the start of the military campaign season. This group of festivals and celebrations were called the Feriae Marti.

In February and March, horse races were held at the Campus Martius outside the walls of Rome in honor of Mars. These races were said to have been started by Romulus. In October, Mars’ parents Jupiter and Juno were celebrated. On the Ides – or 14th – of October, one of the winning horses from the races was sacrificed in honor of Mars for his continued protection.

As a nation of conquest and war, Gods such as Mars were important to Rome. It was believed that he kept enemies of the state at bay and protected the divine right of the state’s rule. At different times in history, he meant different things to the people. He was a military deity as Rome conquered its neighbors and a protector in times of peace.

Eventually, Mars became not just the protector of Rome, but the guardian and avenger of Emperor Caesar himself.

Reference
Patti Wigington, ThoughtCo.com

– Greek Gods & Goddesses, February 22, 2017  Mars: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net