5 Ways to Tell if you are a Water Witch

 

5 Ways to Tell if you are a Water Witch

So you are a witch and you love the water! In fact you might even be a just a little obsessed with it. You tend to find yourself walking the shores and collecting river rock and sea shells. If you tend to work with spirits that are associated with the water and worship goddesses born of the waves then chances are you are a Water Witch. Water Witchcraft is a “genre” of witchcraft that honors and derives its power from the water. Sea witches have a long history in both ancient and more modern folk and mythic stories. So if you are drawn to the water and witchcraft here are 5 ways to know if your genre of witchcraft is Water Witch or Sea Witch.

1) You Spend time with the water!

Do you spend time near the water? Great! That is the first step to an active Water Witch practice! Becoming one with the energies of the water, be it the ocean, river, or lake, is an important part of being a Water Witch. If you haven’t spent time by a bubbling brook or a raging ocean what are you waiting for? Studies show that spending time near the ocean is good for your health! It’s going to be good for your Witchcraft too! No doubt walking the shores of a river or the ocean in a light meditative state while opening up and listening to the water is a going to deepen your connection with water!

If you are a land locked Sea Witch try getting a friend to send you a bottle of sea water from your favorite ocean. If you are a home bound Water Witch, try working with the water that you can access from your home! Water can be stored in clean glass jars and placed on your altar!

2) You give offerings and do rituals by the Water!

Witches do spells and rituals! That much we can agree on right? Well Water Witches do them too! You may find a Sea Witch drawing sigils in the sand or collecting sea water! You may find a River Witch meditating in a quite space under low hanging trees over a rippling river. Flowers are often found on the beach, remnants of a ritual that was performed there before, however they can often be problematic, and other offerings can often be toxic to the environment. The best offering we can give the Water is to keep it clean, collect trash, help keep the waters clean and send healing spells to the water. More about offerings here

3) You Collect Water!

Witches in general tend to have many boxes, bags, and bottles! But Water Witches tend to have more bottles and jars than anything! Why? Well they hold the various waters we work with! A witch’s cabinet is just as unique as the witch varying with their tradition and path. In it you may find various jars of water including, ocean water, muddy water, rain water, full moon water, holy water, water from various sacred springs and local water sources, florida water, war water, floral essences, gem essences and other strange watery concoctions!

4) You Make Magic Waters!

There are so many different types of magical waters to work with, however a basic skill every water witch needs is how to create holy water! Every witch has their own way; some with a hag stone, salt or silver, others charge water from a sacred spring or under the full moon as a basic water to empower their spells and rituals. Holy water is also useful in cleansing and purification rites and learning how to make your own will be useful in case you wanted to take a sacred bath in a tub of holy water! Because Water Witches love their sacred baths too!

5) You work with a Water or Ocean Spirit, God or Guide!

Depending on your path you most likely work with some type of spirit. Spirits come in many forms, Godlike, ancestral, angelic, demonic, animal, Faery, plant, etc. Most pantheons have water spirits! Even the Ancestral realm has extinct water creatures such as the Megalodon or mythological sea monsters. You could also explore working with the spirit of a pirate or Davey Jones Locker. There are Water Faery and Gods abound and are too numerous to list with each pantheon having multiple deities! Chances are that you have a shrine or altar space that is watery in nature or even dedicated to the water or a water god/ess. Or perhaps a collection of prized sea shells intermingled with candles that are more to you than decoration.

There are many other ways to be a water witch and these are not mutually exclusive and there are many other ways to incorporate water into your practice. Divination may play a large roll in your practice or perhaps it is ritual for you. You may be an energy worker practicing on the sea shore, it doesn’t matter really! It just matters that you are doing the work and following your own path. I do hope you enjoyed the article and a fun way of categorizing Water Witch traits!

 

ANNWYN AVALON, Author
Published on Patheos

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Balancing the Elements: a Water and Sea Witch guide to finding balance with the elements

Balancing the Elements: a Water and Sea Witch guide to finding balance with the elements

It would be silly to think that someone who calls themselves a water witch works ONLY with the water element. This would make for a very unbalanced practice! Rather Water or Sea Witches work with all the elements through their particular path which is deeply connected to water. A Water Witch may call themselves Water or Sea witch because they derive their power from the Waters or the Spirits that dwell with in it.

Working with Air
Water Witches can work with air in conjunction with water. While I personally don’t resonate with Air as well as I do the other elements, it can still be worked with and incorporated into a balanced practice. There are many stories of Witches having the power to control the wind and weather; many times these stories are about Sea Witches or witches that could be classified as Sea Witches based on where they live. An old folk spell Sea Witches have been recorded as being responsible for, is selling knots to Sailors. Each knot holding the power to release different strengths of wind.

“For the right price, witches supplied sailors with a cord having three knots. When becalmed, untying the first knot was thought to produce a light breeze, undoing the second produced a moderate wind, and the third a strong breeze. Scottish fishermen were known to buy knotted handkerchiefs of wind sorceress, the desired strength of the wind could be obtained by slowly undoing the knot. Once loosened, the knot was useless and for additional winds another purchase was required. If a sailor found a knot in a painter, he could expect a long voyage. When a sailor referred to “tying a knot in the devil’s tail,” he was relating to the “well done” completion of a difficult task.”

Another good example of Water Witches having the power to control the weather and raise up storms is the Gallicanae from the Island of Sena. Here we have a group of 9 priestess with magical powers who are clearly connected to the sea but also have the power to change the winds and work with water in conjunction with air.

“Sena in the British sea, opposite the Ofismician coast, is remarkable for an oracle of the Gallic God. Its priestesses, holy in perpetual virginity, are said to be nine in number. They are called Gallicenae, and are thought to be endowed with singular powers, so as to raise by their charms the winds and seas, to turn themselves into what animals they will, to cure wounds and diseases incurable by others, to know and predict the future; but this they do only to navigators who go thither purposely to consult them.”

In a modern practice, one can look to wisdom from water birds, work with knots as above, charge water in a singing bowls using voice and vibration to charge waters, and can engage in spirit flight using water as a portal to the other world.

Working with Fire

Working with Fire is actually quite fun when working water magic. Fire can heat our cauldrons, and be the catalyst for change, a flame can be lit at a sacred well or near a river. Floating candles can be used to merge the powers of water and fire and holy water can be used to anoint candles. Additionally, there are several European Goddesses that are associated with Fire and Water; Bride, Sulis and Nantosuelta are a few. Grannus is a masculine deity that is also associated with Fire and Natural Springs. Many cultures across the world combine water and fire together by lighting candles and setting them afloat on small rafts of herbs or wreaths. A Water Witch that is particularly connected to springs and wells will find many ways to honor and work with water and fire together. A popular tradition is well dressings, and candles as well as flowers and other offerings are used to decorate the sacred space on holy days.

In a modern practice candles can be anointed with holy water or used to light a ritual bath. Floating candles can be used in a bowl or one can Scry by candle light. Candles are a staple in every witches tool bag, and Water Witches use them as well, though our collection might be heavy on the blue and green side!

Working with Earth

Earth and Water are very compatible and often are used together. Floral essences, Herbal Teas, and Gem elixirs are quick and easy ways to combine earth and water magic together.

The earth is the vessel in which the water is held, both symbolically in the alchemical symbol and actually in the physical world. Our physical bodies which represent earth are filled with water and in a way is a vessel. The earth contains water and while it does not necessarily control it, it holds it, and houses it giving it a structure in which to rest or rage.

For the Sea Witch shells, sand, and drift wood would be earth representations and a beautiful way to combine water and earth. There is nothing more beautiful than a piece of smooth driftwood that washes up at your feet. Water and Earth work together to transform the environment around it; river rocks and beach agates smoothed and tumbled by nature are other good examples of water and earth together.

Witches that work with rivers can connect to the earth with river rock, hag stones and the muddy parts of the shore. Bath salts can also be considered an earth element and are a wonderful edition to any bath!

Dew has much folklore and recorded magical uses, a popular one being collecting dew on May Day from the Hawthorn tree. For the most part Dew relies on plants and grasses to hold its delicate watery form. Again a perfect example of combining the elements.

Working with all the elements is important in any magical practice, and for those of us that are watery it is always good to reach towards a more grounding element in tough times. When our waters need to be stirred up reach towards air and when you need to heat up or become passionate about something working with Fire can be beneficial. Finding balance is important, and so is honoring all the elements even if our home is in the waters!

 

ANNWYN AVALON, Author
Published on Patheos

The Path Of The Water Witch

The Path Of The Water Witch

 

Water Witches are sometimes called Sea Witches, but many of them find a calling with inland creeks, rivers, and lakes. It is rare for them to limit themselves to any one type of body of water. They generally align with all forms, including rain.

In most mythologies, human sprang from the Earth, but the gods themselves came from water. Egyptian theory states that the sun god Re was born from the primordial waters. Today, scientists can back that theory, NASA scientists theorize that water exists in heavy quantities in the universe. It works as a coolant. The water vapors in outer space for the condensing of clouds. Once a cloud condenses enough, it becomes a star.

Water reflects, the Water Witch does the same. If you yell at her, she will yell back at you. If you are kind to her well, she will be kind and treat you well in return. She is very fair. She shares many qualities with her sister Earth Witch, as the Earth is 90 percent water. Among those qualities is the core belief of taking complete responsibility for her actions. The Water Witch accepts that every move she makes can cause ripples across the surface of the water and moves accordingly.

Water is considered a feminine force, and the Water Witch may prefer an alliance with the Goddess, all the while recognizing and maintaining that the God is within the Goddess. She cans sometimes relate closely to Dianic Witches in this preference.

The Water Witch can see things that those on other paths cannot. In fact, the human sense of sight belongs in her realm. Just as the seas teem with life that we have yet to discover and understand, the Water Witch know s that there is much more to our world than what is within our eyesight! While she can be highly superstitious, for the most part she simply knows that there is more just waiting to be discovered, as well as some things that humanity has known about and forgotten over the ages. The old phrase “out of the blue” speaks volumes about the ability of the Water Witch to tune in to her intuition. She is often very gifted in divination practices. Tarot is usually her divinatory tool of choice, but she also has a talent for dowsing.

The Water Witch sees little that she considers an obstacle. She understands that her fate is in her hands, and if she cannot flow through something, she will flow around it. Once her mind is made up, very little can stop her from obtaining what she wants. Because water exists in three forms on Earth, The Water Witch can be considered a formidable force. She will not admit to any weaknesses.

The Water Witch has a close link to the feminine side of nature. She understands reproduction and is akin to her sister Earth Witch in this manner as well. Menstruation falls in the realm of the Water Witch. Because of this, she is instrumental in moon-lodge practices and coming-of-age rites. Her sister Earth Witch may focus more on the rebirth cycle, while the Water Witch is more in touch with creation.

The Water Witch specializes in healing, cleansing, beauty, emotions, intuition and energy. Her magickal style is usually based on instinct. If the feeling hits her to perform a cleansing, she will. She does not necessarily worry about correspondences and timing. Her timing is completely her own–she will not be rushed by others into decisions or action. Schooled in water magick, ice magick and snow magick, the Water Witch can tell you all about the role of water in the metaphysical and physical realms.

Winter is the season when the Water Witch’s power is at its peak. She holds within herself the ability to transform fluidity to solid form during the winter, the same way that water turns to ice. It is during this season that the Water Witch should turn her view inward and evaluate her goals. She often redefines herself through the process. Because of this, a Water Witch grows stronger every year. She understands that just as dry ice is sticky, it is her role to hold thing together.

Throughout the winter months, the Water Witch is abnormally busy, even for her active lifestyle. Because she is at her highest power and incarnated in all three of her forms during these months, she may be short of temper. When you add to that the fact that artificial heat (fire, an evaporating influence on water) is usually pumped into the home during this time and families tend to be cooped up in the same space, you may have one cranky, stressed-out Water Witch on your hands. She longs for room to spread out and flow. A simple snowfall can ease her mind and soothe her spirit; she draws strength from it. If that is not an option, a long bath or a cup of hot tea usually helps. Rest assured that if you visit her in the winter months, she will be a very gracious hostess, regardless of the timing. The Water Witch is known for her generous hospitality.

Her home décor is usually unthemed, with whimsy being the main rule. The Water Witch may have a quirky collection of glass objects, prisms (she tends to like sparkly things), tons of throw pillows and an aquarium. Cool blues and greens are often primary colors in both her wardrobe and her home.

Due to her busy lifestyle, the Water Witch frequently has to let the housework slide somewhat. Although she prefers all things to be clean, she also understands that there must be “salt in the sea.” In other words, a small amount of dirt is inevitable, and she is able to live with that comfortably. She absolutely cannot stand clutter, though. It drives her to distraction.

Another common trait of the Water Witch is a quirky sense of humor. It simply cannot be defined. Some of the things she says seem to come from outer space in their relation to the topic, yet they can make you laugh as nothing else will. This is intentional–the Water Witch is lighthearted. But just when you begin to think she has never had a deep thought in her life, she will prove you wrong. When it comes to serious conversation, the Water Witch can often put her finger on an aspect of the situation that the other Elemental Witches do not see. The Water Witch is very wise.

Like her mythical brethren the mermaids and water nymphs, the Water Wise tends to love long hair. She may keep it pulled back in a ponytail due to a lack of time, but she lets it grow nonetheless. The effects that water has on the body are directly in line with the metaphysical attributes of the Water Witch. Usually beautiful, she is often younger looking in appearance than in age and has a long memory and attention span and bright, shining eyes.

Because the Water Witch always considers every side of an argument before making up her mind, she may be slow to assume a position. Rest assured that when a Water Witch states her opinion., it has been well thought out. She open-minded and fair. Her strength lies in her dual nature an a ability to see the points or view of others. And like water, she will find her way into all of the small nooks and crannies of a situation. She may initially choose an answer based on instinct but if new facts come to light, she will often change her mind. She is flexible.

Those on the water path often find a calling in helping others. They make wonderful therapists, psychiatrists, obstetricians, pediatricians or service personnel. Often people are attracted to their soothing nature and come to them for advice. Like a waterbed, a reflecting pool , or a relaxing bath, Water Witches project an aura of serenity and comfort.

The Water Witch may be seen as moody, but like the sea herself, she is often in motion. She rarely slows down She is full of energy and always on the go. And like the sea, her moods swing with the tides. The moon holds sway over the tides, and one can easily draw a parallel between the moon and the Water Witch’s emotional patterns.

 

From the book, Elemental Witch
Author: Tammy Sullivan

Water Witchcraft – Water Witches

Water Witchcraft

Water Witches

Most people are familiar with sea witches and sea witchcraft. It seems as if, like the village witch, the sea witch has been recognized as a solitary powerful path by the general community. Of course sea witchcraft is not limited to solitary practitioners, as I know of a few sea witch covens around the globe, but often times sea witches are inclined to carve their own path, similar to the way a river might carve it’s own path through stones. Water witches, like the Sea Witch, are drawn to the water. Water witches are drawn not only to the ocean, but they feel and must answer the call of river water, lake water, canals and even the rain. Like the sea, these bodies of water are seductresses. They pull at our heart strings and torture our spirit; pining and raging like an ocean in a storm. I have heard whispers of those that say they have Mermaid or Selkie blood and also of those that have had past lives as such creatures; perhaps they are true and perhaps it is just the seduction of the mysterious waters. What is known, is that the water calls to us, it pulls us in and we feel empty and lost with out it.

A water witch is simply one that works witchcraft with water. Over the years I have found some that are skeptical, and others that deeply understand my words. It is very interesting that Sea Witches seem to be accepted by the pagan world, but Water Witches are not. However, with the recent publishing of Whist Waters by Gemma Gary, it seems as if the Witchcraft community is finally interested in accepting Water Witchcraft as well. It makes sense; water is everywhere. It is not just the ocean or large lakes, it is the rain, the swamps, large rivers and seasonal streams etc. Water is essential to our life; we cannot go without water for longer than a few days without death. Our bodies are made up of a considerable portion of water. We know from Dr Masaru Emoto’s work with water (which I will discuss below) that even the slightest word can create a change in water, and how that word is spoken influences the outcome of that change. When we put these thoughts about water and change together with the definition of magic…

Magic is…

“the science and art of causing Change to occur in conformity with will”
~Aleister Crowley~

“the art of changing consciousness in accordance with will”
~Doreen Valiente~

We end up with a very clear picture of how powerful water magic can be. In short, since we know that words and intent influence the structure of a water molecule and that magic is change according to will and will and intent are almost synonymous then we have a basic formula for Water magic. Intent + water = a visual change. In a way, we can even see the magic take place!

When we look at Water Magic as a practice, utilizing it in either small (rain, wells, etc) or large quantities (lakes, ocean etc), it is very clear that chanting, spells, incantations, sigils, and many more magical practices can be incorporated and the result is incredibly powerful. For hundreds of years Holy Wells have been revered for their powers of both cursing and healing. Such bodies of water include the famous hot springs at Bath. The hot baths, shrines and a temple dedicated to Sulis, the Goddess that presides over the hot springs, are known to heal, but are also known for its curse tablets, where over 300 were found. Many bodies of water like the Glastonbury red and white wells contain their own properties which are enhanced by the calcium and iron deposits. For hundreds of years Clootie have been hung over sacred wells in the UK. This was practiced widely from Wales to Scottland and still is today. The famous Mother Shipton, witch and oracle, lived by a sacred spring and can still be visited today. Not suprisingly her name is Ursula Southeil (interesting connection to Disney’s little mermaid!) As you can see both Folklore and Science support the idea of water magic.

Water Witchcraft, as I stated before, is very similar to Sea Magic and Sea Witchcraft. Sea Witches usually stick to the sea shore, however water witches will be found just about everywhere. Near lakes, rivers, holy wells etc. Tools are usually gathered from the shoreline and oftentimes shells, driftwood, and plants are their tools of choice. Water Witches will most often blend Sea magic with their craft. Focusing on tides, moon cycles, and so much more. Since there is no specific Water Tradition (with one exception) you will find that most sea/water witches practice very differently. Some incorporate water and sea spirits, fae or deity into their practice, while others believe that there is no religion associated with their practice at all. These topics are very popular in the pagan community and chat boards, and though they do influence water/sea magic, they are not a topic I am going to discuss here and for one very simple reason; No one will ever agree! Water witches will also find that they differ in their beliefs, the one thing that binds us together is Water in her many forms. For me, a Water witch’s practice can be defined by Magic that is focused around water, water creatures living and dead, spirits that are associated with water, and if one wishes Goddess and Gods associated with Water.

** The one exception in tradition I mention above is The Water Witches in the UK. There is very limited information on them however. They are part of a group of people that were very much like gypsies, but their homes were floating barges. There is no particular tradition and with limited information it is hard to say how they practiced. However what we do know is they were wandering people of the industrial revolution that lived on the water canals in the UK. Many people still live this way today, but I am not sure if they exist in the same manner. I call this a tradition because it was a group of people that practiced for years in a similar way, and many were family. You can read about my own adventures on these mysterious canals here.

There are many different types of water; fresh water lakes and the ocean are not the only types and many hold as much power and mystery such as the muddy waters of the Uk Canals, sacred wells, and swamps. Many sea witches work with brackish water and so do water witches. There is so much magic in the brackish waters of the Calvert cliffs. Large Megolodon teeth can be found on the shores, and stingrays swim circles in the early morning on the calm glassy surface of the pale blue and gold water with the sun rising in the east. The shores are full of healing and death, with yarrow growing among the poison hemlock on the banks of the shore speaking of balance and bane. Large predators once roamed the waters and the stings of the jellyfish are fierce. Oh how glorious to watch the storm come across the waters…

Swamp water is also full of mystery and poison. Toads, snakes and spiders lurk with in the grooves of a hollowed cypress tree, tall nubs of the cypress trees roots peek above the surface of the waters. Swamp waters can be found all over the world. Most commonly known would be the Florida Everglades and the Bayou of Louisiana. Any type of magic you can imagine can be practiced in this type of water, from natural magic to voodoo. However I will say, I do not think that ceremonial magic would be suited for this type of environment

Lakes and Fountains hold so much mystery and mythology. The Lady of the lake has to be the most famous account of water magic taking place in a lake. There are several tales of Ladies of the Fountain and Lake Ladies and their magical gardens, healing powers, and bargains.

Rain, Snow, Hail and storm energy in general is very interesting to work with as well. I personally collect water everywhere I go. Often times I label and date it with what type of storm it was. As you can imagine, a summer sun shower would be beautiful warm energy, and hail and a lightning storm pack a VERY powerful punch and can be incorporated into magical workings that need the extra push or used to curse. There is nothing like sitting on the banks of a large body of water, watching a terrible storm roll in. Many water witches enjoy this type of weather, and pull energy from the storm as well as send spells out and let the roaring winds and waters weave the magic.

Types of water you can work with include, sea, brackish, lakes, rivers, distilled, hydrosol, swamps, snow, hail, rain, ponds, canals, seasonal creeks, sacred wells and other bodies of water. Really there is no limit to how you can use water magic! I find that Water Witches are attracted to bottles, bowls, and other vessels. They are often found beach combing or searching the banks of rivers and lakes. Many I have spoken with are drawn to some sort of mythological water spirit or creature such as Mermaids, Selkie, and Lake Ladies. Many love to swim, boat, and are often found in the bath. Interestingly, astrological charts seem to indicate a strong lean towards water, often times having a Water rising sign as well as a Watery moon. However this is not a hard fast rule and it does vary. Often times, Water witches are very good at water scrying, divination with shells or bones found along the shoreline. Almost every Sea/Water witch I have met is a bit of a magpie and will collect shells, wood, glass etc from the water and create shrines or water based altars. Many work with tea, sacred baths, healing waters, holy wells, hydrosols, and water based sprays. I will blog more about how to work with different bodies of water and how to work with them in the future.

 

Reference

Annwyn Avalon, Author
Published on The Water Witch

Do You Have A Water Persona?

Water element

Do You Have A Water Persona?

Purifying with water is recommended for people whose water element is unbalanced. This can be expressed in a state of relatively frequent emotional imbalance, mood swings, and emotional instability. Cleansing with water is very suitable for people with water signs – Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces. It is a good idea to focus on the feeling that the water is rinsing off the excess emotional energy. Energetic purification in seawater is also recommended. If you are not near water and feel that you are in need of cleansing, see yourself in your mind’s eye standing under a turbulent waterfall, or bathing into a flowing stream. See how the water washes over your entire body, and feel its coolness and purity. Continue with this visualization for a few minutes.

 
Day-by-Day Wicca: A complete guide to Wicca from Beliefs and Rituals to Magic and Witchcraft (Astrolog Complete Guides)
Tabatha Jennings

Water Magick – Magickal Cleansing Bath

Magickal Cleansing Bath

  • 1 square piece of linen, about 2 x 2 inches
  • Piece of string
  • White sage
  • Rosemary
  • Sea salt

Tie equal portion of the ingredients into the square of linen. Whisper to the sachet your intent to cleanse yourself of all negative energies. Crush the ingredients with your hands. Place the sachet directly under the running water. As you soak in the bath, allow all of the negative things in your life to leave your spirit and flow into the water. When you emerge from the tub, be sure  to bless your new self. It is proper to ask the Goddess to recycle the energies in the water and use them for positive purposes.

Water Magick – Magickal Baths

Magickal Baths

Most Witches partake in magickal bathing. A magickal bath is considered important for cleansing the spirit, the same way regular bathing is for cleansing the body. Magickal baths work best by candlelight, with herbal, oil, and/or salt additions, corresponding to the need. You can also use magickal bathing to allow the water to work on you and impart some of its wisdom to you, through your immersion in it. In this manner, a magickal bath can be used for spell casting.

Water Magick – Wishy Washy

Wishy Washy

Got a wish you want to come true? This is the mixture for you.

You will need:

  • 1 tablespoon sage
  • 1 tablespoon vanilla
  • 1 tablespoon sandalwood

Combine all the ingredients together. Empower each of them as you add them to the mixture. Put them in a pan and place on the stove. Bring to a boil and let boil for 3 minutes. After the mixture has boiled, it is ready to be added to cold wash water. You can bless the mixture as you add it to the wash:

My wishes will come to me,
to take care of myself and my family.
With harm to none and good will to all,
Mother of mine, hear my call.
Bring these desired goals to me,
so that me and mine will blessed be.

Water Magick – Fast Money Wash

Fast Money Wash

  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon
  • 5 cloves
  • 1 tablespoon orange zest
  • 1 teaspoon ginger
  • 1 teaspoon nutmeg
  • 3 drops pine essential oil

Combine all ingredients, empowering them one by one by stating aloud the specific function of each. Bless the ingredients on your altar. Put the mixture in a dark area for a week. Take it out once a day, shake the mixture, bless it and then put it back. It would be best, if at all possible, to bless this mixture under the Full Moon. After a week, you can add the mixture to a bucket of warm water.

The mixture smells fantastic, so be prepared for a very pleasant cleaning experience.