Fertility Deities of Beltane

I feel t is important to remember Lady Abyss as we count down the days until Beltane so I decided to repost an article by her from 2017.

Fertility Deities of Beltane

 

Beltane is a time of great fertility — for the earth itself, for animals, and of course for people as well. This season has been celebrated by cultures going back thousands of years, in a variety of ways, but nearly all shared the fertility aspect. Typically, this is a Sabbat to celebrate gods of the hunt or of the forest, and goddesses of passion and motherhood, as well as agricultural deities. Here are a list of gods and goddesses that can be honored as part of your tradition’s Beltane rituals.

 

Artemis (Greek): The moon goddess Artemis was associated with the hunt and was seen as a goddess of forests and hillsides. This pastoral connection made her a part of spring celebrations in later periods.

 

Bes (Egyptian): Worshiped in later dynasties, Bes was a household protection god, and watched over mothers and young children. He and his wife, Beset, were paired up in rituals to cure problems with infertility.

 

Bacchus (Roman): Considered the equivalent of Greek god Dionysus, Bacchus was the party god — grapes, wine, and general debauchery were his domain. In March each year, Roman women could attend secret ceremonies called the bacchanalia, and he is associated with sexual free-for-alls and fertility.

 

Cernunnos (Celtic): Cernunnos is a horned god found in Celtic mythology. He is connected with male animals, particularly the stag in rut, and this has led him to be associated with fertility and vegetation. Depictions of Cernunnos are found in many parts of the British Isles and western Europe. He is often portrayed with a beard and wild, shaggy hair — he is, after all, the lord of the forest.

 

Flora (Roman): This goddess of spring and flowers had her own festival, Floralia, which was celebrated every year between April 28 to May 3. Romans dressed in bright robes and floral wreaths, and attended theater performances and outdoor shows. Offerings of milk and honey were made to the goddess.

 

Hera (Greek): This goddess of marriage was the equivalent of the Roman Juno, and took it upon herself to bestow good tidings to new brides. A maiden about to marry could make offerings to Hera, in the hopes that she would bless the marriage with fertility. In her earliest forms, she appears to have been a nature goddess, who presides over wildlife and nurses the young animals which she holds in her arms.

 

Kokopelli (Hopi): This flute-playing, dancing spring god carries unborn children upon his own back, and then passes them out to fertile women. In the Hopi culture, he is part of rites that relate to marriage and childbearing, as well as the reproductive abilities of animals. Often portrayed with rams and stags, symbolic of his fertility, Kokopelli occasionally is seen with his consort, Kokopelmana.

 

Pan (Greek): This agricultural god watched over shepherds and their flocks. He was a rustic sort of god, spending lots of time roaming the woods and pastures, hunting and playing music on his flute. Pan is typically portrayed as having the hindquarters and horns of a goat, similar to a faun. Because of his connection to fields and the forest, he is often honored as a spring fertility god.

 

Priapus (Greek): This fairly minor rural god has one giant claim to fame — his permanently erect and enormous phallus. The son of Aphrodite by Dionysus (or possibly Zeus, depending on the source), Priapus was mostly worshiped in homes rather than in an organized cult. Despite his constant lust, most stories portray him as sexually frustrated, or even impotent. However, in agricultural areas he was still regarded as a god of fertility, and at one point he was considered a protective god, who threatened sexual violence against anyone — male or female — who transgressed the boundaries he guarded.

 

Sheela-na-Gig (Celtic): Although the Sheela-na-Gig is technically the name applied to the carvings of women with exaggerated vulvae that have been found in Ireland and England, there’s a theory that the carvings are representative of a lost pre-Christian goddess. Typically, the Sheela-na-Gig adorns buildings in areas of Ireland that were part of the Anglo-Norman conquests in the 12th century. She is shown as a homely woman with a giant yoni, which is spread wide to accept the seed of the male. Folkloric evidence indicates that the figures are theory that the figures were part of a fertility rite, similar to “birthing stones”, which were used to bring on conception.

Xochiquetzal (Aztec): This fertility goddess was associated with spring, and represented not only flowers but the fruits of life and abundance. She was also the patron goddess of prostitutes and craftsmen.

by Patti Wigington
Published on ThoughtCo

 

Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondence Digest for Wednesday

From APaganMess.com

Planet: Mercury
Element: Air
Colors: Purple, Orange
Keywords: Communication, Wisdom, Travel, Speed, Creative Inspiration, Education

Ruled by Mercury, Wednesdays are best for spell work that has do to with learning, communication, and artistic projects. If you want a little extra luck or speed for something do your spell on a Wednesday!

From moonlitpriestess.com

Celestial influence – Mercury

Color correspondences – grey, iridescent, opal, violet, yellow

Herb correspondences – jasmine, lavender

Misc. influences – communication, teaching, reason, divination, skill, debt, fear, self-improvement, loss

From amagickalpath.co.uk

Planet – Mercury

Spells/Magic – communication, creativity, astrology, healing, wisdom, legal, divination, study.

Magical aspects: the conscious mind, study, travel, divination, and wisdom. This is the best day to engage in anything dealing with communication.

Oils – Bayberry, Clover,Lavender,Lemongrass,sandalwood

trees and plants- aspen tree, bergamot , clover, dill, fennel , fern , parsley , mint, marjoram , lavender , lily of the valley , mace, horehound,sage

Stones – Agate, blue lace agate, fire opal, tormaline

Colours – purple, magenta, silver

Metal – Tin/Lead

Energy Type – Male

Dieties – Dedicated to the Teutonic god Woden or Odin, an aspect of the “All-Father” god of knowledge wisdom enlightenment and combat, the parallel of Hermes.

Wednesday is the best time to deal with such matters as: Wisdom, Healing, Communication, Intelligence, Memory, Education, Correspondence, Phone Calls, Computers, Messages, Students, Merchants, Editing, Writing, Advertising, Signing Contracts, Siblings, Neighbours, Kin, Accounting, Clarks, Critics, Music, Editors, Journalists, Visual Arts, Hiring Employees, Learning Languages, Placing Ads, Visiting Friends, Legal Appointments and Astrology.

From FlyingTheHedge.com

This day of the week gets its name from Woden’s Day, an Old English name. It is a direct translation of the Latin term mercurri dies, “day of Mercury.” When they translated the day, they changed to god Mercury to a local god, Woden, so people would understand. This is a great day to work on communications, thought, wisdom, self-expression, and the arts. Also a good day for divination.
Color: Purple, orange
Planet: Mercury
Deities: Odin, Woden, Hermes, Mercury, Athena, Lugh
Crystals: Adventuine, agate
Herbs: Aspen, lilies, lavender, fern
Associations: Business, communication, debt, the arts, transportation, fortune, chance, creativity

Flashback 2004 Lammas

(This is written for the Northern Hemisphere in 2004. The date of August 7th is wrong for 2022 the Southern or Northern Hemisphere)

Lammas

Lammas is the first of the harvest festivals, a celebration of ripening grains and grapes. If you celebrate traditionally on the second, the planetary energies offer a for great creative energy, drama, and joy. If you celebrate on the astrologically on August 7 at 15 degrees of Leo, the Moon will aid a ceremony with great magic and mystery.

The Sun is wanning, but still holding sway in the sky. A day of circle dances and foot races will honor the Sun; be certain the music encourages exuberant joy. If you planted wheat in a pot or plot, this is the day to ritually harvest it. Use some to make a Brigid’s cross; save a few stalks to return to the earth as compost next spring and lend continuity from harvest to sowing to harvest.

If corn is your grain of choice, bring ripe ears to the altar and use the husks to make corn dollies for use at Imbolc. Indian corn can be dried, ground, and used in corn bread. Make a fiery incense with dragon’s blood and hot herbs like ginger or galangal. Do a ritual at a sacred spot — a well or tree or sacred hill. Use the colors of green and gold and orange for your altar, and encourage everyone to wear them. The harvest has just begun.

Copyright By K. D. Spitzer in Llewellyn’s Witches’ Datebook 2004 Page 89

Flashback 2004 Imbolc

 Imbolc

Celebrate this festival by draping the altar in white and silver. Kepp the entire altar white — white candlesticks, white incense bowls, etc. Represent the Goddess with a figure of a horned cow. If you wear robes in ritual, honor Brigid in her guise as the goddess of the dairy by wearing white. With Neptune lending the glamour to your robes to the Sun this time, as glitter to your robes with sliver and “diamonds.” Let your imagination run wild.

Save snow from the last storm, or use crushed ice, and put it out in bowls on the altar. Scrub clean an old milke bottle or cream jar and fill it with fresh milk; freshly made mozzarella cheese will round out your cakes and ale. Nestle all bowls in the snow.

The planetary energies are particularly favorable this sabbat for working magic for world peace. Place all the candles you’ll be using this year on the altar and start this ritual in the dark — this is, without lights. Add your magic to the returning Sun. Dedicate and consecrate all your candles during this festival of lights, and consecrate your agricultural tools for use in the coming cycle of growth. This is the festival of new beginnings.

Copyright By K. D. Spitzer in Llewellyn’s Witches’ Datebook 2004 Page 39

Flashback 2002 Imbolc

Imbolc is an important day of purification and initiation; on the Sun’s day, February 2, the energies are very airy. This Sabbat is a good day for coven work, with an emotionally detached masculine Moon and Sun on the Sun’s day.

Dress yourself and your altar in white, while serving white beverages or any dairy food to honor the calving season. Spread the top of a one-pound round Camembert or Bire cheese with raspberry preserves. Cut a circle of puff pastry large enough to cover the cheese, wrap it, tucking the ends of the pastry under. Use scraps to decorate the top with goddess symbols. Brush with beaten egg yolk. Bake at 425 degrees until golden, and serve hot and melting on crackers. During this ritual, bless and dedicate all candles you will need for other ritual work throughout the year. A good way to start the ceremony is to light candles in the darkened room with chanting to encourage the lengthening days.

©️ By K. D. Spitzer Llewellyn’s Witches’ Datebook 2002 Page 41

IMPORTANT NOTE for the Southern Hemisphere Imbolc falls on August 1st.

Flashback 2002 Lammas

Lammas is the first of the harvest festivals and this year despite the fiery Sun, it has a strong, sensual feel of cardinal earth. Mars lends a masculine energy to the Sun this week to help with the organizing for this bread festival. Round cornbread as a solar disk is an apt and easy choice for the altar, but if you plan several days ahead, you can sprout a small amount (1/4 cup) of wheat or barely for kitchen witchery. Add this to your other grains to your own bread from scratch; or buy frozen bread dough, thaw, pat into a rectangle, and sprinkle the sprouted grains. Roll up your dough like a jelly roll and place in a greased bread pan into which you have sprinkled Irish oats. You can use a sharp knife to crave goddess symbols into the loaf before baking.

©️ By K. D. Spitzer Llewellyn’s Witches’ Datebook 2002 Page 93

41 Greek Gods and Goddesses: Family Tree and Fun Facts

You’re Invited to Olympus Mall Where the Greek Gods Dwell and Sell

Far away on Mount Olympus lives the… Well, the Olympians — the twelve most important Greek dieties.

In ancient times, the Olympians and the rest of their family were an important part of daily Greek culture. Each god and goddess ruled certain realms and also played their part in mythology; fascinating stories that helped ancient Greeks to grasp the world around them, including the weather, religious beliefs, and their own social system.

That being said, even the Olympian gods must earn a living.

Possessing so many powers and abilities, they all agreed that they would make excellent business owners, and so opened a grand mall and invited all the mortals.

Let’s grab a shopping bag and go explore the Greek god family tree!

Table of Contents

Zeus the Mall Manager

Suspect Infidelity? Hera’s Private Eye Business Can Help

Book a Trip at the Atlas Traveling Agency

Find Variety at Apollo’s Flea Market

The Eros Lounge for Lonely Hearts

There’s Even a Wine-Tasting Event

Stay Away From the Security Booth

Rejuvenate With Sleep Therapy to Continue Your Shopping

There’s a Shuttle Service for Tired Shoppers

Ares Runs the Army Surplus Shop

There’s a Creepy Dude on a Boat

Pan’s Pet and Sacrifice Shop

This Family’s Failing Business Sells Air Fresheners

There’s Free Counseling for Disturbed Mortals

This Hardware Shop Has All the Mist You Need

This Paramedic Will Fix Your Bones After Kratos Jumps You

The Mall Has a Mini-Jail Called Tartarus

The Cinema Shows Back-To-Back 3D Horror Movies

The Helios Car Dealership Sells Golden Bowls

The Ghost Tour Has Real Ghosts

Poseidon Runs the Black Market

Please Claim Your Kids at the Lost and Found Tent

Aphrodite’s Kissing Booth

Learn How to Chop Necks at Athena’s Karate Club

Hyperion’s Laser Tag Arena

You Can Buy Bottled Air From Aether

Alastor’s Restaurant Serves All the Revenge You Can Eat

There’s an Old Guy That Sells Answers (But You Probably Won’t Get Them)

Pick a Tour Package at the Extreme Adventure Club

There’s a God in the Mini-Jail

There’s a Celebrity Signing Photos of Himself

Enjoy Free Muffins at the Bingo Hall

You’ll Win Every Race With Nike’s Sports Equipment

The Hypno-Therapist Makes Your Problems Worse

The Water-Girl Might Knock You Out

Hecate’s Hex & Herb Shop 

The Mall’s Casino Doubles as a Human Resources Office

The Archery Range Is Fun (But Deadly If You Upset Artemis) 

The Art Gallery Is Full of Living Things and Violence

Mania Is Too Mad to Have a Business

Get Your Face Peeled by Persephone

Get Your Napalm at the Fire-Starter’s Shop

Thank You for Shopping at the Mount Olympus Mall!

Click here to more of this article from historycooperative.org

When Isis Was Queen

Ancient Egyptian Goddess Isis and God Osiris

At the ancient Egyptian temples of Philae, Nubians gave new life to a vanishing religious tradition.

Hathor.When the Romans conquered Egypt in 30 B.C., the country’s system of temples, which had sustained religious traditions dating back more than 3,000 years, began to slowly wither away. Starved of the funds that pharaohs traditionally supplied to religious institutions, priests lost their vocation and temples fell into disuse throughout the country. The introduction of Christianity in the first century a.d. only hastened this process. But there was one exception to this trend: In the temples on the island of Philae in the Nile River, rites dedicated to the goddess Isis and the god Osiris continued to be celebrated in high style for some 500 years after the Roman conquest. This final flowering of ancient Egyptian religion was only possible because of the piety and support of Egypt’s neighbors to the south, the Nubians.

Philae lies just south of the Nile’s first cataract—one of six rapids along the river—which marked the historical border between ancient Egypt and Nubia, also known as Kush. In this region of Kush, called Lower Nubia, the temple complex at Philae was just one of many that were built on islands in the Nile and along its banks. Throughout the long history of Egypt and Nubia, Lower Nubia was a kind of buffer zone between these two lands and a place…

Information About Some of the Gods and Goddesses

Sun Gods

Cat Gods

Roman Gods and Goddesses

Water Gods and Gods of the Sea

Japanese Gods and Mythology: The Shinto Religion

10 Gods of Death and the Underworld From Around the World

Celtic Gods and Goddesses: Exploring the Pantheon and Mythology of the Ancient Celt

41 Greek Gods and Goddesses: Family Tree and Fun Facts

Norse Gods and Goddesses Pantheon: The Mythology of the Nordic Viking Deities

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses Pantheon: The Mythology of the Nubian Deities

 

From HistoryCooperative.org – To read the rest of the article about Gods and Goddesses

Lakshmi PujaDiwali 2021: All you need to know about Lakshmi Puja

Diwali or Deepawali 2021: The festival of lights is celebrated during the Amavasya of the Kartik month. This year Lakshmi Puja will be celebrated on Thursday, November 4, 2021.

Deepawali is one of the biggest festivals in India. According to the Hindu calendar, the festival is celebrated during the Amavasya of the Kartik month. The festival symbolises the victory of light over darkness. As per the Hindu epic Ramayana, Diwali marks the victory of Lord Rama over evil as he defeated King Ravana and returned to his homeland Ayodhya along with his wife Sita and brother Lakshman after spending 14 years in exile.null

The villagers of his homeland welcomed him with full celebration…

https://www.indiatoday.in/information/story/diwali-2021-all-you-need-to-know-about-lakshmi-puja-1873121-2021-11-04

Special Edition of Witchcraft/Magickal Correspondences for Samhain

Symbolism: death and regeneration, transformation, end of old projects, new beginnings, return, change, rest, success, plenty, knowledge
Symbols: skulls, bats, cats, leaves, nuts, seeds, barren trees and branches, pumpkins, cauldron, pentacle, crystal ball, besom or broom, witch’s hat, moon, crows/ravens, ghosts, goblins, banshees, candy/caramel apples, chocolate, Jack-o-Lanterns, costumes, Trick-or-Treats, Death, acorns, bones, gourds, scarecrows

Colors: black, orange, red, silver, gold, brown, purple, yellow

Food and Drink: apples, cider, pork, hazelnuts, pomegranates, pumpkins, potatoes, squash, cranberries, turnips, beets, mugwort tea, ale, mulled wine, pies/cakes for the dead

Herbs: apple leaf, almonds, bay leaf, nettle, hemlock, cloves, cinnamon, mandrake root, marigold, mums, mugwort, pine, rosemarysagewormwood, tarragon, rue, garlic, ginger, hazelnut, allspice

Deities: Hekate, The Crone, Cerridwen, Bast, Persephone, Horned Hunter, Cernunnos, Osiris, Hades, Anubis, Loki, Arawn, Dis, and any other death/underworld god or goddess

Crystals and Gemstones: black obsidian, jasper, onyx, bloodstone, smoky quartz, carnelian,

Animals: cats, especially black cats, bats, spiders, rats, wolves, snakes, ravens and crows, owls, stags, jackals, scorpions

Magic: This is the time to honor the dead. Set up an altar, serve them cakes, and let them know they are not forgotten. If you wish to communicate with deceased friends and family, this is the best time of year. The veil thins the night of Samhain, making communication easy. Do NOT, however, entice spirits, disrespect them, or perform any other magic that is anything less than respectful. I repeat, don’t do it. Samhain is also a great time to practice divination in the form of runes, scrying, tarot, tea readings, etc. Reflect over the previous year and perform blessing spells to ring in the new year. Astral projection, lucid dreaming, and hedge riding are also much easier to perform on this night but remember to be safe. Banishing magic, especially those for bad habits, are especially strong on this night.

Please note this is not a complete list but a brief overview of symbols, colors, herbs, deities, and the like. If I have missed something that you feel should make the list, please feel free to contact me via the comments or through email.

Click her for more ideas from Zenned Out for Samhain Rituals and Correspondences

The ancient Celtic celebration of Samhain (pronounced sow-in), celebrated on October 31st and November 1st, marks the end of our seasonal cycle on the Wheel of the Year. This is why it’s often referred to as the witch’s New Year. Seasonally speaking, Samhain is the third and final harvest of the season or the last rally to store and prepare for the coming Winter season.

This sacred celebration reaches much farther than harvests and is also a time when the veil between the physical and spirit world is at its thinnest. The Celtic people believed that spirits walked among them during this time, so Samhain is accepted as an ideal time to communicate and connect with the spirit realm. Here’s a fun drawing I created with ritual suggestions for Samhain. Keep scrolling to learn more about each one.

See the source image

From PaganPages.org Samhain Correspondences By Jennifer Wright

Free Pagan Magazine

Other Names:
celtic ~ Summer’s End, pronounced “sow” (rhymes with now) “en” (Ireland), sow-een (Wales) – “mh” in the middle is a “w” sound – Greater Sabbat(High Holiday) – Fire Festival Oct 31-Nov 1(North Hemisphere) – Apr 30-May 1 – The Great Sabbat, Samhiunn, Samana, Samhuin, Sam-fuin, Samonios, Halloween, Hallomas, All Hallows Eve, All Saints/All Souls Day(Catholic), Day of the Dead (Mexican), Witches New Year, Trinoux Samonia, Celtic/ Druid New Year, Shadowfest (Strega), Martinmas or Old Hallowmas (Scotttish/Celtic) Lá Samhna (Modern Irish), Festival of the Dead, Feile Moingfinne (Snow Goddess), Hallowtide (Scottish Gaelis Dictionary), Feast of All Souls, Nos Galen-gae-of Night of the Winter Calends (Welsh), La Houney or Hollantide Day, Sauin or Souney ( Manx), oidhche na h-aimiléise-the night of mischief or confusion(Ireland), Oidhche Shamna (Scotland)

Rituals:
End of summer, honoring of the dead,scrying, divination, last harvest, meat harvest

Incense:
Copal, sandalwood, mastic resin, benzoin, sweetgrass, wormwood, mugwort, sage, myrrh or patchouli

Tools:
Besom, cauldron, tarot, obsidian ball, pendulum, runes, oghams, Ouija boards, black cauldron or bowl filled with black ink or water, or magick mirror

Stones/Gems:
Black obsidian, jasper, carnelian, onyx, smoky quartz, jet, bloodstone

Colors:
Black, orange, red

Symbols & Decorations:
Apples, autumn flowers, acorns, bat, black cat, bones, corn stalks, colored leaves, crows, death/dying, divination and the tools associated with it, ghosts, gourds, Indian corn, jack-o-lantern, nuts , oak leaves, pomegranates, pumpkins, scarecrows, scythes, waning moon

Foods:
Apples, apple dishes, cider, meat (traditionally this is the meat harvest) especially pork, mulled cider with spices, nuts-representing resurrection and rebirth, nuts, pomegranates, potatoes, pumpkins, pumpkin bread, pumpkin pie, roasted pumpkin seeds, roasted pumpkin seeds, squash.

Goddesses:
The Crone, Hecate(Greek), Cerridwen(Welsh-Scottish), Arianrhod(Welsh), Caillech (Irish-Scottish), Baba Yaga (Russian), Al-Ilat(persian), Bast (Egyptian), Persephone (Greek), Hel(Norse), Kali(Hindu), all Death & Otherworld Goddesses

Gods:
Horned Hunter(European), Cernnunos(Greco-Celtic), Osiris(Egyptian), Hades (Greek), Gwynn ap Nudd (British), Anubis(Egyptian), Coyote Brother (Native American), Loki (Norse), Dis (Roman), Arawn (Welsh), acrificial/Dying/Aging
Gods, Death and Otherworld Gods

Herbs and Flowers:
Almond, apple leaf , autumn joy sedum, bay leaf, calendula, Cinnamon, Cloves cosmos, garlic, ginger , hazelnut, hemlock cones, mandrake root, marigold, mums, mugwort (to aid in divination), mullein seeds, nettle, passionflower, pine needles, pumpkin seeds, rosemary (for remembrance of our ancestors), rue, sage, sunflower petals and seeds, tarragon, wild ginseng, wormwood

Animals:
Stag, cat, bat, owl, jackal, elephant, ram, scorpion, heron, crow, robin

Mythical Beings:
Pooka, goblin,medusa, beansidhe, harpies

Essence:
Magick, plenty; knowledge, the night, death & rebirth, success, protection; rest, new beginning; ancestors; lifting of the veil, mundane laws in abeyance, return, change

Dynamics/Meaning:
Death & transformation, Wiccan new year,wisdom of the Crone, end of summer, honoring, thinning of the veil between worlds, death of the year, time outside of time, night of the Wild Hunt, begin new projects, end old projects

Work:
Sex magick, release of bad habits, banishing, fairy magick, divination of any kind, candle magick, astral projection, past life work, dark moon mysteries, mirror spells (reflection), casting protection , inner work, propitiation, clearing obstacles, uncrossing, inspiration, workings of transition or culmination, manifesting transformation,creative visualization, contacting those who have departed this plane

Purpose:
Honoring the dead, especially departed ancestors, knowing we will not be forgotten; clear knowledge of our path; guidance, protection, celebrating reincarnation

Rituals/Magicks:
Foreseeing future, honoring/consulting ancestors, releasing the old, power, understanding death and rebirth, entering the underworld, divination, dance of the dead, fire calling, past life recall

Customs:
Ancestor altar, costumes, divination, carving jack-o-lanterns, spirit plate, the Feast of the Dead, feasting, paying debts, fairs, drying winter herbs, masks, bonfires, apple games, tricks, washing clothes

Element:
Water

Gender:
Male

Threshold:
Midnight

From Plentiful Earth – How to pronounce Samhain

Popularized by Wicca, Samhain is a celebration that occurs around the same time as Halloween, All Hallow’s Eve, and Day of the Dead — on or around October 31. This wonderful day is often celebrated as a time to commune with our ancestors and the passing spirits, as the veil between the worlds has become its thinnest. The festival of Samhain is easily most Witches’ favorite Sabbat of the year, a fact we can all agree on. However, it’s easy to strike up a war of the Witches when it comes to saying the word out loud!

We know first hand, as American Witches in the United States, how embarrassing it can be to read the ancient Gaelic word as “Sam-hayne” on paper when we’re learning and then try to say it in front of seasoned coven-mates! We’re here to save you some red cheeks and give you the confidence to talk about your favorite holiday out loud! The good news? There are 3 ways to pronounce this ancient Celtic, each from a different region of its birthplace!

3 Correct Samhain Pronunciations

How to pronounce Samhain – Video

How to pronounce Samhain in Irish Gaelic

  • Sow-in

How to pronounce Samhain in Welsh

  • Sow-een

How to pronounce Samhain in Scottish Gaelic

  • Sav-en

Now, pick your favorite way and say it with pride, Witch!

Wish you all a safe, blessed, and happy Samhain.

History Cooperative – Countryside Festivals

Click here to read more about Countryside Festivals

As the Romans saw many natural thigns such as trees, rocks and other matters as possible hosts to spirits or bearers of some other religious significance, then the countryside bustled with spiritual hints by gods, ghosts and spirits. There was also not a thing which wasn’t somehow guarded by a deity.

Read More: Roman gods

There was gods who watched over fields, groves, orchards, vineyards, springs, woods and any other matter. Jupiter for example watched over oak trees which were sacred to him. As country life was inevitably connected to agriculture, which was at the whim of nature, religious life in the country therefore consisted primarily of appeasing he many gods around one, ensuring that they would guard the harvest and be merciful.

As the ancient calendar, before later changes by the Romans, began on waht is now 15 March, the first traditional festival of the country calendar was the liberalia on 17 March. It was held to honour Liber, the god of fertile crops and vineyards. (The liberalia was also the traditional date when a boy could become a man by being given his toga virilis.)

On 15 April came the fordicia in honour of the earth goddess Tellus. For this pregnant cows were slaughtered in sacrifice and in Rome animal fetuses were burnt on altars. The parilia festival which took place the week after the fordicia, saw sheep being herded and forced to jump across burning bales of straw, in order to be purified.

Another festival was that celebrating the goddess Ceres which took place on 19 April. Ceres was especially connected with agriculture, the harvest and, especially, grain. So her festival was no doubt of significance to farmers. There would be a ritual march around the boundaries of the land, the so called lustration, to purify it and to honour the goddess. In the earlier times of Rome the festival of Ceres would see faxes let loose with torches tied to their tails where later the grand arena of the Circus Maximus would stand.

After the festival of Ceres followed the vinalia rustica which was a wine feast to celebrate…

Jupiter, the Roman King of the Gods

In terms of Roman mythology, the god Jupiter is the king. In fact, he is often referred to as the king of the gods. He may not be the original creator of the MYTHOLOGICAL CREATURES that dominated tales and lore; that distinction belongs to his father Saturn. But Jupiter is the main man, a la ZEUS in Greek mythology.

Mythology dominated religious culture in Rome up until the point in which Christianity took over. Until that happened, Jupiter was the main deity. He was the god of the sky and, along with the help of the kings of the time, established principles of the Roman religion.

His similarities with Zeus and the GREEK MYTHS didn’t stop with their connections with the sky and thunderbolts. Jupiter was brother to two other gods: Neptune and Pluto. Like the Greeks, each of these three gods controlled one realm of existence: the sky (Jupiter), the sea (Neptune), and the underworld (Pluto), with Jupiter being the most powerful.

Rome’s Religious King…

 

Ancient Roman God Terminus

Terminus

From Pantheon.org – For Sources and References Roman God Terminus

“Border.” A Roman divinity presiding over boundaries and frontiers. His worship is said to have been instituted by Numa who ordered that every one should mark the boundaries of his landed property by stones to be consecrated to Jupiter (Ζεὺς ὅριος), and at which every year sacrifices were to be offered at the festival of the Terminalia.1 These sacred boundaries existed not only in regard to private property, but also in regard to the state itself, the boundary of which was not to be transgressed by any foreign foe. But in later times the latter must have fallen into oblivion, while the termini of private property retained their sacred character even in the days of Dionysius, who states that sacrifices of cakes, meal, and fruit (for it was unlawful to stain the boundary stones with blood), still continued to be offered.

The god Terminus himself appears to have been no other than Jupiter himself, in the capacity of the protector of boundaries.2 The Terminus of the Roman state originally stood between the fifth and sixth milestone on the road towards Laurentum, near a place called Festi, and that ancient/boundary of the Ager Romanus (“the field of Rome“) continued to be revered with the same ceremonies as the boundaries of private estates.3 Another public Terminus stood in the temple of Jupiter in the Capitol, and above it there was an opening in the roof, because no Terminus was allowed to be under cover.4 This is another proof that Terminus was only an attribute of Jupiter, although tradition gave a different reason for this circumstance; for when that temple was to be founded, and it was necessary to exaugurate other sanctuaries standing on the same site, all the gods readily gave way to Jupiter and Juno, but the auguries would not allow the sanctuaries of Terminus and Juventas to be removed. This was taken as an omen that the Roman state would remain ever undiminished and young, and the chapels of the two divinities were inclosed within the walls of the new temple. Here we may ask, what had a Terminus to do on the Capitol, unless he was connected or identical with Jupiter?

[2021] Popular and Practical Samhain Rituals and Traditions

From WitchJournal.com

EVA MARIA  WHEEL OF THE YEAR

Beloved Samhain night is just around the corner. This time of the year is definitely the most magical and witchy of all other seasons. Below you can find information on Samhain Rituals, Traditions, and History. Are you going to try any of them?

What is Samhain?