Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Thirteen – Divination – Interpretations of the 1 letter Fews

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Thirteen
Divination – Interpretations of the 1 letter Fews   

Ailm (White Fir) Rulership/Vigor/Discernment

White Fir
Gender – Female Element – Fire Planet – Sun                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fir is burned for happiness; harmony; peace; inspiration; and wisdom.  The needles are burned at childbirth to bless and protect the mother and newborn child. The Fir is often used in shape shifting.
OW-N: Discretion in wisdom. Vigor in age. Secret wisdom.
OW-E: Discrete use of bounty. Vigorous abundance.
OW-S: Discretion ensures happiness. Happiness in rulership. Vigor in bliss.
OW-W: Secret inspiration. Discretion in peace.
MW-N: Challenge met with discreet rulership. Vigorous response. Secrecy breeds friction.
MW-E: Prosperous rulership. Gains from discretion/secrecy. Vitality in prosperity.
MW-S: Harmony from discretion. Contentment in rulership.
MW-W: Learning discretion. Secret knowledge. Aptitude for learning. Leader in education.
UW-N: Secrecy leads to transformation. New openness. Transformation of rulership.
UW-E: Growth of rulership. Growth of discretion/secrecy. Youthful vigor.
UW-S: Vigor emphasized. Energy for rulership.
UW-W: Secret love. Discretion in pleasure. Vigorous love. Dominance in love.

Muin (Vine) Introspection/Other Sight

Gender – Feminine Element – Water Planet – Moon
In ancient times the festival of Dionysus was held in the spring when the leaves begin to reappear on the vine. Ivy is known as a plant of protection. It is also used for good luck and fidelity.
OW-N: Introspection in age. Introspective wisdom
OW-E: Bounty from other sight. Introspection leads to abundance.
OW-S: Happiness from looking inward.
OW-W: Inspiration from introspection. Peace through reflection.
MW-N: Challenge in self-analysis. Friction leads to introspection.
MW-E: Rewards reaped from reflection/introspection.
MW-S: Contentment found by introspection. Harmony based upon reflection.
MW-W: Learning through introspection/reflection. Knowledge comes from within/from other sight.
UW-N: Transformed by introspection/other sight.
UW-E: Growth from looking inward.
UW-S: Energy turned to introspection. Reflective youth.
UW-W: Introspective approach to love.

Beithe (Birch) Beginnings/Energy

Gender – Feminine Element – Water Planet – Venus
According to the Celtic tree calendar, Birch is associated with inception and new beginnings. Originally a besom was made from the twigs of a Birch tree around a handle made of Ash and bound with strips of Willow.  Birch is used to protect one from lightning. And at one time baby cradles were made of birch twigs in order to protect them.
OW-N: Beginnings of wisdom. Energetic age.
OW-E: Abundant energy. Auspicious beginnings.
OW-S: Happiness from new beginning. Energy from bliss.
OW-W: Beginnings of inspiration. Unseen forces lead to inspiration and peace.
MW-N: Challenge pushes for new beginning. Energy from friction.
MW-E: Beginning of period of prosperity. Energy to bring matters to fruition.
MW-S: Contentment from new beginnings. Harmony with the unseen forces of growth.
MW-W: Beginning of learning/knowledge. Energy for learning. Subtle growth of knowledge.
UW-N: Ending leads to a new beginning. Transformative energy. Transformed by growth
UW-E: Growth emphasized. Youthful energy. Growth leads to new beginning.
UW-S: Energy emphasized. Vitality in new beginning. Vitality of quiet growth.
UW-W: Beginning of love/pleasure. Unseen forces of growth that work in love. Energy for love/pleasure.

Huath (Hawthorn) Pleasure/Misfortune/Cleansing

Gender – Masculine Element – Fire Planet – Mars
Hawthorn is often referred to as the fairy bush. It is also sacred to the Druids as noted by the verse oak, ash, and thorn.  In ancient Greece, crowns of hawthorn blossoms were made for wedding couples, and the wedding party all carried burning torches of hawthorn. Hawthorn is used in protective sachets and amulets to ward against negative influences.
OW-N: Pleasure in wisdom. Comfortable old age. Positive changes in age.
OW-E: Enjoyment of abundance.
OW-S: Cleansing brings happiness.
OW-W: Inspirational cleansing. Stimulating peace. Positivity.
MW-N: Challenge/friction may lead to misfortune or positive change.
MW-E: Harvest what is sown as either pleasure or misfortune. Prosperity from positive changes/cleansing.
MW-S: Harmony emphasized. Contentment from cleansing.
MW-W: Knowledge leads to positive changes. Pleasure is learning.
UW-N: Endings bring a positive change. Transformation through cleansing.
UW-E: Growth of pleasure. Youthful pleasures. Growth brings cleansing.
UW-S: Energy for positive changes. Vitality for pleasure.
UW-W: Pleasure emphasized. Enjoyment of love. Care needed to avoid misfortune in love.

1. What letter is this?
2. UW – E under Muin states: ______________
3. UW – W stands for:  ______________
4. Huath represents which tree?
5. Which letter is this?
6. Beithe is which tree?
7. OW – E under Huath states:  _____________





Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Twelve – Divination – Interpretations of the 2 letter Fews

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Twelve
Divination – Interpretations of the 2 letter Fews 

Onn (Gorse) Wisdom Collated/Life changes

Gender – Masculine Element – Fire Planet – Mars
Plant Gorse around your property to protect you from curses and/or hexes.
Use a broom made from Gorse to sweep negative influences from your home.
OW-N: Wisdom emphasized through opportunity. Life changes due to age. Wisdom gathered.
OW-E: Opportunity for abundance. Bountiful wisdom.
OW-S: Happiness from opportunity and wisdom applied to create life changes.
OW-W: Positive changes from gathered wisdom lead to peace. Inspiration generates life changes.
MW-N: Challenge causes positive changes. Friction in life changes through gathered wisdom.
MW-E: Wisdom harvested. Prosperity from knowledge. Opportunity for gains from education/learning.
MW-S: Contentment from gathered knowledge and positive changes. Harmony in life changes.
MW-W: Increased knowledge emphasized resulting in opportunities/positive changes/new life.
UW-N: Ending of harmony. Transformation through gathered knowledge and wisdom emphasized. Rapid changes for the better.
UW-E: Growth of opportunity. Increase in positive changes. Youthful approach to life.
UW-S: Energy to implement life changes. Vitality of knowledge and wisdom. Energetic changes.
UW-W: Knowledge increases capacity for love/pleasure. Wisdom is love. Opportunity in love. Positive changes in love/pleasure.

Luis (Rowan) Insight/Foreknowledge/Enlivening

Gender – Feminine Element – Fire Planet – Sun
Carry a piece of Rowan to increase psychic powers.
When traveling across the ocean, carry a piece of Rowan for protection.
Rowan is often connected with communication involving faeries.
The tea brewed from a single Rowan berry is drank to enhance ones psychic ability. The Rowan berry has a natural pentagram embossed on the berry.
OW-N: Insight in age. Ability in foreknowledge enhanced.
OW-E: Abundance of insight. Power of healing. Great activity.
OW-S: Happiness in creativity. Able to find own bliss. Relief. Using insight to bring happiness. Joyfully active.
OW-W: Healing. Inspiration enhances creativity.
MW-N: Challenge leads to increase in activity. Argument clears the air. Friction in creativity. Insight leads to friction.
MW-E: Prosperity from insight/healing. Foreknowledge used wisely. Successful creativity. Fruitful activity.
MW-S: Contentment in creativity. Insight brings contentment. Harmonious activity.
UW-N: Transformation from insight. Endings/new beginnings brought about through healing. New activities.
UW-E: Youthful activities. Growth of insight. Creativity enhanced.
UW-S: Energy for activities. Vitality of insight. Healing energy.
UW-W: Healing love. Insightfulness in love. Creativity brings pleasure.


Gort (Ivy) Developing skills/Learning

Gender – Feminine Element – Water Planet – Saturn
The Ivy represents Female fertility and Friendship and is the feminine equivalent of the Holly. The ogham letter is G (Gort). The word Gort means “green fields”.
The Ivy is considered a very powerful plant. The ivy was dedicated to the Roman god Bacchus. The Ivy is also considered a warning tree when seen in visions.  Ivy is an aid to fertility and brings good luck.
OW-N: Gains in due time. Increasing wisdom.
OW-E: Abundance by persistence. Developing skills lead to favorable results. Learning brings gains.
OW-S: Joy of learning. Happiness is obtained by tenacity.
OW-W: Peace comes through tenacity. Inspired to learning. New skills discovered.
MW-N: Challenge in persistence. Friction leads to new skills developed. Difficult studies.
MW-E: Prosperity from new skills. Gains from persistence.
MW-S: Contentment found in new skills/learning. Harmony comes with effort and persistence.
MW-W: Learning emphasized. Learning involves new skills. Gains in knowledge through hard work/tenacity.
UW-N: Hard work pays off. Persistence transforms into tangible gains. Transformation through learning.
UW-E: Growth from learning. Growth of skills. Gains in youth through persistence.
UW-S: Energy to gain goals through tenacity. Vitality of learning. Energy to develop skills.
UW-W: Pleasure in a new skill/learning. Persistence in love succeeds.

Duir (Oak) Truth/Endurance/Strength

Gender – Male Element – Fire   Planet – Sun
The Oak is known as the King of trees. A wand made from this tree is known as a Priapic or Phallic wand. This is named for the Roman God of procreation, “Priapus”.
The end of the wand is generally tipped with an acorn or pinecone.
The Ogham (oy-yam) letter is D (Duir)
The Irish surname “MacDara” means son of oak. The Oak is associated with the Celtic God “Daghda”.
It is also associated with magick and male fertility.
To catch a falling oak leaf is said to bring you luck and prosperity. Oak is associated with weddings and fertility, as well as protection.
OW-N: Endurance of wisdom. Longevity.
OW-E: Abundance through strength/willpower.
OW-S: Happiness found in truth/inner strength.
OW-W: Inspiration of truth. Willpower brings peace.
MW-N: Able to endure challenges. Overcome obstacles.
MW-E: Endurance/willpower brings results. Prosperity in truth. Solid achievements.
MW-S: Contentment from overcoming obstacles. Harmony in truth. Creating own contentment through willpower.
MW-W: Learning truth. Overcome obstacles to learning. Strength in knowledge.
UW-N: Positive force applied to create transformation. Ending of obstacles. Truth revealed.
UW-E: Ability to overcome obstacles leads to growth. Growth through willpower. Youthful strength.
UW-S: Vitality of truth. Energy to overcome obstacles. Energy enhances strength. Vitality of willpower.
UW-W: Use of determination to secure love. Truth in love. Love conquers all.

1. What letter is this?
2. What does OW – E under Onn stand for?
3. OW – N under Duir is:  _________________________
4. The Ogham letter for Rowan is:
5. Which plant does this letter represent?
6. Duir is which tree?
7. Prosperity from new skills. Gains from persistence; is which realm and direction?





Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Eleven – Divination – Interpretations of the 3 letter Fews

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Eleven 
Divination – Interpretations of the 3 letter Fews  

Ur (Heather) – Fervor, Gateway, Success, Gains

Heather Gender – Feminine
Element – Water Planet – Venus
Heather is carried to guard against rape and other sexual assaults. It is also carried for good luck. White is used to cool passions of unwanted suitors. Red Heather is used for passion, to start or end an affair. Purple is for spiritual development.
Heather is said to bring rain when it is burned outside along with Fern.
OW – N: Wisdom provides a gateway to strong self expression/gains.
OW- E: Success brings abundance.
OW – S: Happiness through strong self-expression. Gains bring bliss.
OW – W: Inspirational fervor. Peace from success.
MW_ N: Friction leads to strong self-expression. Challenge brings success.
MW – E: Highly successful, many gains. Fervor and self-expression reap successful harvest.
MW – S: Harmony from successes. Strong self-expression moderated for contentment and gains.
MW – W: Gains in knowledge/learning. Self-expression in knowledge. Philosopher. Education is a gateway to success.
UW – N: Self-expression is a gateway to transformation. Gains dwindle and new forms for success need to be found.
UW – E: Success is a gateway to growth. Youthful self-expression.
UW – S: Energy and fervor invigorate self-expression and gains.
UW – W: Enjoyment of self-expression. Pleasure from success. Ardent in pursuit of love and pleasure.

Ngetal (Reed) – Harmony, Inner development

Reed Gender – Masculine Element – Air Planet – Mars
The Reed symbolizes Purification, Protection, and Fertility.
The common reed in England is called Broom and is often called “Scotch Broom”.
The panpipes of the Greek god Pan are made from reeds. Pan was turned into half a man and half goat by the Greek God, Apollo.
This occurred when Pan beat Apollo at a musical instrument contest.
The Pied Piper of Hamelin played his magickal tune on a pipe which was made from reeds.
Wands made from reed/broom are used in purification and protection spells
OW – N: Age/Wisdom brings internal transformation/development.
OW – E: Abundance comes from inner development.
OW – S: Happiness lies in internal transformation.
OW – W: Harmony from inspiration. Peacefulness within.
MW – N: Harmony difficult to maintain. Inner development challenged. Friction leads to internal transformation.
MW – E: Balance is harvest of inner development.
MW – S: Harmony/Contentment emphasized through internal transformation.
MW – W: Knowledge/Learning has a profound, transformative effect.
UW – N: Transformation emphasized through internal development and harmony. End of harmony through internal transformation.
UW – E: Growth of harmony. Youthful inner transformation. Emphasis of inner development.
UW – S: Energy for internal transformation/Inner. Vitality for harmony.
UW – W: Internal transformation/Inner development through love. Harmony in pleasure.

Fearn (Alder) – Inner strength, Foundations

Gender – Masculine Element – Fire & Water Planet – Venus
A wand made of the Alder is used to attract and communicate with faeries.
It’s ogham letter is F (Fearn). The Alder is also known as the wood of spiritual protection.
Carry a small piece of Alder for protection, when going on a long sea voyage.
The Alder measuring wand was called a “Fe”. It was used by the Celts to measure the dead.
OW – N: Wisdom emphasized as awareness ends doubts. Inner strength through wisdom/age.
OW – E: Foundation of abundance. Awareness/appreciation of bounty. Generosity.
OW – S: Foundation of happiness. Bliss from awareness/end of doubts. Satisfaction.
OW – W: Inspiration to inner strength. Peace through end of doubt.
MW – N: Friction leads to ending of doubts. Challenge brings inner strength.
MW – E: Prosperity from determination.
MW – S: Contentment from awareness and end of doubts. Harmony from inner strength.
MW – W: Learning ends doubts. Foundation of knowledge brings inner strength.
UW – N: Awareness is transformative. Ending of doubts emphasized. Inner strength develops.
UW – E: Growth of awareness to overcome doubts. Youthful foundation of inner strength.
UW – S: Vitality of inner strength. Energy to open awareness.
UW – W: Love faced with full awareness. Inner strength brings pleasure. Doubt free love.

Tinne (Holly) – Balance, Retribution

Gender – Male Element – Fire Planet – Mars                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Holly Holly is a tree that is also sacred to the Druids. Holly is carried as a charm of protection.
It is placed within the home to dispel negative energy from others. The Holly tree is known as a symbol of goodwill, peace, health and happiness
During the Roman holiday of Saturnalia, it was common practice to adorn gifts with Holly.
Holly has the name of Christ-thorn because of the Christian legend that the Holly first sprang up under the footsteps of Christ as he trod the earth and its thorny leaves and scarlet berries are likened to drops of blood symbolic of his suffering.
Holly guards against lightening, poisoning and evil spirits, and when planted around the home it protects the inhabitants from dark witchcraft. Carry a piece of Holly for good luck or place a piece under your pillow for symbolic dreams.
OW – N: Age and wisdom bring new challenges for balance.
OW – E: Balance needed in decisions affecting bounty.
OW – S: Choices to be made for happiness.
OW – W: Peace through balance.
MW – N: Challenges to balance mounting. Retribution/justice. Care needed in making decisions in time of friction.
MW – E: Balance needed for prosperity. Choices determine the harvest.
MW – S: Contentment from balance. Harmony affected by decisions.
MW – W: Learning determined by conscious decisions. Balanced education. Tests of knowledge.
UW – N: Endings from retribution. Transformation to balance by decisions.
UW – E: Balanced growth. Tests in youth. Decisions/choices affect growth.
UW – S: Energy to maintain balance. Vitality to overcome tests. Choices approached with vigor.
UW – W: Balance in love and pleasure. Love a matter of decisions rather then emotion. Pleasure/love test balance. Retribution in love.
1. Which ogham letter is this?
2. Success brings abundance represents which world/realm?
3. Tinne, represents which tree?
4. This letter,        represents, Fervor, Gateway, ________ and  ______.
5. The interpretation for OW – S: under Fearn is:
6. What does these letters stand for, UW – N?
7. Holly is what Ogham letter?





Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Ten – Ogham Divination, interpretation of the 4 Fews

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Ten
Ogham Divination, interpretation of the 4 Fews 

Eadha (Poplar) Intuition/Overcoming Obstacles
Poplar Gender: Feminine   Element: Water   Planet: Neptune
Heracles bound his head in triumph with poplar after killing the giant Cacus.
Black poplar is known as the death tree in old Celtic customs.
A wand of Aspen was used to measure the dead and the length of their grave plots. Silver Fir, a type of poplar, is used as an aid in divination.
OW-N: Sensitive to Elders. Wisdom gained through intuition.
OW-E: Obstacles to abundance overcome. Sharing of bounty.
OW-S: Kindliness leads to happiness. Follow instincts for bliss.
OW-W: Inspiration by intuition. Peace gained by perseverance.
MW-N: Challenges overcome. Intuition is accurate.
MW-E: Obstacles overcome to gain prosperity. Rewards from caring for others.
MW-S: Intuition/sensitivity leads to harmony/contentment. Obstacles to harmony overcome.
MW-W: Knowledge comes intuitively. Obstacles to learning overcome. Sensitive use of knowledge.
UW-N: Transformed by intuition. Obstacles end.
UW-E: Enjoyment of youth. Intuition leads to growth.
UW-S: Energy to overcome obstacles. Strong intuition.
UW-W: Sensitivity to others increases love and pleasure. Follow intuition in matters of the heart.

Saille (Willow) – Intuition/Flexibility. Path to Otherworld

Willow Gender – Feminine Element – Water Planet – Moon
A wand made from this tree is used for Esbat workings and Fertility workings.
The ogham letter for willow is S (Sail).
The Gaelic expression “Li Ambi ” means color of not living.
The Celts believe that though a person may be dead in this life, they are very alive in the otherworld. Thus we have the association of the color of the Willow tree and the color of a seemingly dead person.
Willow is one of the Seven Sacred Trees of the Irish and is sacred to the Druids.
Willow is known as a tree of protection.
OW – N: Wisdom enhanced by psychic power. Liberation in age.
OW – E: Abundance gives liberation. Bounty through intuition.
OW – S: Happiness comes from flexibility. Intuition/psychic power brings bliss.
OW – W: Flexibility for peace. Intuition leads to inspiration.
MW – N: Challenge to use psychic power wisely. Friction eased by flexibility.
MW – E: Prosperity from intuition and psychic power. What is sent comes back.
MW- S: Use of intuition to find contentment. In harmony with psychic power. Contentment from adaptability.
MW – W: Flexibility in learning and knowledge. Wide variety of interests. Intuitive learning. Liberation through knowledge.
UW – N: Psychic power is transforming. End of restrictions.
UW – E: Growth of intuition and psychic power.
UW – S: Psychic energy. Vitality of freedom. Keenly intuitive.
UW – W: Love is intuitive. Adaptability in finding love and enjoyment. Liberation in love. Psychic power enhances love.


Straif (Blackthorn) – Coercion/Control through force. Path to Otherworld

Blackthorn Gender – Feminine Element – Earth, Fire Planet – Mars, Saturn
Blackthorn is hung over doorways or carried on the person to ward off evil.
Blackthorn is sometimes called the Dark Crone of the Woods.
A long harsh winter is often referred to as a Blackthorn Winter.
The sharp thorns were said to have been used by English witches to pierce poppets in their curses, called the “pins of slumber”
OW – N: Wisdom controlled by others. Obstacles of age turned to benefits.
OW – E: Abundance lacking. Bounty dissipated.
OW – S: Happiness muted by others. Own joy lies in the hands of others.
OW – W: Inspiration muted. Peace enforced by others. Dissatisfaction.
MW – N: Challenged to seize control of own life. Use destructive power against obstacles.
MW – E: Prosperity controlled by others. Obstacles to goals need to be overcome for independence and success.
MW – S: Disharmony, discontent, need to break free of constraints to attain own contentment.
MW – W: Learning is a difficult process. Knowledge seems controlled and constricted. Need to explore new ideas.
UW – N: Destructive power turned against obstacles. Ending of coercion. Transformation of negative forces into positive ones.
UW – E: Growth inhibited. Control of youth.
UW – S: Energy controlled by others. Vitality dependent on others.
UW – W: Forbearance in love, false pleasure, pretense of love. Dominance in love can lead to its destruction. Resignation to will of others in love/pleasure.

Coll (Hazel) – Wisdom/Creativity/Perception. Path to Otherworld

Hazel Gender – Male Element – Air Planet – Mercury
Hazel is considered to be a Druid sacred tree.
Hazel nuts are often eaten to enhance divination, it is considered to be the nut related to wisdom. Hazel is the Celtic tree of wisdom, inspiration, and poetry.

Wands that are made from the wood of Hazel are used for Magick, Healing and Divination.
The ogham letter for the Hazel is C (Coll).
The surnames “MacColl ” and “MacCall” means “son of the hazel”. The Gaelic    name for the hazel is “Calltuinn” which translate as “the loss of something “. Thus the hazel is connected with death. The hazel is also associated with the Goddess Brighid, who is the goddess of wisdom and divine inspiration. The hazel is used during otherworld journeys to gain knowledge. When doing otherworld journeys, be on the lookout for a hazel wand, as this represents the symbol for a herald. The Druids often chewed hazelnuts as a means of attaining inspiration and knowledge of something hidden or lost. This also done by means of a dowsing rod made from hazel.
OW – N: Strong wisdom. Career in science/writing/creativity. Mental power. Understanding is accurate.
OW – E: Bounty and abundance from wisdom and creative expression.
OW – S: Understanding brings happiness. Joy in writing/science.
OW – W: Inspirational turn of mind. Spiritual writing. Perceptions for peacefulness.
MW – N: Wisdom/understanding challenged. Friction in creativity.
MW – E: Prosperity from creativity/understanding.
MW – S: Wisdom leads to harmony. Contentment from creativity.
MW – W: Educational writing. Perceptive ability increases knowledge. Participation in learning.
UW – N: Transformation of wisdom. Misunderstanding. Perceptions change.
UW – E: Wisdom grows. Youthful audience. Writing for young people. Science endeavors beginning to grow. Creativity and understanding increases.
UW – S: Energy to pursue interests.
UW – W: Love of learning. Pleasure in creative efforts.

1. Growth of intuition and psychic power is which realm?

2. Which tree does this Few represent?

3. What is the divination reading for this Realm; UW – S: under Coll?

4. What is the name of this Few?

5. What does this designation stand for; OW – E under Saille?

6. Straif represents which tree?

7. What is the interpretation for “Coll” in MW – N?



Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Nine – Interpretations of the Number Five Fews

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Nine
Interpretations of the Number Five Fews  

Each week you will be given the interpretations for each numbered Few. It is suggested that you make a chart listing all of the interpretations in order to assist you in your reading. With this lesson we will cover the interpretations for the number 5 Fews.

Iodho (Yew) – Transformation. Ends, Immortality
Yew Gender: Male Element: Fire Planet: Mars
Magickal uses: Hecate, death, immortality, protection
The Yew is known as the tree of death. Its use in England is recalled in Macbeth where Hecate’s cauldron contained; Slips of Yew, slivered in the moon eclipse.” The oldest tree in Europe is said to be the Fortingall Yew of Fortingall, Scotland, near Loch Tay. It is 3,000 years old and presently lives surrounded by a cast iron fence in a churchyard. It is 56 1/2 feet in circumference. A judge’s staff was made of its wood and Yew was planted in graveyards as a form of protection from malevolent spirits. Its needles were also used in rituals to communicate with the dead.
OW – N: Age or Wisdom brings an ending, transformation, immortality.
OW – E: Ending of bounty or transformation into abundance.
OW – S: Ending of one kind of happiness, change in joy.
OW – W: Changed by light of inspiration or by gentleness.
MW – N: Challenge motivates a change, brings immortality.
MW – E: Reaping a small harvest, change in prosperity.
MW – S: Contentment/Harmony ends and interests change.
MW – W: Transformed by new knowledge.
UW – N: Period of significant endings and changes.
UW – E: Youthfulness transformed by growth.
UW – S: Life changes. End of one kind of life is transformed with new energy by another, new vitality.
UW – W: Transformation of love into immortality, ending of a love.

Ruis (Elder) – Change, Evolution
Gender: Female Element: Water Planet: Venus
Magickal uses: Protection, health, spirituality, faeries, witchcraft, banishment
This tree is for spiritual cleansing, workings, bravery and honesty. The ogham letter for this tree is R (Ruis). The Elder is known as the “redness of shame” this comes from the concept of examining our inner selves and being ashamed of what we see. An Elder tree growing on your land protects it from negative energy and lightning attacks.
The lesson here is to use these negative thoughts as building blocks for positive change within ourselves.
OW – N: Wisdom leads to a new path, old ways decay, evolution into new forms.
OW – E: Change in bounty, deterioration of delight pushes for a new path.
OW – S: Old forms of happiness replaced with new ones.
OW – W: Lack of contentment inspires search for a new path. Peace comes from releasing what is outmoded
MW – N: Challenge to old ways leads to new forms.
MW – E: Gains deteriorate, not as great as expected. New methods needed for success.
MW – S: Contentment/Harmony comes in due course. That which brings satisfaction is in a state of change. Seeking new goals.
MW – W: Learning brings changes. Knowledge results in evolution.
UW – N: Old patterns gives way to new idea, need to adjust to changes.
UW – E: Evolution and growth emphasized to maintain youthful outlook.
UW – S: Old ways revitalized to produce a new perspective, change through energy.
UW – W: New love coming, seeking new friends.


Nion (Ash) – Awakening, Rebirth, Peace
Gender: Male Element: Fire Planet: Sun

Magickal uses: Protection, healing, prosperity. This tree represents knowledge and health. The ogham letter is N (Nion).
An Irish tribe called the Fir Bolg (Men of the spears) used the Ash to make their spears. The spear equates with the lesser weapon of the wand. The Ash is considered the tree of the warrior. The Celtic God, Lugh is associated with the Ash.
The ash, to the ancient Teutons, represented Ygdrasill, or the world tree. The ash was often made into wands, which were used for healing.
OW – N: Awakening and communication of wisdom. New influence through age, longevity, tenure
OW – E: Abundance brings peace, fruitful communications and reward
OW – S: Happiness communicated new joy in life.
OW – W: Peace emphasized, inspiration, rebirth and hope.
MW – N: Challenges open awareness. Friction soothed by communication and influence. Renewal of efforts.
MW – E: Prosperity through communication. Peaceful, harvest
MW – S: New influence leads to harmony/contentment. Awakening to the things that matter
MW – W: New awareness through learning. Communication of knowledge. Old knowledge reborn.
UW – N: Awakening and rebirth changes endings to new beginnings and brings transformation into being.
UW – E: Rebirth of youth, awakening of growing process. Communication/new influence with youths.
UW – S: Revitalization, reenergized, vital communications, renewal of efforts.
UW – W: Love/pleasure rediscovered. Peace in relationships through communication. Love as a new influence.

Quert (Apple) – Regeneration, Eternity, life

Gender – Feminine Element – Water Planet – Venus
Wands made from this tree are for love and fertility workings. The ogham letter for the apple tree is Q (Quert). All modern apples originated from the crab apple. The apple tree is used by shamans when undergoing magickal transformations or otherworld journeys.
The word “Avalon” is a Celtic word for the otherworld and translates as “place of apple trees”. The soul of Cu Roi Mac Daire was imprisoned in an apple that resided in the stomach of a salmon which appeared once every seven years. Connla the son of Conn is fed an apple by a fairy lover which sustains him but also makes him fall hopelessly in love with her.
OW – N: Age or wisdom brings a regeneration, or a new life.
OW – E: Renewal of abundance.
OW – S: Happiness from a new life, enjoyment of beauty.
OW – W: New calmness in life, perfection in peacefulness.
MW – N: Challenge leads to a regeneration or a new life.
MW – E: Return of prosperity, upturn in fortune. Reap rewards.
MW – S: Contentment from beauty/perfection, harmony in life.
MW – W: Renewal/perfecting of knowledge.
UW – N: Ending brings regeneration. Perfection ideal changes.
UW – E: Growth brings new youthfulness. Eternally young.
UW – S: Energy and life revitalized.
UW – W: Love renewed. Love of life, beauty, the arts.

1. “Reaping a small harvest, change in prosperity”, is associated with which Few?
2. The interpretation for UW – W under Quert, is:
3. “MW” stands for.  ________  _____.
4. Ruis represents which tree?
5. OW – S:, under Nion stands for: ______  _______  –  _______.
6. “Renewal of abundance” is which world/realm?





Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods


Whispering Woods Ogham course – Lesson Eight – Word Oghams (Briatharogam)

Whispering Woods Ogham course – Lesson Eight 
Word Oghams (Briatharogam)  

In addition to the well known finger letters of the Ogham, there is another form of Ogham called “Word Ogham”.
This is done by taking the first letter of an associated group of words to represent the Ogham letter.
The Ogham (oh-yam) was a writing system, which is believed to have originated in Ireland around the late second century.

It is thought that the earlier writings in Ogham were written on wooden pieces as a method of keeping count and it was not until the late fourth century that writings were recorded on stone.
According to Celtic legend, it was Ogma, God of speech and Writing and Eloquence, and a member of the Tuatha De Danann who gave the Ogham to Lugh as a secret warning.
This secret warning was inscribed on birch and was the first letter of the Ogham “b” (beith, birch) repeated seven times.

The inscription was translated by Lugh to mean “your wife will be carried away seven times to the Otherworld unless the birch protects her.”
Following are examples of the Word Ogham:
The three phases of body, mind, and spirit are associated with the Word Ogham of Morainn (the physical), the Word Ogham of Cuchulainn (the mental), and the Word Ogham of Aonghus (the spiritual). They can also be considered as being representative of Past, Present, and Future.

Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main (the physical aspect)
Feocus foltchain, faded trunk and fair hair, that is for birch, b, in the Word Ogham, because names which Morann gave of himself to the Ogham letters, these are they which take the effect of letters in the Word Ogham.

Feocus foltchain for b, for these are two aspects of the birch, and it was hence put for the Ogham letter which has taken a name from it.
Li sula, delight of eye, that is luis, quicken tree, l, to wit, the flame.
Airinach Fian, i.e., shield of warrior-bands, i.e., shield for fern, f, with him owing to their redness in the same respect: or because the alder, the material of the shield was from fernae given to the Ogham letter which has taken a name from it.

Airenach Fian, i.e., shield, that is fern, f, with him.
Li’ n-aimbi’, hue of the lifeless, i.e., hue of one dead, to wit, am for denial, so that he is not living but is dead. Li’ n-aimbi’, again, to wit, that is sail, willow, s with him, and hence it was put for the Ogham letter.
Cosdad sida, checking of peace, that is nin, ash, n: it is the maw of a weaver’s beam as applied to wood: a sign of peace is that. A checking of peace with him is that from the ash of the weaver’s beam.
Conal cuan, pack of wolves that is uath, thorn h, for a terror to any one is a pack of wolves. Conal cuan said of the Ogham h, owing to the affinity of the name, for they are a thorn, in the same way.
Ardam dossaibh, highest of bushes, that is dur, oak, d, with respect to its wood in the forest. Trian, t, another thing the meaning of that today.
Cainin fedaib, fairest of trees, that is hazel, c, owing to its beauty in woods.
Clithar mbaiscaill, shelter of a hind, i.e., a fold: to wit, boscell, lunatic, that is bas-ceall, death sense, it is then his sense comes to him when he goes to his death.

Clithar boscell, again, that is an apple tree: or boscell, that is, hinds, to wit, they are light. Clithar boiscell, again, i.e., lunatics or hinds: quert, an apple tree, q, with reference to its letter.
Tresim fedma, strongest of effort, that is muin, vine, m, with him, i.e., owing to identity of name with muin, back of man or ox, for it is they that are the strongest in existence as regards effort.
Millsin feraib, sweeter than grasses, that is gort, ivy, g, with him owing to the identity of the name with the cornfield.

When it is in the blade, sweeter than any grass is that grass, to wit, the cornfield.

Hence for that letter in Ogham owing to the complete identity of the name between them Luth legha, a physician’s strength; that is broom, ng, because it is strength with the physicians, and there is an affinity between cath, battle, and getal, broom.

Tresim ruamna, strongest of red, that is str with him in Ogham. Straif, sloe, according to fact; for in the sloe red for dyeing the things is stronger, for it is it that makes the pale silver become azure, making it genuine (?) silver.

It is it which is boiled through the urine into the white gold so as to make it red. Tresim ruamna is the sloe according to fact. Hence it was put in the letter named str, owing to identity of name between them, i.e., straif is the name of each of them.
Tinnem ruccae, intensest of blushes, that is ruis, elderberry, r, from the reddenirig or shame according to fact, for by r it is written, and it is a reddening that grows in a man’s face ’through the juice of the herb being rubbed under it. Tindi ruccae, an ingot of a blush, again, said of the ruis, elder-berry, from shame or from reddening, for it is by r that it is itself written.
Ardam iachtadh, loudest of groanings, that is wondering, that is ailm, fir, a, with him; for it is ailm or ‘a’ a man says while groaning in disease, or wondering, that is, marvelling at whatever circumstance.
Congnamaid echraide, helper of horses, the onnaid of the chariot, i.e. the wheels, that is onn, furze, with him, for it is by onn, o, that the wheels of the chariot are written. Also, comguinidech, equally wounding, i.e. whin. Hence it was put for that letter which is named onn, o, owing to identity between them, for onn is a name for each of them; and it is from whin that the name onn was put for the Ogham letter o.
Etiud midach, robe of physicians, cath, panacea (?). Hence it was put for getal, broom, ng.
Uaraib adbaib, in cold dwellings, that is ur, fresh, with him, for from uir, the mould of the earth is the name uaraib adbaib. Hence it was put for the letter named ur, heath, in Ogham, owing to identity of name between them, each of them is ur, and it is written by u.
Ergnaid fid, distinguished wood, that is aspen with him, for ergnaid fid is a name for the trembling tree. Hence it was put for the Ogham letter named edad, aspen, for hence was edad, e, put for it.
Siniu fedaib, oldest of woods, that is idad, yew, with him; for siniu fedaib is a name for service-tree. Hence it was given to that letter in Ogham named idad, yew, i, for hence the name idad was put for it; for idad, yew, is a name for ibur, service-tree.
Snamchain feda, most buoyant of wood, that is ebad, aspen, with him, for fair swimming is wood; that is a name for the great raven. Hence it was put for the letter named the Ogham ebad, for e is a name for salmon, and it is written by ea like the alphabet of the fauna: i.e., by stag (deer), eo by eonasc (ousel).
Sruitem aicdi, most venerable of structures, i.e., oir, oi, spindle tree, according to fact. Hence it was put for the letter owing to the identity of the name that is between them, to wit, oir is the name of each of them.
Tutmur fid uilleann, juicy wood is woodbine, that is woodbine with him, for it is a name for honeysuckle. Hence it was put for the Ogham named woodbine, ui; for hence was woodbine put for it, for it is a name for honeysuckle.
Millsem feda, sweetest of wood, that is gooseberry with him, for a name for the tree called pin is millsem feda. Gooseberries are hence named. Hence it was put for the letter named pin, for hence pin, or ifin, io, was put for it.
Luad soethaig, expression of a weary one, i.e., ach, ah! uch, alas! that is emancoll, ae, with him, for emancoll is taken for ach, though it may be taken for something else. Finit WordOgham of Morann.
Word Ogham of Mac ind Oic (the spiritual aspect)
Glaisium cnis, most silvery of the skin, that is the birch of the Ogham from birch of the forest, for hence birch, b, was put for it.
Cara ceathra, friend of cattle, elm. Cara, dear to the cattle is the elm for its bloom and for down. Hence it was put for the Ogham luis, quicken tree, l, for hence was quicken tree, l, put for it.
Comet lachta, guarding of milk, that is the Ogham alder, f, from alder of the forests, for it is it that guards the milk, for of it are made the vessels containing the milk.
Luth bech, activity of bees, that is Willow s, for its bloom and for its catkin. Hence it is put for the cognate Ogham letter.
Bag ban, fight of women, ash, n, of weaver’s beam, i.e., maw of weaver’s beam. Hence for its cognate letter.
Banadh gnuisi, blanching of face, fear, huath, h, for blanched is a man’s face when he is encompassed with fear or terror. Hence for the Ogham letter owing to identity of name between the same two, uath stands for each of them.
Gres sair, carpenter’s work, oak, d. Hence it was put for its cognate Ogham letter.
Smir guaili, fires of coal, that is holly. Hence for its cognate, Ogham letter, i.e., tinne, t, for tindi is a name for holly.
Carg bloisc, friend of cracking, coll, hazel, c. Hence for its cognate Ogham letter.
Brigh an duine, force of the man, queirt, q, apple tree. Hence for its cognate letter.
Arusc n-airlig, condition of slaughter,muin a man’s back, m. Hence for its synonymous letter.
Med nerce, ivy, g. Hence for its synonymous letter,  Aforad run, increasing of secrets, sloe, str. Hence it was put for its synonymous letter.
Ruamna dreach, redness of faces, sap of the rose which causes the redness of the faces, so that blushing is in them. Ruamna dreach, again, said of the Ogham ruis, elder, r, from the blush or from the reddening, for it is by elder, r, it is itself written.
Tosach fregra, beginning of an answer, that is ailm, a; for the first expression of every human being after his birth is a.
Fethim saire, smoothest of work, or fedem, onn, stone, o.
Silad clann, growing of plants, that is ur, heath, u with him, for it is uir, the soil of the earth, that causes the growing of the plants that are put into it. Growing of plants, again, said of the soil of the earth, is said of the Ogham letter which has taken the same name with it, each of them is ur.
Comainm carat, synonym for a friend, aspen, e, in the forest. Hence for its synonymous Ogham letter.
Crinem feda, most withered of wood, or sword, service tree, i. Hence for the Ogham letter, which has taken a name other than it, idad, yew.
Cosc lobair, corrective of a sick man, woodbine for the Ogham letter, which has taken a name other than it, ebad, aspen, ea.
Li crotha, beauty of form, heath. Hence for its synonymous letter, the Ogham oi.
Cubat n-oll, great equal-length, woodbine, i.e., honeysuckle. Hence for the Ogham letter which it has taken from it, woodbine, ui.
Amram blais, most wonderful of taste, pin or ifin, gooseberry. Hence for the letter that has taken its name from it, pin or iphin, io.
 Sow Ogham 
Group B prius. White b, grey l, black f, amber s, blue n.
Group H. Accompanying litter of a white (i.e. milch-) sow h, grey d, black t, amber c, blue q.
Group M. Litter of a white sow m, grey g, black ng, amber str, blue r.
Group A. Pig-in-pen of a white sow a, grey o, black u, amber e, blue i. Diphthong group here: Hog-in-pen of a white sow ea, grey oi, black ui, amber io, blue ae.
River Pool Ogham 
Group B. Barrow b, Lower Shannon 1, Foyle f, Shannon s, Nith n.
Group H. h-Othain (Fahan) h, Dergderg d, Teith t, Catt c, Cusrat q.
Group M. Muinten m, Gaval g, Graney ng, Sruthair str, Rye r.
Group A. Aru a, Eobul, Uissen, Erbus, Indiurnn.

Fortress Ogham
Group B. Bruden, Liffey, Femen, Seolae, Nephin.
Group H. h-Ocha, Dinn Rig, Tara, Cera, Corann.
Group M. Meath, Gabur, nGarman, Streulae, Roigne.
Group A. Ae(Cualand), Odba, Usney, Navan, Islay.

Bird Ogham 
Group B. besan pheasant (?), lachu duck, faelinn gull, seg hawk, naescu snipe.
Group H. Aadaig night raven (?), droen wren, truith starling, querc hen.
Group M. mintan titmouse, geis swan, ngeigh goose, stmolach thrush, rocnat small rock (?).
Group A. aidhircleog lapwing, odoroscrach scrat (?), uiseog lark, ela swan, illait eaglet (?).

Colour Ogham
Group B. ban white, liath grey, flann red, sodath fine-coloured, necht clear.
Group H. huath terrible, dub black, temen dark grey, cron brown, quiar mouse-coloured.
Group M. mbracht variegated, gorm blue, nglas green, sorcha bright, ruadh red.
Group A. alad piebald, odhar dun, usgdha resinous, erc red, irfind very white.

Church Ogham

Group B. Bangor, Laith, Ferns Saigear, Noendruim.
Group H. h-Irard (Cluain), Durrow, Terryglass, Clonmacnois, Kildare.
Group M. Mugna, Shrule, Rahen, etc.
Group A. Armagh, etc.

Man Ogham 
Man or hero for group B, one man, two,’ three, four, five men.
Minna nobles (or women) or clerics for group H, i.e., a woman, two, three, four, five women.
Youth for group M, one youth, two, three, four, five youths.
Boy or lad for group A, one boy, two, three, four, five boys, one boy for a, two for o, three for u.

Woman Ogham 
Heroines for group B after the same procedure (or method), one for b, two for 1, thus all down.
Nuns for group H.
Maidens for group M.
Girls for group A, one for a, two for u.

Agricultural Ogham

Group B. biail axe, loman rope, fidba hedge-bill, srathar pack-saddle, nasc ring.
Group H. huartan; dabach cask, tal adze, carr waggon, cual faggot.
Group M. machad, gat withe, ngend wedge, sust flail, rusc basket.
Group A. i.e., Arathar plough, ord hammer, usca heather-brush, epit billhook, indeoin anvil.

Water Ogham 
Rivulet for group B, one rivulet for b, five for n.
Weir for group H, one weir, two, three, four, five weirs.
River for group M, one river, two, three, four; ’five rivers.
Well for group A, one well, two, three, four, five wells.

Dog Ogham 
Watch-dog for group B, one watch-dog, two, three, four, five watch-dogs.
Greyhound for group H, one greyhound, two, three, four, five greyhounds.
Herd’s dog for group M, one herd’s dog, two, three, four, five herds’ dogs.
Lapdog for group A, one lapdog, two, three, four, five lapdogs.


Ox Ogham 
Bull for group B, one bull, two, three, four, five bulls.
Ox for group H, one ox, two, three, four, five oxen.
Bullock for group M, one bullock, two, three, four, five bullocks.
Steer for group A, one steer, two, three, four, five steers.


Cow Ogham 
Milch cow for group B, one milch cow, two, three, four, five milch cows.
Stripper for group H, one stripper, two, three, four, five strippers.
Three-year-old heifer for group M, one three-year-old, two, three, four, five three-year-old heifers.
Yearling heifer for group A, etc.

Finger Ogham 
The fingers of the hand about the shinbone for the letters and to put them on the right of the shinbone for group B.

To the left for group H.

Athwart the shinbone for group M.

Straight across for group A, viz., one finger for the first letter of the groups, two for the second letter, till it would reach five for the fifth letter of whichever group it be.

Nose Ogham 
The fingers of the hands about the nose, viz., similar to right and left, athwart, across.
Saint Ogham
The name of the Saint with which it will commence is taken for the letter, viz., Brenainn, Laisren, Finnen, Sincheall, Neasan. .H-Adamnan, Donnan, Tighearnach, Cronan, Ciaran. Manchan, George, nGeminus, Strannan, Ruadhan. Aed, Oena, Ultan, Ernen, Ita.

Art Ogham 
Livelihood, pilotage, poetry, handicraft, notary work.
Trisyllabic poetry, wizardry, turning, harping, fluting.
Soldiering, smithwork, modelling, deer-stalking, dispensing.
Sovereignty, harvesting, brasswork, fowling, fishing, or yew wood work.

1. Which three of the Ogham, represent the three phases of body, mind, and spirit?
2. “Gres sair, carpenter’s work, oak, d. Hence it was put for its cognate Ogham letter”, is found in which ogham?
3. “mbracht variegated, gorm blue, nglas green, sorcha bright, ruadh red” belongs to which ogham?
4. This describes which ogham; “The fingers of the hands about the nose, viz., similar to right and left, athwart, across”?
5. Another name for word ogham is _________.
6. This represents which group of the Pool Ogham; Aru a, Eobul, Uissen, Erbus, Indiurnn?
7. Which ogham does this come from; “Millsem feda, sweetest of wood that is gooseberry with him, for a name for the tree called pin is millsem feda. Gooseberries are hence named. Hence it was put for the letter named pin, for hence pin, or ifin, io, was put for it”?


Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Seven – Ogham Hand Signing

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Seven 
Ogham Hand Signing 

Ogham is such a unique alphabet, that it can be communicated without writing it down to read. One example of this is hand signing. Following are examples of how this is done by using any straight part of the body as the “Druim” (ridgeline or spine) of the letter.

For example, a finger held rigid, along the bridge of the nose, the arm, leg and so forth can be used to communicate with ogham.
Finger spelling (dactylology) is the representation of the letters of a writing system, and in some cases numeral systems. It is a school of thought by some that finger spelling originated or was patterned off of Ogham Finger spelling.

This is a type of communication used to communicate with folks who are deaf and/or dumb.
This is also a common type of communication for monks and others who are following a vow of silence.

The earliest known printed pictures of consonants, which form the modern two-handed alphabet appeared in 1698 CE. They were listed in a pamphlet, “Digiti Lingua”, which was written by an anonymous, deaf author.

Aicme Beithe (B group)
B – Place 1 finger of the right hand below the ridgeline
L – Place two fingers of the right hand below the ridgeline
F – Place three fingers of the right hand below the ridgeline
S – Place four fingers of the right hand below the ridgeline
N – Place five fingers of the right hand below the ridgeline

Aicme Huath (H Group)
H – Place one finger of the left hand above the ridgeline
D – Place two fingers of the left hand above the ridgeline
T – Place three fingers of the left hand above the ridgeline
C – Place four fingers of the left hand above the ridgeline
Q – Place five fingers of the left hand above the ridgeline

Aicme Muine (M Group)
M – Place one finger of either hand slantwise across the ridgeline
G – Place two fingers of either hand slantwise across the ridgeline
Ng – Place three fingers of either hand slantwise across the ridgeline
Z – Place four fingers of either hand slantwise across the ridgeline
R – Place five fingers of either hand slantwise across the ridgeline

Aicme Ailme (A Group)
A – Place one finger of either hand perpendicular across the ridgeline
O – Place two fingers of either hand perpendicular across the ridgeline
U – Place three fingers of either hand perpendicular across the ridgeline
E – Place four fingers of either hand perpendicular across the ridgeline
I – Place five fingers of either hand perpendicular across the ridgeline

Forfeda – (Extra Letters)
Ch – Cross the index fingers of both hands at the ridgeline
Th – Touch the Index and Middle finger of the left and right hand together at the ridgeline
P – Interlace the Index and Middle finger of the left and right hand below the ridgeline
Ph – Spiral the Thumb or Index finger below the ridgeline
X – Interlace the four fingers of both hands above the ridgeline


1. Placing two fingers of the left hand above the ridgeline is what letter?

2. Druim is the _________.

3. Touch the Index and Middle finger of the left and right hand together at the ridgeline to form ____.

4. Placing two fingers of either hand slantwise across the ridgeline is which letter?

5. Communication with the hands is called  ______________.

6. Placing four fingers of either hand perpendicular across the ridgeline forms which letter?

7. Placing 1 finger of the right hand below the ridgeline forms which letter?



Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Six – The Fordeda’s

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Six 
The Fordeda’s  


Fifth Aicme (Consonants) Forfedas
The Forfedas (extra letters) were invented in the Old Irish period (725 CE to about 950 CE), several centuries after the peak of Ogham usage. They appear to have represented sounds felt to be missing from the original alphabet.

They are not found in any stone inscriptions. It is thought that the Benedictine monks added the forfedas in an effort to make ogham a more literary alphabet with which to record in.
The five forfeda are given as an additional vocalic aicme, with the values, found in Auraicept na n-Éces, (De dúilib feda) and In Lebor Ogaim.

It should be noted that the five forfeda are only known from manuscript tradition, which attributes to them a variety of values.


(ch / k) Éabhadh   (EHV-uh)

Aspen (True Tree)
Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main states:
Snamchain feda, most buoyant of wood, that is ebad, aspen, with him, for fair swimming is wood; that is a name for the great raven. Hence it was put for the letter named the Ogham ebad, for e is a name for salmon, and it is written by ea like the alphabet of the fauna:
From the word-oghams of Mac ind Oic:
Comainm carat, synonym for a friend, aspen, e, in the forest. Hence for its synonymous Ogham letter.
Cosc lobair, corrective of a sick man, woodbine for the Ogham letter, which has taken a name other than it, ebad, aspen, ea.

oi (th) Ór    (Oir)

Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main states:
Sruitem aicdi, most venerable of structures, i.e., oir, oi, spindle tree, according to fact. Hence it was put for the letter owing to the identity of the name that is between them, to wit, oir is the name of each of them.
From the word-oghams of Mac ind Oic:
Silad clann, growing of plants, that is ur, heath, u with him, for it is uir, the soil of the earth, that causes the growing of the plants that are put into it. Growing of plants, again, said of the soil of the earth, is said of the Ogham letter which has taken the same name with it, each of them is ur.

ui (io, ph) Uilleann    (Uilen)

Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main states:
Tutmur fid uilleann, juicy wood is woodbine, that is woodbine with him, for it is a name for honeysuckle. Hence it was put for the Ogham named woodbine, ui; for hence was woodbine put for it, for it is a name for honeysuckle.
From the word-oghams of Mac ind Oic:
Cubat n-oll, great equal-length, woodbine, i.e., honeysuckle. Hence for the Ogham letter which it has taken from it, woodbine, ui.

ia (p / pe) Ifín     (Iphín)

Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main states:
Millsem feda, sweetest of wood, that is gooseberry with him, for a name for the tree called pin is millsem feda. Gooseberries are hence named. Hence it was put for the letter named pin, for hence pin, or ifin, io, was put for it.
From the word-oghams of Mac ind Oic:
Amram blais, most wonderful of taste, pin or ifin, gooseberry. Hence for the letter that has taken its name from it, pin or iphin, io.

ae (x / xi) Eamhancholl    (Emancholl)

Word Ogham of Morann Mac Main states:
Luad soethaig, expression of a weary one, i.e., ach, ah! uch, alas! that is emancoll, ae, with him, for emancoll is taken for ach, though it may be taken for something else. Finit WordOgham of Morann.
The name Eamhancholl means “twinned C”, referring to the shape of the letter, and gives no indication of sound value.
1. The Forfedas were invented in the ___   _____ period.
2. Comainm carat, is which Ogham?
3. Honeysuckle is called?
4. The name Eamhancholl means ________   __.



Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Five – 4th. Aicme

Whispering Woods Ogham Course
Lesson Five – 4th. Aicme


4th. Aicme:

Ailm (AHL-m)

Silver Fir (Abies spp.)
Ailm (AHL-m) elm * In Ireland Ailm refers to the elm (Ulmus procera) which grows all over Ireland.
The Silver Fir is known as the Birth Tree. It was the original Christmas tree from central Europe. The needles are burned at childbirth to bless and protect the mother and baby. Burn Silver Fir for Happiness; Harmony; Peace; Inspiration; and Wisdom.
To a witch, the cones, warn of wet weather and foretells when a dry season approaches. Its cones respond to the environment by opening with the sun and closing with rain.
It offers a clear perception of the present and the future, its wood is used for shape-shifting and magic involving change.

Onn (UHN)

Furze, or Gorse (Ulex europaeus)
Onn (UHN), furze – Furze, or gorse, is a thorny shrub growing to six feet tall. It grows in heaths, moors, pastures, and open woodlands. It produces bright yellow flowers around the time of the spring equinox, which were very popular in pagan fertility rituals throughout Europe and the British Isles for many centuries. It is not often cultivated in North America, but is a serious weed in central California and some other areas. Furze is a member of the Pea family (Fabaceae, or Leguminosae).
Furze/Gorse is associated with the Spring Equinox. Furze is a symbol of fertility and has the magickal uses of protection and money. Furze is a good herb to use as a protection against evil. In Wales hedges of the prickly Gorse are used to protect the home against dark fairies, which cannot penetrate the hedge.
Furze indicates a time of life changing events through the acquisition of knowledge.

Úr (OO-r)

Heather  (Calluna vulgaris)
Ura (OO-rah), heather – Heather is a shrub growing to six feet. It is a major component of the vegetation type called “heath”, the source of the term “heathen”. It is evergreen, and produces bell-shaped pinkish flowers in the late summer.

There are a number of other plants called “heath” or “heather” in the genera Erica, Phyllodoce, and Cassiope, relatives of Calluna, and are similar in appearance. Calluna is cultivated in North America with several Erica species from other parts of the world. Heather is a member of the Heath family (Ericaceae).
A tea made from the leaves of the Heather was used as an aphrodisiac.
Heather is sometimes carried as protection against rape and violent crime.
Heather is one of the Fairy flowers, and is said to light the flame of fae passions, and may open the portals between the fae world and the human realm.
Make an offering of Heather on “Beltane” eve to attract faeries to your garden.
It is the Midsummer Tree of the Summer Solstice. When it’s burned with fern, heather will attract rain.

Eadha (EH-yah)

Poplar (Populus tremula)
Eadha (EH-yuh), poplar – The aspen grows to 65 feet along rivers. It sprouts from the base and may form clumps or thickets. The black poplar (Populus nigra L.) reaches 100 feet in sandy and gravely soil along rivers. The white poplar (Populus Alba L.) is of similar size and habitat, but is more common in southern Europe. Both species are cultivated in North America (the “Lombardy poplar” is a form of black poplar). The North American aspen (P. tremuloides) is very similar to the European aspen. Poplars are members of the Willow family (Salicaceae).
Poplar is commonly referred to as the talking, whispering and quivering tree. In Irish Gaelic, it is known as “Crann Critheac”, the quivering tree.  It is a keeper of language, but it can keep no secrets.
Poplar was used by the ancients to make shields; it is believed to have the power to protect from death and injury.

Iodhadh (EE-yoh)

Yew (Taxus baccata)
Idho (EE-yoh), iodho (EE-woh), yew – The yew is a slow-growing conifer, living as long as 1000 years and reaching 65 feet, they are known for their strength and resistance to the cold. It is much less common in recent times because of overharvesting (it’s hard, springy wood was the source of English longbows). The evergreen needles are very broad, and the seeds are produced in red, berry-like cones. Yew is in the Yew family (Taxaceae).
The Yew is regarded as a natural emblem of everlasting life.
In Irish mythology, the yew is one of the five sacred trees brought from the Otherworld at the division of the land into five parts. Known as the Tree of Ross, it was said to be the “offspring of the tree that is in Paradise”, and it brought lasting plenty to Ireland. In the Brehon Laws, it is named as one of the Seven Chieftain Trees, with heavy penalties for felling one.
Staves of yew were kept in pagan graveyards in Ireland where they were used for measuring corpses and graves (taking ones measure).
In the bardic schools, poets used staves of yew to help them memorize long incantations. It is said that the poet “Cesarn” cut (the words) in Ogham into 4 rods of yew. Each was 24′ long and had 8 sides.
In “The Wooing of Etaine”, the beautiful heroine was abducted from her husband, Eochaid, who searched for her for a year and a day to no avail. Finally, he sought the help of his druid, Dallan, who made four rods of yew and inscribed them with Ogham. Through this means he discovered that Etaine was in the sidh of Bri Leith, with the faery king, Midir.
Yew is one of the nine sacred trees for kindling Beltane fires.

1. Furze is a good herb to use as a protection against _________.
2. Heather is one of the _______   ________.
3. Staves of yew were kept in pagan _________.
4. The Silver Fir is known as the ______   ____.




Source: Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods


Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Four – 3rd. Aicme

Whispering Woods Ogham Course  
Lesson Four – 3rd. Aicme 


3rd. Acime

Muin (MUHN)

vine (Rubus fruticosa)
Muin (MUHN, like “foot”), blackberry* In Ireland Muin refers to the Bramble or Blackberry shrub, which grows wild along every hedgerow in Ireland it has a prickly spreading vine system and fruits in September a rich fruity wine can be made from the fruits.
The Vine is considered one of the Chieftain trees of the Ogham. Its attributes involve Inner development. Vine is considered a tree of reincarnation and eternal life due to the spiraling pattern of its growth. The Blackberry vine is often used in healing and money spells.

Gort (GORT)

Ivy (Hedera helix)
Gort (GORT), ivy – Ivy is also a vine, growing to 100 feet long in beech woods and around human habitations, where it is widely planted as a ground cover. Ivy produces greenish flowers before Samhain on short, vertical shrubby branches.

The leaves of these flowering branches lack the characteristic lobes of the leaves of the rest of the plant. Like holly, ivy is evergreen, its dark green leaves striking in the bare forests of midwinter. Ivy is widely cultivated in North America.

It is a member of the Ginseng family (Araliaceae).
The Greek God of Wine, “Bacchus”, wore a crown of ivy.
Ivy is the plant badge of the Gordons who originated in the lowlands of Scotland.
The Greeks and Druid priests gave newlyweds wreaths of ivy to confer a blessing of strength and eternal love. Bards were presented Ivy crowns for their festivals (Eistedfods).
Ivy invokes protection when planted on or near a house.  Ivy is equated with fidelity and is woven into marriage wreaths.

It is also used in charms to bind luck, love, and fidelity to your person.

nGéatal (NYEH-dl)

Reed (Phragmites australis)
Ngetal (NYEH-tl), reed – The term “reed” is used with great imprecision in North America, but it is clear that the reed of the Ogham is the common reed (Phragmites australis).

This is a giant grass, with stems as high as 12 feet. It grows in marshy areas, where it often forms dense stands.

The vertical stems live only a single year, dying in the autumn and being replaced with new green shoots in the spring. The dead stems rattle and whisper in lateautumn winds.

In North America it is widespread in cooler climates. Common reed is in the Grass family (Poaceae, or Gramineae).

Reed indicates direct action, and finding direction and meanings for the purpose of your journey. The Reed is symbolic of music, bagpipes and flutes.
A broken reed is the symbol of all that is untrustworthy, for it shows something that is rigid and inflexible. Reed is associated with the salmon of wisdom and most waterfowl.
Cut Reeds were used as pens and symbolized wisdom and scholarship.


Straif (STRAHF)

Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa)
Straif (STRAHF), blackthorn – The blackthorn is a relative of cherries and plums, and is the source of the sloe fruit. The fruit has been used for centuries to make a potent alcohol that was drunk during Pagan rituals in Eastern Europe, and in British Isles.

It is a thorny shrub growing to 12 feet, often forming thickets on south-facing slopes. The blue-black fruits are edible, but bitter until after the first frost. Blackthorns are seldom cultivated in North America. They are members of the Rose family (Rosaceae).
Blackthorn is depicted in many fairytales throughout Europe as a tree of ill omen. A long hard winter is referred to as a Blackthorn Winter.
It is a sacred tree to the Dark, or Crone aspect of the Triple Goddess, and represents the Waning and Dark Moons. Blackthorn is known as “the increaser and keeper of dark secrets”.
The tree is linked with warfare, wounding and death, associated with the Scottish Cailleach – the Crone of Death, and the Irish Morrigan. In Scotland, winter begins when the Cailleach (also the Goddess of winter) strikes the ground with Her Blackthorn staff.
A black rod is a Blackthorn wand with fixed thorns on the end, used to cause harm to others. In British folklore, a witch will use a Blackthorn stang in rituals of cursing. The sharp thorns were reputedly used by English witches to pierce poppets in their curses, called the “pins of slumber”.
In South Devon folklore in England, witches and heretics were burned on Blackthorn pyres. The Devil was said, in medieval times, to prick his follower’s fingers with the thorn of a Blackthorn tree.
The Irish cudgel is called a “bata”, or more popularly, a shillelagh. The shillelagh is usually made from Blackthorn.
In England Witches would carve the Norse rune “Thorn” on a Blackthorn stave for protection.
Blackthorn often topped the Maypole entwined with Hawthorn, and is called “Mother of the Woods”.


Elder (Sambucus nigra)
Ruis (RWEESH), elder: The common elder is a shrub growing to 30 feet in damp clearings, along the edge of woods, and especially near habitations. Elders are grown for their blackish berries, which are used for preserves and wine. The leaf scars have the shape of a crescent moon. Elder branches have broad spongy pith in their centers, much like the marrow of long bones, and an elder branch stripped of its bark is very bone-like. Common elders are seldom seen in cultivation. Elders are in the Honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae).

Elder is sacred to the Celtic White Lady and the Summer Solstice. The Elder is a tree of Venus and is associated with the element of Air.
Early European legends tell of a dryad called Hylde-moer, The Elder Tree Mother, who lives in the Elder tree and watches over it. Should the tree be chopped down and furniture made of the wood, Hylde-moer would follow her property and haunt the owners.
Elder as a Vampire protection is older folklore than the lore about garlic.
It is said in Irish folklore that it is Elder which is used by witches for their magic “hobby horses” and besoms.
The Elder is also seen in a negative light by the Christian religion, since Judas allegedly hanged himself from an Elder tree and the cross used to crucify Jesus was supposed to be made of Elder.
According to the Rede; Elder is the Lady’s Tree, burn it not or cursed ye be!

1. Which Greek God wore a crown of ivy?
2. The Devil used thorns from which tree to prick his victims?
3. The Vine is a  ________  tree.
4. Pins of Slumber come from which tree?



Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson 3 – Second Aicme

Whispering Woods Ogham Course
Lesson 3 – Second Aicme


2nd. Aicme

hÚath (OO-ah)

Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)
Huath (HOO-ah), hawthorn – Like willows, hawthorns have many species in Europe, and they are not always easy to tell apart. All are thorny shrubs in the Rose family (Rosaceae), and most have whitish or pinkish flowers. The common hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata) are both widespread. They are common in abandoned fields and along the edges of forests. Both are cultivated in North America, as are several native and Asiatic hawthorns.
Hawthorn is a druid sacred herb which is associated with the Summer Solstice.
Hawthorn is the classic flower used to decorate a maypole as it is considered to be a herb of fertility. At one time Beltain was once reckoned as the day the hawthorn first bloomed.
Hawthorn is sacred to the fairies, and is part of the tree fairy triad of Britain “Oak, Ash and Thorn” and where all three trees grow together it is said that one may see fairies.

Duir (DOO-r)

Oak (Quercus spp.)
Duir (DOO-r), oak – The oak of myth and legend is the common oak (Quercus robur L.).   It is sometimes called the great oak, which is a translation of its Latin name (‘robur’ is the root of the English word “robust”).

It grows in the lowland forests, and can reach a height of 150 feet and age of 800 years. Common oaks are deciduous, losing their leaves before Samhain and growing new leaves in the spring so that the trees are fully clothed by Beltane.

Common oaks are occasionally cultivated in North America. Oaks are members of the Beech family (Fagaceae).

In Scandinavia the oak is considered to be the tree of the Thunder God, Thor”.

Pliny writes that the Druids performed all their religious rites in oak-groves, where they gathered mistletoe from the trees with a golden sickle. The word “Druid” means wise man of the oak.

Strabo describes three Galatians tribes (Celts living in Asia Minor) as holding their councils at a place called, “Drunemeton”, the “oak grove sanctuary”. Druids of Gaul ate acorns as a way of divining the future.

Kildare, where St. Brighid founded her abbey, derives from “Cill-dara”, the Church of the Oak.
The sacrifice at Nemi took place at Summer Solstice, which brings us to the battle between the Oak King personifying the waxing wear, and the Holly King, who ruled the waning year.

At Midsummer, as the year began its turn towards the dark again, the Holly was victorious, but at Midwinter, the Oak King defeated the forces of darkness once again, revealing himself as a Vegetation God who must die each year so that Life can be renewed. It is not surprising, then, that images of the Green Man carved in wood and stone in mediaeval churches most frequently show oak leaves growing out of his ears and mouth.

In the Welsh story “Math, son of Mathonwy”. The hero Lleu is betrayed and killed, but after his “death” he turns into an eagle and perches atop a magical oak tree on a plain, where he suffered “nine-score hardships”.

In Cornwall, a nail driven into an oak cured toothache, while in Wales, rubbing the oak with the palm of your left hand on Midsummer’s Day kept you healthy all year.

Tinne (CHIN-yuh)

Holly (Ilex aquifolium)
Tinne (CHIN-yuh), holly – The holly is a shrub growing to 35 feet in open woodlands and along clearings in forests. Hollies are evergreen, and stand out in winter among the bare branches of the deciduous forest trees that surround them.

Hollies form red berries before Samhain which last until the birds finish eating them, often after Imbolc. Hollies are members of the Holly family (Aquifoliaceae).

The common holly is often cultivated in North America, as are hybrids between it and Asiatic holly species

The Holly or kerm-oak is the evergreen twin of the Oak and rules the dark or waning part of the year. The Sun-king is called the Holly King or Dark Successor (Tanist) in the Druid Calendar. The Oak and the Holly form the pillars of a bridge that crossed the “Rainbow River” flowing into the entrance of Gwynvyd.
The Romans, observed the custom of sending holly boughs, along with other gifts, to celebrate Saturnalia.
In Arthurian legend, Gawain (representing the Oak King of summer) fought the Green Knight, who was armed with a holly club to represent winter.

The holly is the plant badge of the Scottish clans of Drummond, Innes, Maclean, MacNab and Matheson.
Holly has been used throughout the ages as a protection against evil. It was also hung around houses as a protection against lightning.

 Coll (CULL)

Hazel (Corylus avellana)
Coll (CULL), hazel – The hazel is the source of hazelnuts. The wood of the hazel shrub has been used for centuries in the making of wands. It forms a shrub up to 20 feet tall, inhabiting open woodlands and scrubs, hedgerows, and the edges of forests. The filbert nut in North American is Corylus maxima, a related species.

The European hazelnut is cultivated in North America, primarily as an ornamental. Hazelnuts are in the Birch family (Betulaceae).

Hazel wood is one of the nine traditional firewood’s that is part of the Balefire, which the Druid’s burned at Beltane. Hazel is known as the tree of Wisdom. Staffs made of Hazel were once considered as a sign of authority among the Druids.

Celtic legend tell of a grove of Hazel trees below which was a well, a pool, where salmon swam. These trees contained all knowledge, and their fruit contained that knowledge and wisdom in a nutshell. As the hazelnuts ripened, they would fall into the well where they were eaten by the salmon. With each nut eaten, the salmon would gain another spot.

In order to gain the wisdom of the Hazel, the Druids caught and prepared the salmon. But Fionn, the young man stirring the pot in which the salmon were cooking, accidentally burned his thumb with the boiling stew. By reflex, he put his thumb into his mouth and thus ingested the essence of the sacred feast; he instantly gained the wisdom of the universe.

The Hazel is a tree that is considered sacred to the Faeries. A wand of hazel can be used to call the Fey forth. In Irish folklore, the Hazel tree was the home of “Bile Ratha”, the poetic fairy.

Quert (KWAIRT)

Apple  (Malus spp.)
Quert (KWAIRT), apple – When most of us think of apples, we think of the domestic apple, but the ogham tree was most likely the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Miller). This tree grows to 30 feet in moist fertile soils in oak woodlands, and has been extensively cultivated. The fruits are small versions of the domestic apple, and also show the pentacle when cut across.

Cultivated crabapples in North America are usually Asian species, but this species is a common rootstock for apple trees. Apples are in the Rose family (Rosaceae).

The Common Apple or Wild Apple (Malus sylvestris) is native to Europe and Western Asia. Petrified remains of apple slices on saucers have been found in tombs dating back over 5,000 years.

In Scotland, the Crabapple is the plant badge of Clan Lamont, whose Highland territories were around Cornwall and Argyll.

In Norse tradition, the Apple is the tree of immortality. The Goddess Idunn was the keeper of the apples, which she fed the Norse Gods and Goddesses to keep them forever young. Apple wands were also used in Norse love rituals.

The Earth Goddess, Gaia, gave Hera, the Queen of Heaven, an apple tree when she married the Chief God, Zeus.

That tree was kept in the Garden of the Hesperides, guarded by the dragon, Ladon. One of Hercules’ tasks was to fetch an apple from that tree.

In Celtic tradition, the Otherworldly Avalon was also known as the Avallach, the Isle of Apples, ruled by Fairy Queen, Morgan le Fay.

This is the land of fairies and the dead, where King Arthur was taken to be healed by his sister, Morgan. Like their cousins to the North, the Celts attributed the power of healing and youth, or rebirth, to apples.
And when this course is over I expect a big, red juicy apple (grin).

Apples are sometimes buried in churchyards in an effort to feed the dead.

In the Welsh “Câd Goddeu” (The Battle of the Trees), the Apple is described as the noblest tree of them all, the tree that symbolized poetic immortality.

In the Irish Druid tradition, the Silver Bough is cut from a magical Apple tree, where silver apple shaped bells played a mystical tune, which could lull people into a trance state. Druids could make contact with the Otherworld during a trance enhanced by this silver apple bough.

The Druid Merlin was purported to work in a magical Apple Grove guarded by birds, revealed to him by his master, Gwendolleu.

He was said to receive the gift of prophecy from the Faerie Queen, conferred through the consumption of one of her magic apples. Merlin was also said to take shelter under an apple tree during his bout with madness.

Bards (poets) and Ovates (shamans) carried apple branches, (with bronze, silver, or gold bells), called the “Craobh Ciuil” (Branch of Reason) as symbols of their office.

1. The word Druid means ______   ___   ____.

2. The evergreen twin of the Oak is the ___________.

3. In the Câd Goddeu, the Apple tree is described as the _______ tree of them all.

4. Hawthorn is associated with the ________ ______.

Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson Two – First Aicme

Whispering Woods Ogham Course
Lesson Two – First Aicme



The most familiar Ogham system in use today is the Tree Ogham. The Tree Ogham is split up into; eight Chieftain Trees, eight peasant trees and eight shrub trees. In lessons two through five we will take a look at each group of five and their associations. We can develop a deeper understanding of each letter by understanding its connections with each tree.
1st Aicme:
Ogham Symbol Sound/Letter Name Associated Tree
Beith – pronounced (BETH) Birch (Betula pendula Roth)
Beth (BEH), birch – The silver birch is the most common birch in much of Europe. It is one of the first trees to colonize an area after a mature forest is harvested; this is probably a large part of its symbolic connection with new beginnings. It grows up to 100 feet high, but is more often found in spreading clumps on sandy soils. The common birch (B. pubescens Ehrh.) is almost as widespread as the silver birch, but grows primarily on acid or peaty soils; it can reach 65 feet in height.
The word “birch” derives from a root meaning ‘bright’ or ‘shining’ Because of its connection to renewal; the birch has been utilized in many cultures. In Scandinavia, switches of birch are used on the body to stimulate the process of purification in the sauna. In ancient Britain the birch rod was used as a rod to purify the criminal of their misdeeds, and in some cases it was used to expel evil spirits from those deemed insane.In many cultures, including the Shamanic beliefs, the birch is seen as the “Axis Mundi”, (Cosmic World Tree). Often, baby cradles were made out of birch because of its power to drive out evil influences and its association with renewal.
Luis – pronounced (LWEESH) Rowan (Sorbus aucuparia)
Luis (LWEESH), rowan – the rowan, or mountain ash is related to serviceberries. The red berries were historically used to lure birds into traps, and the specific epithet “aucupari’a” comes from words meaning “to catch a bird”. Rowans thrive in poor soils and colonize disturbed areas. In some parts of Europe they are most common around ancient settlements, either because of their weedy nature or because they were introduced by humans. Rowans flower in May. They grow to 50 feet and are members of the Rose family (Rosaceae). They are cultivated in North America, especially in the northeast.
The rowan is sometimes called “the Whispering Tree” because it is thought that the tree held secrets. The rowan is also associated with protection against witchcraft and bad luck. Rowan twigs were placed above doorways and barns to protect the inhabitants against misfortune and evil spirits.
Rowan stakes were driven into corpses to stop their ghosts from visiting, especially when they died from acts of violence. The Druids used rowan fires with incantations to summon spirits to help them portend in forthcoming battles.
Scottish tradition does not allow the use of the Rowan tree’s timber, bark, leaves or flowers, nor the cutting of these trees, except for sacred purposes under extenuating circumstances.
Rowan is also called the Witch Tree, or Wicken Tree, and can be used for divining precious metals.
Fearn – pronounced (FAIR-n) Alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertner)
Fearn (FAIR-n), alder – The common alder is often found along lowland rivers, where it grows with aspens and willows. Like willows, alders sprout from stumps–this allows them to regenerate after heavy flooding. In protected sites they may grow to 65 feet tall. Their leaves are more blunt-tipped than most North American alders, which look more like the grey alder (A. incana (L.) Moench). Like ashes, European alders are not widely cultivated in North American (they are often sold as black alders), but several native species are. Alders are members of the Birch family (Betulaceae).
The old superstition of “whistling up the wind” comes from making a whistle out of Alder.
Alder figures into a couple of ancient mythologies. Scandinavian mythology tells us the first woman was fashioned from an Alder trunk. In Irish mythology the first man was said to be made from an Alder.
The Alder is known as the “King of the Fairies”.
In Homer’s Odyssey Alder is named the first of the three trees of resurrection. The two other are White Poplar and Cypress.
In Denmark and Germany, the spirit of the Alder tree was said to carry children off to the Otherworld. An example of this belief can be found in Goethe’s ballad “The Erl-konig” (The Alder King).
Sail – pronounced (SHAiLuh) Willow (Salix spp.)
Saille (SAHL-yuh), willow – Like North America, Europe is home to a large number of willow species Two common tree willows are the white willow (Salix alba) named for the whitish undersides of its leaves, and the crack willow (Salix fragilis) for the propensity of its branches to “crack” off (probably another adaptation to flooding). Both species grow along with poplars and alders along lowland rivers. They can reach 80 feet in height, and they both vigorously sprout from stumps. The white willow is sometimes grown in cultivation in North America. Willows are members of the Willow family (Salicaceae).
The Willow is often the symbol for the Ovate Grade of Druid. According to Druidic mysteries, two scarlet snake eggs were hidden within the Willow. The Universe was hatched from these two eggs, one containing the Sun, the other the Earth, relating to both cosmic birth and the birth of mankind. Traditionally, in spring rituals, these were replaced by hen’s eggs, colored scarlet for the Sun and eaten at Beltane. This rite later became the Christian celebration of Easter.
In Sumer, 4000 BCE, Ishtar’s predecessor, Belili, was known as the Willow Mother.
Orpheus, the poet, was said to have received his Gift by touching the Willows in a grove sacred to Persephone. Brighid has Her Fire festival, Imbolc, or Brigantia, during the Willow month
The Willow tree has been associated with death, grief and cemeteries, the leaves themselves symbolizing unrequited love or the loss of a lover. The leaf has also been worn as a charm to protect against jealousy.
Willow has been used in the Sacred Pipes and the tobacco blends of many Native Americans because it is thought that it is most effective in carrying messages to the Great Spirit.
Nion – (NEE-uhn) Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)
Nion (NEE-uhn), Ash is a major tree of lowland forests in much of Europe, along with oaks and beeches. It grows to 130 feet in open sites, with a broad crown reminiscent of American elm trees. Ash was and still is an important timber tree, and is a traditional material for the handle of a besom; it is also a popular wood for wands. The common ash is occasionally cultivated in North America, and similar native ash species are widely grown as street trees. Ashes are members of the Olive family (Oleaceae).
The wood of the Ash is thought to be enchanted and was used by the Druids to fashion wands and spears.
At one time, children would be passed through the branches of an Ash in order that they might be protected and to cure them from illness. Ash leaves were placed under pillows to induce prophetic dreams or placed in bowls of water to ward off ailments.
The Celts believed that the Ash originated in the Great Deep or the Undersea Land of Tethys. It belongs to the trilogy of sacred Irish trees (the other two being the Oak and Hawthorn) and is said to offer particular protection from death by drowning.
The seeds of the Ash have long been used in love divination. If the seeds did not appear on a certain tree, then its owner was thought to have been unlucky in love or a future venture would be unsuccessful.
In Northern England, it was believed that if a woman placed an Ash leaf in her left shoe, then she would be fortunate enough to immediately meet her future spouse. In Greece, the Ash was sacred to the Sea God Poseidon.
In Norse mythology, the Ash is known as “Yggdrasil” (Cosmic World Tree). It was from this tree that Odin hung upside down from for nine days in order to obtain the runes. Also in Norse legend, it was an Ash which spanned the universe, with its roots in Hel and its boughs supporting the Heavens and Earth at its center.
In Celtic lore, the Ash connected the three circles of existence; Abred, Gwynedd and Ceugant.
1. Stakes from which tree was used to stop ghosts from visiting?

2. The Celts believe that the Ash originated from where?

3. Whistling up the wind is associated with which tree?

4. Bright or shining refers to which tree?


Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson One

 Whispering Woods Ogham Course – Lesson One


The Ogham “OH-ehm” alphabet is referred to as “beth luis nion”. The name represents the names of the first, second, and fifth letters of the Ogham alphabet.

The letters themselves consist of one to five perpendicular or angled strokes, meeting or crossing a centerline.
These letters were often inscribed in wood or stone. The alphabet itself consists of twenty letters and fivediphthongs.
The first twenty letters are divided into three sets of five consonants and one set of five vowels.

The five diphthongs were thought to have been added later to ease the transition from Latin to ancient Irish.

There is an understanding that the names of the main twenty letters are also the names of 20 trees which are sacred to the druids.

Vowels were sometimes described as a combination of dots.

The midline was often, the edge of the object on which the inscription was carved; this is called a “Druim” which means ridge or spine.
The “Eite” (feather) and “Eite thuathail” (reversed feather) symbols are used at the beginning and end of sentences respectively.
A 15th century treatise on Ogham, “The Book of Ballymote”, confirms that ogham was a secret, ritualistic language.
According to the Highland Society of Scotland’s Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (1828 CE), Ogham is the “occult” manner of writing used by the ancient Irish.

The primary manuscript sources for information on Ogham are “The Scholars Primer” (Auraicept Na nEces), “Values of the Forfeda” (De Duilib Feda na Forfid) and the “Book of Ogham” (Leber Ogam).


These sources are quoted in the 12th century Book of Leinster and the 14th century manuscript, the Book of Ballymote.
One legend has it that the Scythian king, Fenius Farsa (or Fenius Farsaidh), visited the Tower of Babel shortly after its destruction, only to find that that the builders of the tower had already dispersed.

Fenius stayed at the tower, but sent out seventy-two scholars to study each of the seventytwo languages that were now spoken by the builders of the tower.

After ten years the scholars returned, and Fenius took the best parts of each language in order to create a “selected language”, which he named Goidelic after his companion Goídel mac Ethéoir.

Fenius is also reputed to have discovered four writing systems, Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Ogham, and as Ogham was the most perfect of the four it was chosen for writing the Goidelic (Gaelic) language.
And others believe that the Ogham may be related to a 13 month lunar calendar. This line of thought comes from the book “The White Goddess” by Robert Graves.

I personally don’t subscribe to this particular concept as put forth by Mr. Graves.
Ogham is used as a source of divination, but I personally believe that this is a rather modern adaption of this ancient alphabet, as there are no documents supporting such a use in ancient times.

For the most part, all the Ogham inscriptions that exist are burial monuments, property divisions, or landmarks.
The Ogham was written from the bottom to top or occasionally from left to right.


The greatest concentration of surviving ogham inscriptions are in southern Ireland. A 1945 survey found 121 in Kerry and 81 in Co. Cork, while others are scattered throughout Ireland, Great Britain, and the Isle of Man, with five in Cornwall, about thirty in Scotland, mainly in ‘Pictish’ areas, and more than forty in Wales.


Similar carvings have been found in the state of West Virginia in the USA. This has led to some speculation that the Celts may have come to the New World as early as 100 BCE.
The name Ogham or Ogam was derived from the Celtic God of Literature and Eloquence, “Ogma”.  To the Gaul’s, he was known as “Ogmios”. Ogma was also known as Cermait (Honey-Mouthed), and Grianainech (Sunny-Faced).

He was a son of the Daghda and that he created the ogham and presented it to the druids. He was said to lead his followers around by chains of gold and amber that lead from his tongue to their ears.
He was considered a “strong man” of the Tuatha De Danann and was often compared to the Greek, ‘Hercules”. It is thought that he resides in a Sidhe called “Airceltrai”.

1. The Ogham consists of how many letters?
2. The midline is called the _________.
3. The Book of Ballymote is a 15th. Century treatise on  _______.
4. Robert Graves states that Ogham is related to a 13 month _____   ______.
5. The names of the main 20 letters are also the names of   ___   ______.
6. Ogham was created by the God _______.
7. The _____ is the symbol used at the beginning of each sentence.



Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Whispering Woods Ogham Course

Since the last two days have been so screwed up. We have decided to give all our precious family members & friends a special treat, an Ogham Course. This is just the first of two courses we will be providing today. The second course is a tie between a Basic Rune course or a Comprehensive Crystal course. Both are wonderful course and provided by our dear friend, Crick. He has given us permission to publish these courses on our site. For that I am deeply grateful. If you enjoy the course, stop by at The Whispering Woods and leave Crick a thank you for being so generous with his research.

Now let’s being our course in Ogham…..

Whispering Woods Ogham Course


The Ogham alphabet consists of twenty distinct letters which are known as “feda”. They are arranged in four series called aicmí (plural of aicme “family”).  Each aicme was named after its first character (Aicme Beithe, Aicme hÚatha, Aicme Muine, Aicme Ailme, or “the B Group”, “the H Group”, “the M Group” and “the A Group”).

The Ogham Tract also gives a variety of around 100 variant or secret modes of writing Ogham (92 in the Book of Ballymote), for example the “Shield Ogham” (ogam airenach, nr. 73). Even the Younger Futhark is introduced as a kind of “Viking Ogham” (nrs. 91, 92). The Druids of yore were said to be very efficient at Ogham writing and signing.


Researcher & Author: Crick

Website: The Whispering Woods

Your Current Moon Phase for August 11th is Waning Crescent

August 10
Waning Crescent
Illumination: 16%

The Moon today is in a Waning Crescent phase. In this phase the Moon’s illumination in growing smaller each day until the New Moon. During this phase the Moon is getting closer to the Sun as viewed from Earth and the night side of the Moon is facing the Earth with only a small edge of the Moon being illuminated. This phase is best viewed an hour or 2 before the sunrise and can be quite beautiful if you’re willing to get up early. It can also be a great time to see the features of the Moon’s surface. Along the edge where the illuminated portion meets the dark side, the craters and mountains cast long shadows making them easier to observe with a telescope or binoculars.

Phase Details for – Monday, August 10, 2015

Phase: Waning Crescent
Illumination: 16%
Moon Age: 25.62 days
Moon Angle: 0.52
Moon Distance: 384,089.98 km
Sun Angle: 0.53
Sun Distance: 151,634,519.80 km