Saturday, March 31, 2018
Socializing starts at 3:45 PM CT
Circle Cast at 4:15 PM CT
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Coven Life’s Chat Room
WHAT YOU WILL NEED:
1 Blue 12 inch/30.48 cm Taper Candle
1 Candle Holder
Lighter or Matches
Atheme or Something Sharp to engrave candle
Use Rune markings for two similar things you want to bring into your life. Here is a picture of the alphabet:
You will be engraving your candle during the ritual. Please see comment below for correct way to draw your rune.
During a circle when asked if you, “Come in perfect love and perfect trust” it is referring to you coming into the circle trusting and loving not only in your brothers and sisters in the circle but in the spiritual path you are following also.
Today some of us are in the waning part of the day and the waxing part of the night. While others are…
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THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE
In that day of the chase, there was one enterprise renowned above all others, the great hunt of Calydon. Thither, in search of high adventure, went all the heroes of Greece, just as they joined the quest of the Golden Fleece, and, in a later day, went to the rescue of Fair Helen in the Trojan War.
For Oeneus, king of Calydon, had neglected the temples of Diana, and she had sent a monstrous boar to lay waste all the fields and farms in the country. The people had never seen so terrible a beast, and they soon wished that they had never offended the goddess who keeps the woods clear of such monsters. No mortal device availed against it, and, after a hundred disasters, Prince Meleager, the son of Oeneus, summoned the heroes to join him in this perilous hunt.
The prince had a strange story. Soon after his birth, Althea, the queen, had seen in a vision the three Fates spinning the thread of life and crooning over their work. For Clotho spins the thread, Lachesis draws it out, and Atropos waits to cut it off with her glittering shears. So the queen beheld them, and heard them foretell that her baby should live no longer than a brand that was then burning on the hearth. Horror inspired the mother. Quick as a thought she seized the brand, put out the flame, and laid it by in some safe and secret place where no harm could touch it. So the child gathered strength and grew up to manhood.
He was a mighty hunter, and the other heroes came gladly to bear him company. Many of the Argonauts were there, Jason, Theseus, Nestor, even Atalanta, that valorous maiden who had joined the rowers of the Argo, a beloved charge of Diana. Boyish in her boldness for wild sports, she was fleet of foot and very lovely to behold, altogether a bride for a princely hunter. So Meleager thought, the moment that he saw her face.
Together they all set out for the lair of the boar, the heroes and the men of Calydon,–Meleager and his two uncles. Phlexippus and Toxeus, brothers of Queen Althea…..Read More
THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE
During Caesars’ fight for the control of Gaul he finally came to the understanding, that the one unifying force of the Celts was their religion. The Druid held a promenade place in Celtic society, they administered as judges and advisors amongst other duties. The following are exerts from his communiqués to Rome concerning the progress and his perspective on the war. Caesar acknowledged their power and authority and decided to discredit and destroy the Druids, in an effort to complete his conquest of Gaul.
Book VI (53BCE) Customs of the Gauls:
“The two privileged classes are the Druids and the knights. The Druids are in charge of Religion. They have control over public and private sacrifices, and give rulings on all religious questions. Large numbers of young men go to them for instruction, and they are greatly honoured by the people.
In almost all disputes, between communities or between individuals, the Druids act as judges. If a crime is committed, if there is a murder, or if there is dispute about an inheritance or a boundary, they are the ones who give a verdict and decide on the punishment or compensation appropriate in each case. Any individual or community not abiding by their verdict is banned from the sacrifices, and this is regarded among the Gaul’s as the most severe punishment. Those who are banned in this way are reckoned as sacrilegious criminals. Every one shuns them: no one will go near or speak to them for fear of being contaminated in some way by contact with them. If they make any petitions there is no justice for them, and they are excluded from any position of importance.
There is one Druid who is above all the rest, with supreme authority over them. When he dies, he is succeeded by whichever of the others is most distinguished. If there are several of equal distinction, the Druids decide by vote, though sometimes they even fight to decide who will be their leader.
On a fixed date each year they assemble in a consecrated place in the territory of the Carnutes: that area is supposed to be the center of the whole country of the Gaul. People who have disputes to settle assemble there from all over the country and accept the judgements of the Druids…..Read More
It is a good many years since Mrs. Mary Jones, Corlanau, Llandinorwig, Carnarvonshire, told me the following tale. The scene of the story is the unenclosed mountain between Corlanau, a small farm, and the hamlet, Rhiwlas. There is still current in those parts a tale of a hidden golden chair, and Mrs. Jones said that it had once been seen by a young girl, who might have taken possession of it, but unfortunately she did not do so, and from that day to this it has not been discovered. The tale is this:
There was once a beautiful girl, the daughter of poor hardworking parents, who held a farm on the side of the hill, and their handsome industrious daughter took care of the sheep. At certain times of the year she visited the sheep-walk daily, but she never went to the mountain without her knitting needles, and when looking after the sheep she was always knitting stockings, and she was so clever with her needles that she could knit as she walked along. The Fairies who lived in those mountains noticed this young woman’s good qualities. One day, when she was far from home, watching her father’s sheep, she saw before her a most beautiful golden chair. She went up to it and found that it was so massive that she could not move it. She knew the Fairy-lore of her neighbor-hood, and she understood that the Fairies had, by revealing the chair, intended it for her, but there she was on the wild mountain, far away from home, without anyone near to assist her in carrying it away.
And often had she heard that such treasures were to be taken possession of at once, or they would disappear forever. She did not know what to do, but all at once she thought, if she could by attaching the yarn in her hand to the chair connect it thus with her home, the chair would be hers’ forever. Acting upon this suggestion she forthwith tied the yarn to the foot of the chair, and commenced unrolling the ball, walking the while homewards. But long before she could reach her home the yarn in the ball was exhausted; she, however, tied it to the yarn in the stocking which she had been knitting, and again started towards her home, hoping to reach it before the yarn in the stocking would be finished, but she was doomed to disappointment, for that gave out before she could arrive at her father’s house. She had nothing else with her to attach to the yarn. She, however, could now see her home, and she began to shout, hoping to gain the ear of her parents, but no one appeared. In her distress she fastened the end of the yarn to a large stone, and ran home as fast as she could. She told her parents what she had done, and all three proceeded immediately towards the stone to which the yarn had been tied, but they failed to discover it. The yarn, too, had disappeared…..Read More
THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE
Fairy treasures seen by a Man near Ogwen Lake
Another tale, similar to the preceding one, is told by my friend, Mr. Hugh Derfel Hughes, in his Hynafiaethau Llandegai a Llanllechid, pp. 35, 36. The following is a translation of Mr. Hughes’s story:-
It is said that a servant man penetrated into the recesses of the mountains in the neighbourhood of Ogwen Lake, and that he there discovered a cave within which there was a large quantity of brazen vessels of every shape and description. In the joy of his heart at his good fortune, he seized one of the vessels, with the intention of carrying it away with him, as an earnest that the rest likewise were his.
But, alas, it was too heavy for any man to move. Therefore, with the intention of returning the following morning to the cave with a friend to assist him in carrying the vessels away, he closed its month with stones, and thus he securely hid from view the entrance to the cave. When he had done this it flashed upon his mind that he had heard of people who had accidentally come across caves, just as he had, but that they, poor things, had afterwards lost all traces of them. And lest a similar misfortune should befall him, he determined to place a mark on the mouth of the cave, which would enable him to come upon it again, and also he bethought himself that it would be necessary, for further security, to indicate by some marks the way from his house to the cave. He had however nothing at hand to enable him to carry out this latter design, but his walking stick. This he began to chip with his knife, and he placed the chips at certain distances all along the way homewards. In this way he cut up his staff, and he was satisfied with what he had done, for he hoped to find the cave by means of the chips. Early the next morning he and a friend started for the mountain in the fond hope of securing the treasures, but when they arrived at the spot where the chip-marked pathway ought to begin, they failed to discover a single chip, because, as it was reported-“They had been gathered up by the Fairies.” And thus this vision was in vain….Read More
(A poem of the Borderlands)
Sir Robert has left his castle ha’, The castle of fair Holmylee,
And gone to meet his Ailie Faa, Where no one might be there to see.
He has sounded shrill his bugle horn, But not for either horse or hound;
And when the echoes away were borne, He listened for a well-known sound.
He hears a rustling among the leaves, Some pattering feet are drawing near;
Like autumn’s breathings among the sheaves, So sweet at eventide to hear:
His Ailie Faa, who is sweeter far Than the white rose hanging upon the tree,
Who is fairer than the fairies are That dance in moonlight on the lea.
Oh! there are some flowers, as if in love, Unto the oak their arms incline;
And tho’ the tree may rotten prove, They still the closer around it twine:
So has it been until this hour, And so in coming time ’twill be,
Wherever young love may hang a flower, ‘Twill think it aye ane trusty tree…..Read More
THE COMMENTARY GAZETTE
Between the Fayum and the apex of the Delta, the Lybian range expands and forms a vast and slightly undulating table-land, which runs parallel to the Nile for nearly thirty leagues. The Great Sphinx Harmakhis has mounted guard over its northern extremity ever since the time of the Followers of Horus.
Hewn out of the solid rock at the extreme margin of the mountain-plateau, he seems to raise his head in order that he may be the first to behold across the valley the rising of his father the Sun. Only the general outline of the lion can now be traced in his weather-worn body. The lower portion of the head-dress has fallen, so that the neck appears too slender to support the weight of the head. The cannon-shot of the fanatical Mamelukes has injured both the nose and beard, and the red colouring which gave animation to his features has now almost entirely disappeared. But in spite of this, even in its decay, it still bears a commanding expression of strength and dignity. The eyes look into the far-off distance with an intensity of deep thought, the lips still smile, the whole face is pervaded with calmness and power. The art that could conceive and hew this gigantic statue out of the mountain-side, was an art in its maturity, master of itself and sure of its effects. How many centuries were needed to bring it to this degree of development and perfection!….Read More
Dictionary of Gods
- Adonis (Greek)
- A youth who was loved by both Aphrodite and Persephone. He was killed by a wild boar while hunting. His name, from the Phoenecian adon, meant “lord”. Adonis was born from a myrrh tree. He is related to the seasonal vegetation myth and the Babylonian dying God, Tammuz.
- Apollon, Apollo (Greco-Roman)
- God of the sun, medicine, and prophecy. His symbols were the lyre, the bow, and the laurel. Apollo is the Latin spelling of the God’s name. Apollon is the transliteration of the Greek spelling of his name.
- His epithet, Phoebus, means, “bright” or “shining”. In Rome, he displaced any deities with solar connections. During the Roman empire, his Greek shrine in the city of Phocis, at Delphi, was consulted by many people, including eminent Romans. The epithet, Pythian Apollo, referred to his oracular spirit speaking through his priestess at Delphi, the Phoebad, or Pythia. Apollo had numerous other oracular shrines in Greece and Rome.
- Another of his titles was Smintheios or Smintheus, meaning “mouse” or “of the mice.”
- Apulu (Etruscan)
- A God depicted as a handsome youth, and was often pictured with the Goddess Artini. His name indicates he was the Etruscan counterpart of the Greek Apollo.
- Bacchus (Roman)
- The God of wine and ecstatic rites. His rites, known as the Bacchanal, were viewed by some staunch Romans as unbridled debauchery, and the nocturnal worship was repressed by a decree by the Roman Senate in 186 bce. Eventually it was accepted as a respectable mystery religion.
- Bacchantes were women dedicated to his worship. They dressed in animal skins and roamed the fields and mountains filled with the God’s divine ecstasy.
- Bonus Eventus (Roman)
- A rural God in charge of the “Good Event” of the harvest. Later, he became of God of luck or success.
- Deus Fidius (Sabine)
- Guardian of hospitality.
- di parentes, divi parentes (Roman)
- “Di” is the plural of the Latin word deus meaning “god,” and literally means “gods.” The di parentes were the Roman spirits of dead family members and ancestors. From the name, they may have been venerated as collectively deified ancestors. The di parentes were honored during the Parentalia, February 13-21. On February 13, a Vestal Virgin performed the opening public rites for the collective Roman di parentes at the “tomb of the Vestal Tarpeia.” The rest of the festival was for domestic and familial rites. Romans were expected to give offerings to the deceased at the family tombs. Apparently, the Parentalia was related to an Etruscan festival of the dead. on the last night of the Parentalia at the Feralia the paterfamilias addressed the malevolent, destructive aspects of the spirits. It was after the Parentalia on February 22, the Caristia that the family held a banquet to honor the lar familiaris. The di parentes do not seem to be quite the same thing as the manes, the lares, or the lemurs. However, sometimes the terms seemed to be used interchangeably. (It is possible that this entry more correctly belongs on the ABC of Aradia webpage.)
- Dis (Roman)
- God of the underworld. He was sometimes referred to as Dis Pater, Father Dis; however, Dis Pater was the name the Romans later gave to the Celtic God, Cernunnos.
- Fauns (Roman)
- Male spirits of wild nature frequently depicted with horns and hooves–like goats. They are covered with body hair.
- Faunus (Roman)
- A rural God, partly human in form. He was the patron of animal husbandry, herding, hunting, and a guardian of the secrets of nature. He was also worshipped as a prophetic God. The Luperci, meaning “wolf warder,” were his priests. Clad only in goat skins, the Luperci ran around the Palentine Hill in Rome at the festival of Lupercalia held on February 14 or 15. It was a fertility rite, but also intended to protect domestic animals and new offspring from wolves. Any women who desired to conceive that year allowed the Luperci to strike their palms with goatskin thongs called februum. Faunus was later identified with the Greek Pan, God of flocks and pastures.
- Februus (Etruscan Italian)
- God of purification, Februus was possibly related to Dis, the God of the underworld. He may also be connected with Febris, a Roman Goddess of malaria and fever.
- four winds (Roman)
- The Venti are the four Gods personifying the four winds in Roman mythology. They are: Aquilo/Aquilon or Septentrio (North wind); Vulturnus (East wind); Auster (South wind); Favonius (West wind). The Venti are equivalent to the Greek: Boreas (North wind); Eurus (East wind); Notus (South wind); Zephyrus (West wind).
- Janus (Italian)
- Consort of Jana. The God who presided over gates, doors, and passages. He may have originally been worshipped as a sun God, especially since Jana, his wife, was identified with the moon Goddess, Diana. As a God of beginnings, Janus did preside over daybreak in his aspect as a solar God. Janus was often depicted as two-faced, so that he could look both forward and back. In ceremonial prayers, he was often invoked as “Father” and mentioned first before the other Gods.
- Jove Pater, Jupiter (Roman)
- The patriarchal “Father of the Gods” and supreme God of the Roman pantheon. Jove was originally a weather-God. He was also viewed as a beneficent and fair God of justice. He absorbed some of the mythology of the randy Greek Zeus.
- Liber, Liber Pater (Roman)
- A God of fecundity, he presided over fields. He was worshipped with the Goddess Ceres, and with the Goddess of wine, Libera. His festival was the Liberalia, celebrated on March 17. He was often identified with Bacchus.
- Lucetius (Roman)
- A Latin title meaning, “light-bearer,” used for Gods in their solar aspect. Jove was, for example, known as Jupiter Lucetius.
- Mars, Murs, Marmar, Marmor, Marspiter (Roman)
- The parthenogenic son of Juno. The God of war originally had agricultural attributes. His earliest function was a protector of agriculture and cattle. The wolf, horse, and woodpecker were sacred to him, as were the oak, laurel, dogwood, fig tree, and beans. He was called Mars Gardivius from gandiri, meaning, “to grow, to become big.” Marspiter meant Mars Pater, or Father Mars, just as Jupiter meant Jove Pater, Father Jove.
- His protective nature eventually extended to protecting the people of Rome as a warrior. In the end, his warrior function supplanted his agricultural function. He was worshiped in a triad with the Gods, Jove and Quirinus. In the Classical era, his priests, the Salli, carried the sacred shields, the ancilia. Like his son, Romulus, he was worshiped under the title, Quirinus.
- Mithras (Persian Roman)
- Mithras was the God of heavenly light, the God of truth. Mithras was another foreign God transported to cosmopolitan, polytheistic, multi-cultural Rome.
- Originally he was Mitra or Mithra, sort of a defender or personification of the sanctity of contracts and treaties. He was absorbed into monotheistic Zoroastrianism and became identified as an aspect of the Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord, who was the supreme deity and the God of Truth, Justice, and Light.
- By the time the cult of Mithras reached Rome, it had become an intricate mystery religion and absorbed many foreign elements, including a strong strain of astrology. Only men could be votaries in the Roman cult. Mithras became a patron God of merchants due to his association with contracts. Possibly also because of Mithras’ association with contracts, and thus for a tour of duty for a soldier, Mithraism became a favorite cult among the Roman troops, who spread it all over the Roman empire.
- In Mithraeums, the God was often depicted slaying a bull, which originally may have been a reference to an astronomical/astrological event: moving from the Age of Taurus (the bull) into the Age of Aries (the ram). (An astronomical/astrological Age is determined by which zodiac sign the sun rises in on the vernal equinox.) In any case, the image of the bull represents the life force and the earth is made fertile by its death.
- In Rome, the Mithraic priests, were known as Patres Sacrorum, “Fathers of the Sacred Mysteries.” The worship of Mithras was valued not only for its mystery, but its ethical system. One of the Roman titles of Mithras was Areimanios. The sacred Haoma beverage and cakes were offered to him.
- The Roman cult of Mithras was not truly as monotheistic as Zoroastrianism. Votaries were expected to live an exemplary life and to give worship to Mithras first. Nevertheless, family deities, household Gods, local divinities, etc., could be worshipped second.
- Mutunus, Mutinus-Tutinus, Tutinus-Mutinus (Etruscan)
- An ancient phallic God whose cult blended with the Roman cult of Priapus. His name, Mutunus, was derived from muto, the verile male member.
- Neptunus, Neptune (Roman)
- Orginally a water-God, who also protected against drought. For his festival on June 23, huts of branches would be built apparently as a protection against the summer sun. Later, he was God of the sea. He created the horse and thus white waves crashing on the shore were said to be white horses. His consort was Salacia. His Etruscan name was Neptuns.
- Pan (Greek)
- An ancient horned God of fertility. Primarily, he was the protector of flocks and herdsmen. Pan was a God of all of nature and the wilderness. Hunters were said to appeal to him to bring them game animals. He was pictured with the lower parts of a goat and the torso, arms, and head of a man, though crowned with horns. Pan was a lusty, merry God, who dwelt in Arcadia and delighted in sporting with the nymphs.
- Penates, Dii Penates (Roman)
- Spirits that protected the food storehouses of the home. They were honored on the hearth along with the Goddess, Vesta. The Penates were said to enjoy, along with other offerings to them, the aroma of roast meat (nidore).
- Phoebus (Roman)
- Phoebus was a Latin spelling of a title for Apollo. In the 5th century bce, he was adopted by the Romans as a God of medicine, music, prophecy, and the sun, and said to be the son of Latona and Jove. The Romans hoped his influence would help the people avert a plague. His title means the “Bright One” and the healing rays of the sun symbolized his power as a healing God.
- Plutus, Pluton, Plutos (Greco-Italian)
- An Italian aspect of the Greek Pluto, tacturn lord over the innumerable dead in the Lower World, which was awarded to him by Zeus, his brother.
- As an Italian underworld deity, Plutus was associated with the Roman Dis. Nevertheless while Roman altars to Dis were rare, Plutus was apparently somewhat more revered, particularly in Sicily, where the “Damatres,” Ceres and Proserpine were widely worshipped.
- Plutus was also a god of agricultural abundance. The name, Pluton, meant “Giver of Wealth.” Plutus meant “Wealth.” He has been interpreted to be a god of wealth from both above the earth soil, crops, and under the earth, gold and precious stones. Interestingly, Plutus or Pluton was likewise said to be a son of Ceres or her Greek counterpart, Demeter. This son of the grain goddess was raised by the Roman Goddess Pax, meaning “peace.”
- In Rome, Plutus or Plutos was confused with Orcus, who carried the dead to the underworld. For example, a series of funerary frescoes depicted a woman, the Vibia, carried off by Plutos and brought before the judgment of the underworld deities. Three Fata Divina, “faeries of destiny,” appeared at the dead woman’s tribunal. A final fresco showed Vibia among the blessed dead at a banquet.
- Priapus, Mutunus, Fecundus (Greco-Roman)
- A phallic God. He presided over procreation and fertility. In particular, Priapus was associated with gardens and bees. As a guardian deity, Priapus often carried a pruning knife, but the Priapus of Verona carried a basket full of phalluses. Statues of the God were usually carved of wood and painted red. His image was placed in orchards, gardens, and entranceways for protection.
- Pythian Apollo (Greek)
- An epithet of Apollo, relating to his temple at Delphi.
- Romulus (Roman)
- Twin brother of Remus and son of Mars and Silva. He and his brother were suckled and raised by the she-wolf, Lupa. Romulus was credited as the founder of Rome. He accidentally slew his brother Remus in a quarrel. According to legend, he became the first king of Rome. Romulus was worshipped under the name of Quirinus after his death.
- There was an alternate versions describing the birth of Romulus and Remus cited by Plutarch. Written in the Etruscan language, Promethea’s history of Italy stated that a mystical phallus had appeared in the chimney of the king of Albe. The king ordered his daughter to couple with this phallus. His daughter, however, sent her servant-girl in her stead. The servant bore twin sons, later known as Romulus and Remus, who were abandoned in the forest and suckled by a wolf.
- Sator (Roman)
- A deity that presided over sowing.
- Saturn, Saturnus (Roman)
- An agricultural God, depicted with a sythe. The celebration of his festival, the Saturnalia, December 17-23, involved feasting and much merriment, including decorating with evergreens and gift-giving. During the Saturnalia, slaves were allowed great liberties in honor of Saturn’s Golden Age, and the pater familius or male head of the household served his slaves meals at the family table.
- Simply due to Saturnalia’s proximity on the calendar to the Mithraic festival of the Natilus Sol Invictus, “Birthday of the Invincible Sun,” December 25, seemed to link the two holidays in the mind of the general Roman populace. Both holidays were linked to the winter solstice.
- It is a telling fact that the people of Rome became the first to officially celebrate the nativity of Christ in 337 c.e. on the very same date as the Mithraic festival, and that the new celebration incorporated several aspects of the Saturnalia as well.
- Semo Sancus (Latin)
- God of oaths.
- Sentinus (Roman)
- The God who presided over the intellectual stimulation of children.
- See Apollon, Apollo. See Smintheus.
- Smintheus (Greek Latin spelling)
- Robert Graves, in 1955, 1969 (p. 56) wrote: “One component in Apollo’s godhead seems to have been an oracular mouse–Apollo Smintheus (‘mouse Apollo’) is among his earliest titles…” Indeed, white mice were sacred to Apollo and supposedly they whispered secrets gathered from the earth in his ear.
- Smintheus is a surname of Apollo, which is derived by some from sminthos, a mouse. Others claim the name is dervied from the town of Sminthe in Troas The mouse was regarded by the ancients as inspired by the vapours arising from the earth, and as the symbol of prophetic power. On some coins, Apollo was represented carrying a mouse in his hands. In the temple of Apollo at Chryse, there was a statue of the God by Scopas, with a mouse under its foot. Temples of Apollo Sminthens and festivals (Smintheia) existed in several parts of Greece.
- Somnus (Roman)
- God of sleep and oblivion, he was black, covered with golden stars. He is associated with poppies and wears them on his head as a crown.
- Sterculinus, Stercutius, Sterculus, Stercutus (Roman)
- Sterculinus was an archaic God presiding over manure spreading. He was at one time honored by farmers. Manure was an important source of fertilizer for crops in early Italy.
- Summanus, Summano (Roman, Etruscan)
- In Roman mythology, Summanus was the God of nocturnal thunder. Originally he was Summano, an Etruscan thunder-sky God. A most ancient deity, he particularly presided over the night sky.
- Sylvanus, Silvanus (Roman)
- A rural God, guardian of woods, forests, and fields. He was also known as Callirus, meaning “Woodland King.” His name is the origin of the word, “sylvan.”
- Tinia, Tin, Tina (Etruscan)
- The supreme God of the Etruscan pantheon. He was the male deity of a divine triad, along with the Goddesses, Uni and Menrva, represented in art. Tinia was often depicted as holding three thunderbolts. Tinia may have been the same deity as Voltumna. It was at Voltumna’s sanctuary near the lake of Bolsena that apparently the tribes of Etrusca convened to choose a king.
- Usil (Etruscan)
- The deified sun.
- Venti (Roman)
- See four winds (Roman)
- Vejovis, Vedius, Vediovis (Italian)
- A very early name meaning “Little Jove” or “Little Dius.” An epithet or aspect of Jove when he was depicted without thunder. As Vedius or Vediovis, “Little Dius,” he may be linked to the Indo-Vedic-Hindu, Diaus or Dyaus, as sky deity known as Dyaus-Pitar (“sky-father”), who is related to Jove Pater.
- Vertumus, Vortumnus (Roman)
- Probably of Etruscan origin, he was variously regarded as God of changes: of the changing season, of the manifold productions of the vegetable world, etc. Vertumus, for whom “the first grape turns blue on its bunch and the ear of corn [grain] swells with milky juice,” (Propertius in Elgies) was honored on August 13 in his temple on the Aventine. His name may have given the Romans their Latin word, vertere, “to change.” He changed himself into a handsome youth in order to persuade the Goddess Pomona to marry him. He was associated with Sylvanus.
- Virbius (Roman)
- A mysterious woodland God, worshipped at Nemi with Egeria and Diana. Some scholars speculate, he was a primitive God associated with childbirth, as Egeria and Diana were both invoked as midwives at Nemi. Other sources identify Virbius with the sun. It was unlawful to touch his image. Late mythology claimed Diana brought Virbius to Nemi to hide him from the wrath of Neptune. Virbius was said to have married Egeria, however, it is likely he was originally consort to the Italian Diana. His priest was the Flamen Virbialis.
- Xudam (Etruscan)
- A god identified with the Roman Mercury.
The list in my “Dictionary of Gods” is even smaller than my “Goddess Dictionary,” a fact which betrays my Wiccan inclinations. Often when we, Wiccans, try to give equal time to the Gods, we still end up emphasizing the Goddesses. Nevertheless, I have included these Gods because they provide background relevant to my “Dianic Mythology.”
Raymond Buckland, The Witch Book, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft, Wiccan and Neo-paganism, 2002.
Alain Danielou, The Phallus, Sacred Symbol of Male Creative Power, English translation, 1995.
Sir James George Frazer, The Golden Bough, 1935.
Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, Vols. 1 & 2, 1948.
Judika Illes, The Encyclopedia of Spirits: The Ultimate Guide to the Magic of Fairies, Genies, Demons, Ghosts, Gods and Goddesses, 2009.
New Larouss Encyclopedia of Mythology, 1959, 1968.
Carole Potter, Knock On Wood and Other Superstitions, 1983.
Robert Turcan, The Cults of the Roman Empire, 1992, 1996.
Robert Turcan, The Gods of Ancient Rome, 1998.
Patricia Turner and Charles Russell Courter, Dictionary of Ancient Deities, 2002.
Harry E. Wedeck and Wade Baskin, Dictionary of Pagan Religions, 1971.