Decoctions require simmering for a long time, opposed to steeping in boiled water like infusions. This means that the materials used in the tea must be crushed beforehand and cut into small pieces suitable for simmering temperatures. This method is just as simple as infusing as it only consists of a few simple steps.

Decoction – 30g herb to 750ml cold water which reduces down to approx 500ml. Bring up to heat and simmer gently for up to 30 minutes. This formula works on a standard dosage and makes approximately 3 doses. Decoctions should be made fresh each day and should be stored in the fridge. It may be sweetened and can be drunk hot or cold.

If you are using unusually hard roots then you may want to increase the simmering time until the roots begin to soften. If using fresh plant material double the quantity to dried. During this entire process you need to keep the saucepan covered to ensure the important oils and nutrients do not evaporate away. Strain before drinking.


Making Herbal Remedies (Herbology At Home)

Anke Bialas



Herbal tea or tisanes are infusions – however a medicinal infusion is a lot stronger than a cup of herbal tea, therefore more of the herb material is needed.

Infusions are made of leaves, flowers, soft seeds and green stems. If the herb is particularly fragile you may wish to do a cold infusion. However, since this takes a long time, this method is usually reserved for the most delicate of herbs which lose their essential oils when heated.

Herbal Tea – 1 tsp of dried herb for every cup of almost boiling water. Cover and let infuse for approximately 10 minutes.

Hot Infusion – 25g dried herb for every 500 ml of almost boiling water. Cover and let infuse for up to 30 minutes. This formula works on a standard dosage of 3 times daily and makes approximately 3 doses.

Cold Infusion – Same basic ratio as for hot infusion applies, except you soak herbs in cold water for 8 hours or overnight.


Making Herbal Remedies (Herbology At Home)

Anke Bialas

The Perfect Brew


As most of you will start of using herbal remedies in the form of herbal tea I thought I would write directions for what I consider the perfect pot of tea.

Warm your teapot or cup – this maintains the temperature once you add the water. It makes a lot of difference for very little effort. I like using glass or pottery. Of course you can dig out the good china too. If using metal, there are some great cast iron pots or stainless steel pots when making decoctions.

Do not over boil the water – it drains the water of oxygen. Water temperature: Use water just below boiling point – as low as 70C is perfect for fine aerial parts of the plant. If you are using a kettle, the water is ideal when it starts to make a “rumbling” sound.

Brewing time – adjust your brewing time depending on what herb you are using. Some teas can become quite bitter if left to infuse too long. Others can withstand a number of brews. As a rule of thumb use a standard of 10 – 15 minutes to infuse your herbs. You need enough time to release the active ingredients but not so much to make it too strong and unpleasant.

Sweetening herbal tea – if you like a sweeter tea you can certainly use some honey to improve the flavour. I personally use a bit of sugar as honey adds another flavour dimension which may not always be what you want. However, I would not recommend adding milk.

If you are planning to use herbs to make your own remedies at home then you will likely encounter the process of both infusions and decoctions. Infusions and decoctions are time honoured methods of delivering the health benefits of herbs.


Making Herbal Remedies (Herbology At Home)

Anke Bialas

An A to Z of Aromatherapy

An A to Z of Aromatherapy

Agarwood {Aquilaria Agollacha}: The main properties of this oil are as an anti parasite oil.
It is traditionally used to treat malaria. Also it is extensively used in Japan and the Far East
as an aphrodisiac. In Aromatherapy it is reputed to be the most effective aphrodisiac Essential oil.


Ajowan {Trachyspermum Ammi}: This oil is frequently used for circulatory problems. It also
has good muscle relaxing properties. However over use can cause skin irritation in some people.


Alcohol: In Aromatherapy Alcohol is used to clean equipment, but it can also be used as a
base for making natural Perfumes. Do not Ingest.


Aloe & Seaweed Gel: A cooling and skin conditioning base, can be used on its own, but
with the addition of 3% Parsley Seed {Petroselinum Sativum} makes a wonderful eye gel,
that can help remove the shadows from tired eyes.


Aloe Vera Gel: Professional Aromatherapist’s use this cool, skin conditioning base {with
Essential oils added} for treating clients who are undergoing radiation treatment to
counter the dermal damage done. It can also be used with the addition of Lavender &
Roman Chamomile as an after sun lotion.


Ambrette Seed {Hibiscus Abelmoschus}: Frequently used for muscle aches and pains due
to sport or activity fatigue. Helps poor circulation too. Also used as an anti-depressant.


Amyris {Amyris Balsamifera}: The traditional use of Amyris is as a muscle relaxant, emollient,
soothing agent and a stimulant. It can be used to treat neck muscle stress when mixed with Ylang-Ylang or Marjoram.


Angelica Root {Angelica Archangelica}: A useful oil, but it should be avoided by pregnant
women, and diabetics. That said, professional Aromatherapists use Angelica during childbirth
to help expel the placenta. A good tonic oil that can aid convalesces. It can also be used to
help with draining the lymphatic system, and helps with period pains. As an appetite stimulant
it has been used to treat Anorexia Nervosa. Over use can induce insomnia


Angelica Root {Angelica Glaucha}: This variation and chemo-type is reputed, from traditional
uses on the Indian sub continent, to be effective anti-venom in treating snakebites.


Angelica Root {Archangelica Officinalis}: As with many Essential oils, where the source
plant is grown will effect the quality of the oil produced, also while Angelica Archangelica I
s the modern internationally recognized name for the official source plant, Archangelica
Officinalis, is the old name. Thus this is the same as Angelica {Angelica Archangelica}


Angelica Seed {Angelica Archangelica}: While Angelica root is a good body tonic the oil
from the seeds works well as a skin tonic, and may help with various skin conditions.


Anise Star {Illicum Verum}: This is used as an energizing and toning oil, and has traditionally
been used in China as a deodorant. It can be used to good effect for Asthma. It can also
help with hangovers. However it has a slight dermal toxicity so should be used diluted and infrequently.


Apricot Kernel {Prunus Armeniaca}: As with all the carrier oils used in Aromatherapy, the oil
should be chosen to match the skin type. Apricot Kernel is especially suited to dry & normal skin types.


Arnica {Arnica Montana}: Used as an analgesic as well as a perfume ingredient.


Avocado (Refined) {Persea Americana}: Normally used as an addition to other carrier oils at
a rate of 10%-25%. As it has a re-hydrating effect it is good for dry skin and conditions like
eczema. However it does appear to exacerbate Psoriasis in some people.


Basil Linalool {Ocimum Basilicum}: forget the Prozac, Basil can be good for the relief of depression. But over use will cause depression. Avoid if pregnant. Good for respiration conditions, such as Asthma and Bronchitis. As it has an effect upon Adrenal Cortex it can be effective with allergies.


Basil Sweet {Ocimum Basilicum}: Sweet Basil is great for aiding concentration and sharpening the senses.


Bay {Pimenta Racemosa}: One of the traditional uses of Bay is as an aphrodisiac, as it’s a
stimulating & energizing oil, this could be true. Bay is great for easing the muscles after sporting
activity and its a good hair tonic too.


Bay Laurel {Laurus Nobilis}: A good tonic for the Liver and Kidneys. Avoid if pregnant.


Benzoin {Styrax Benzoin}: Can be used as a joint rub to relieve the pain and discomfort of Arthritis. Is also reputed to help with problem such as premature ejaculation. It’s a good oil for dry cracked skin and chilblains.


Bergamot {Citrus Bergamia}: Without Bergamot oil there would be no Earl Grey tea. But in
Aromatherapy this oil has many uses. It has good effects upon people with breathing problems.
Also this oil is useful for helping with digestive problems as well as dispelling internal parasites.
Bergamot is very useful for most skin conditions, especially when mixed with Eucalyptus,
especially acne and oily skin conditions. Caution, as this oil is phototoxic. It is perfectly safe if
used on areas of the skin that are covered by clothing before going out into the sun.


Bergamot FCF (Bergaptene Free) {Citrus Bergamia}: As it is the Bergaptene that has the phototoxic effect in this oil, this Bergaptene Free variant is also offered. It should be noted that most professional Aromatherapist’s don’t use this variant as it is seen as less effective.


Birch Sweet {Betula Lenta}: The birch oils are generally good for helping the body remove
toxins and purifying the blood. A good kidney tonic too.


Birch White {Betula Alba}: This oil is reputed to help with the removal of kidney stones too. See Sweet Birch.


Black pepper {Piper Nigrum}: Flatulence and Rheumatism are two conditions that this oil can be used to relieve. As it gives localized increase in blood flow, it is a good oil for helping tone muscles, as well as relives the aches and strains from exercise. Over use can cause a skin rash on sensitive skins.


Borage {Borago Officinalis}: Borage seed carrier oil is a good skin conditioning oil. In Aromatherapy it is normally blended with other carrier oils and only used at 5% to 10% of the total volume of carrier.


Cajuput {Melaleuca Minor}: Also sometimes known as White Tea Tree. One of the traditional
uses of this oil is as an Insect repellent, this combined with it’s antiseptic and deodorant
properties make this a great oil for the traveler.


Calendula {Calendula Officinalis}: Calendula infused carrier oil, made from the African Marigold,
is used for its skin healing properties. The Absolute oil while used mainly for its perfume, can
increase the skin conditioning properties to a skin care blend of essential oils.


Camelia {Thea Sinenis}: Used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating skin conditions, in
Aromatherapy it is very good for very sensitive and mature skin.


Camphor {Cinnamomum Camphora}: With it’s cooling and skin conditioning properties, this oil
can make a great after sun lotion. But it should be avoided while pregnant.


Caraway {Carum Carvi}: A great pick me up oil for the emotions. Also very good for digestive problems. Further as this oil helps stimulate localized circulation it can give color to a pale complexion. And when mixed with Dill, it can be used to stimulate milk flow in nursing mothers.


Cardamom {Elletaria Cardomomum}: This oil has soothing and muscle relaxing qualities.
It has traditionally been used as a treatment for impotence too.


Carnation {Dianthus Caryophylius}: Used predominately as a perfume ingredient, but is
also reputed to be an aphrodisiac.


Carrot (Infused) {Daucus Carota}: As the scent of carrot seed is not liked by some, the addition
of 5%-10% to your carrier oil can give some of the skin rejuvenating properties of the Essential Oil.


Carrot seed {Daucus Carota}: It is claimed that this oil is good for treating Premature Aging. But it is a very good oil to use in a make up removal blend. However it’s aroma is not seen as pleasant by many and needs to be used in a blend.


Cassia {Cinnamomum Cassia}: As this oil can cause serious skin irritation, it should not be used in massage, but as it is reputed to help adults with chronic Asthma it can be used in a Vaporizer or Diffuser.


Cedarwood Atlas {Cedrus Atlantica}: Also known as White Cedarwood, it is reputed to be best for long standing conditions such as Bronchitis. In Native American Cultures it is used as an aid to meditation. Works well on oily skin problems, and when blended with Frankincense and Cypress, it can be used to soften the skin. Avoid if pregnant.


Cedarwood Himalayan {Cedrus Deodora}: Often used as a natural deodorant. Avoid if pregnant.


Cedarwood Texas {Juniperus Texas}: As with other Cederwood’s it is used as a perfume fixative, as well as holding scents in Aromatherapy blends.


Cedarwood Virginian {Juniperus Viriginiana}: As with other Cederwood’s it is used as a perfume fixative, as well as holding scents in Aromatherapy blends.


Celery Seed {Apium Graveolens}: A good oil for diabetics to use as it can help prevent
Glaucoma. It is a useful oil for tired eyes too.


Chamomile Blue {Chamomilla Recutita}: First; in spite of international agreements there is some confusion over the name of this oil. Often it is known as German Chamomile, and even Hungarian Chamomile. Also in the 1940s the international scientific world agreed that the Latin name for the source plant would change from Matricaria Chamomilla to Chamomilla Recutita. Thus under any of these names it is the same oil. Distinctive by its strong blue color. Each of the Chamomile’s has its own uses in Aromatherapy, this one is traditionally used as a soothing and toning oil.


Chamomile Maroc {Ormenis Multicaulis}: Sometimes know as wild Chamomile, it is not
a true Chamomile but a few drops in a base of Wheatgerm makes a wonderful skin conditioner.


Chamomile Roman {Anthemis Nobilis}: This is the main Chamomile used in Aromatherapy.
This particular oil is frequently used to treat Menstrual Problems, from PM to helping in the relief
of period pains. Good for dry and itchy skins and a brilliant skin cleanser. Good for reducing
puffiness and improving the elasticity of the skin.


Champaca {Michelia Champaca}: Used mainly as a perfume ingredient, unknown uses in Aromatherapy


Cinnamon Bark {Cinnamomum Zeylanicum}: A very potent oil that will cause skin rashes if
overused, it is often best not used in massage. It is great at aiding the tired mind.


Cinnamon Leaf {Cinnamomum Zeylanicum}: This oil can cause skin irritation! However it is a milder, yet still potent, oil than Cinnamon Bark. It is useful for tightening loose skin. Use infrequently.


Citronella {Cymbopogan Nardus}: As this oil is a good insect repellent and a great skin
conditioner, when combined with Neroli and Bergamot. Also great for helping with sweaty feet.


Clary Sage {Salvia Sclarea}: A truly feminine oil. As this oil mimics the female and helps
balance the reproductive hormones, it is the main Aromatherapy treatment for many
menstrual problems. Depression is just one of the many problems this versatile oil can be
used to treat. However as this oil can make concentration difficult it should not be used if driving.
As it can induce a feeling of nausea when mixed with Alcohol, it can be helpful in treating
alcoholics, as well as an aid to beating dependency on other drugs too.


Clove Bud {Eugenia Caryophyllata}: Famously used to relief toothache it also has other uses.
It has been found to be effective in treating Lupus. It can cause skin irritation, but even
people with the most sensitive skins can still carefully use this oil. It can be used in a diffuser
or vaporizer during the winter to ward off infections.


Clove Leaf {Eugenia Caryophyllata}: See Clove Bud. The bud variant is the milder form of this oil.


Coconut (Fractionated) {Cocus Nucifera}: Fractionated coconut is a wonderfully light oil
that is suitable for all skin types, and it smells great too.


Coriander {Coriandrum Sativum}: This warming oil can be very good for dry chapped hands,
as well as arthritic and rheumatic pain. Said to help revitalize the glandular system.


Cubeb {Piper Cubeba}: As with many spice oils it is used to improve circulation, and thus
may help with Arthritis and Rheumatism. Also useful for drying out congestion in the upper
respiratory tract.


Cumin {Cuminum Cyminum}: A warming oil that is said to help with Osteoarthritis and muscular pain. It has a tonic action on the heart and is often used by professional Aromatherapist’s to treat
clients at risk of heart attack. Helps increase lactation in women.


Cumin Black {Nigella Sativa}: Often used to increase fertility and increase sexual desire in
men, as well as normalize the menstrual cycle in women.


Cypress {Cupressus Sempervirens}: With it’s anti-viral properties, this oil can be used as
a treatment for cold sores. Also a good treatment for heavy periods. Good for oily skins
and often used to help with acne. However it is important to note that this oil is FLAMMABLE.


Davana {Artermisia Pallens}: With its fine cognac aroma, this oil is often used in male
toiletries. As it has good skin conditioning properties it is a good post shaving oil.
But as it is reputed to be the second most potent aphrodisiac Essential oil, Agarwood
being the first… Well this reputation can only be a case for personal experimentation.


Dill Seed {Anethum Graveoleons}: Often used to promote lactation in nursing mothers.
It also has a beneficial effect in promoting healing in the dermas.


Elderflower {Sambucus Nigra}: Used to make natural perfumes. Unknown uses in Aromatherapy.


Elemi {Canarium Luzonicum}: Elemi is one of the oils used in Conventional medicine,
as the oil helps with regeneration of broken bones the oil is used in plaster bandages
that hospitals use for plaster casts. Because of its effect upon the skeleton, it may
help with Osteoporosis. On the skin it has a drying and cooling effects, and is seen
as effective in chronic skin conditions.


Eucalyptus 80/85 {Eucalyptus Globulus}: Is one of the well-known Essential oils,
and has been used for years {since 1788} to treat chest conditions. As it aids the
body in expelling mucous. With it’s analgesic properties Eucalyptus can be a great
treatment for sunburn. It also clears congested skin. Also is very good for the treatment
of cystitis. However as it raises blood pressure it should be avoided by people with
hypertension as well as people with Epilepsy.


Eucalyptus Dives {Eucalyptus Dives}: As there are over 600 species of Eucalyptus,
there are other variants that produce therapeutic oil. While all the therapeutic Eucalyptus
oils have a beneficial effect upon Asthma, this one appears to be most effective for most people.


Evening Primrose (10% GLA) {Oenothera Biennis}: As this oil is high in Gamma Linoleic acid,
it is a very good skin conditioner and is normally used at 10 to 20% of total carrier oil.


Fennel sweet {Foeniculum Vulgare}: Good skin cleansing properties, and reputed to keep
wrinkles at bay. This oil can be a great help for the relief of Menopausal Problems.


Fir Needle {Abies Sibirica}: Has a good effect upon the respiratory system, and is suitable for
all chest conditions. Also a gentle warming action upon tired muscles. Further it balances
chemicals in the body and could be useful for metabolic conditions.


Frankincense {Boswellia Thurifera}: This oil has the effect of helping to slow down breathing
and with its calming effect upon the mind, is frequently used to aid meditation. Also useful
as a tonic for uterine problems, and can be useful during labour. Could help with postnatal
depression. Reputed to help smooth out wrinkles, and give new life to mature skin.


Galangal {Galanga Officinalis}: A stimulating oil that helps reduce stress.


Galbanum {Ferula Galbaniflua}: A very useful oil for female reproductive problems.
As it helps with problems such as scanty periods, it should be avoided in pregnancy.
In Menopause it can help with hot flushes and mood swings associated with the change.
Good for mature skins too.


Garlic {Allium Sativum}: While a very useful oil, the strength of the aroma prevents many
people using this oil. As a strong antiseptic it can be used for many skin conditions.
Best used in a blend with other oils and at a rate of 1% or less, or the result is a loss of friends.


Geranium {Pelogonium Graveoleons}: Very useful for all skin types as it helps keep the
skin supple. A good tonic for the liver and kidneys too.


Ginger {Zingiber Officinalis}: A great warming, stimulating yet grounding oil. Very effective
in dealing with colds and other upper respiratory conditions. Helps drying catarrh.
Also very good for digestive problems. Helps reduce bruising.


Gingergrass {Cymbopogon Martini}: Unknown uses in Aromatherapy. Used in Perfumes.


Grape seed {Vitis Vinifera}: Often used in Aromatherapy as a cheap oil, but it is not easily
absorbed into the dermas in many people. However it is good for retaining the Essential oils.


Grapefruit {Citrus Paradisi}: A great mind balancing and up lifting oil. Reputed to help with
BI-polar disorder {Manic Depression} used in many cosmetic products as it is said to help
with reducing cellulite. Also useful in balancing the kidneys and helping to remove toxins.
Said to nourish skin cells too.


Guiacac Wood {Bulnesia Sarmienti}: A very useful oil for helping with the menopause.
As it can help with inducing vaginal secretion has added to its reputation as an
aphrodisiac too. As it helps tighten the skin, it is useful for mature skin.


Hazelnut {Corylus Avellana}: A carrier oil that seems best for dry to normal skin types.
Best used at 25% of carrier oil total.


Ho Leaf {Cinnamomum Camphora}: As this oil has an Aroma almost identical to Rosewood,
a seriously endangered spices, it is often used to replace the rosewood in perfumes.
However it does not have the same therapeutic effects and as yet its uses in Aromatherapy
are unknown.


Hop {Humulus Lupulus}: A mild calming Oil that can help with sleeping.
As it also has mild analgesic qualities it is particularly useful for any painful condition that
prevents sleep. A potent oil on the skin and it should not be over used.


Hyssop {Hyssopus Officinalis}: Safety first, as this is a very potent oil it should be avoided by
pregnant women, and people with high blood pressure, as well as people with Epilepsy.
This oil is reputed to help with grief. A very effective oil for helping scars to heal.


Immortelle {Helichrysium Angustifolia}: One of the most important oils in the Aromatherapist’s
Pharmacopoeia. As it boosts the immune system it can raise the persons vitality.
Lessens the effect of shock, and helps with fears and phobias. Helps with depression too.
This oil also helps the skin regenerate, and promotes cell growth. With it’s anti-fungal,
anti-bacterial and anti viral properties, it is a very effective oil for various conditions.
Such as Candida, cold sores, acne, etc. And when blended with Bergamot, Lavender and
Yarrow is said to be an effective treatment for Psoriasis.


Inula Sweet {Inula Helenium}: Aromatherapy uses unknown.


Jasmine {Jasminum Grandiflorum}: An extremely useful oil for treating depression.
It stimulates, uplifts and helps boost self-confidence. It should be avoided during pregnancy,
but it can be used to speed delivery, once contractions have started. Further it can help with
postnatal depression, while also help the mother bond with baby. Also reputedly promotes
lactation in nursing mothers too. A great beauty oil, helping all skin types, and dry skin in
particular. A blend of 1% in Macadamia nut or Jojoba makes a wonderful moisturizer for
very sensitive skins. Makes a wonderful hair conditioner too. While it is possible to produce a
Jasmine Essential Oil, it lacks the wonderful aroma of the Absolute. Also as the absolute,
as with all absolute oils, is only used at half the dilution of an essential oil 0.5% – 2.5% the
use of the absolute is better value.


Jasmine {Jasminum Sambac}: See Above. Jasminum Sambac is preferred by some for its perfume qualities.


Jojoba {Simmondsia Chinensis}: Less an oil than a wax. In Aromatherapy it is normally used
at 5% to 20% of the total volume of carrier oil. However as it also acts as a natural preservative,
and holds the scent of rare oils so well, it can be used as the only carrier oil in beauty applications.
At 10% of total volume, makes a wonderful hair conditioner too.


Juniper Berry {Juniperis communis}: A great tonic for the liver, has been known to help with
cirrhosis. It also helps the blood clear toxins from the blood. Very useful for oily and congested
skins. If used in a good skin care blend this oil can be good for the treatment of Acne.
Great for the hair too. Best avoided during pregnancy.


Kanuka {Leptospermum Ericoides}: This is one of two relatively new oils now used in
Aromatherapy. By looking at the traditional medicines of the Maori and Aboriginal peoples, it
was discovered that this oil reputedly had good skin toning properties.


Labdanum {Cistus Ladaniferus}: its main use is as a fixative in perfumes. However as it also
has good mood uplifting properties as well as calming and stress reducing properties, it is an
effective and useful Aromatherapy oil. It has toning and soothing effect upon the skin too.


Lavandin {Lavandula Hybrida}: Lavandin oils comes from a plant that is a hybrid of True
Lavender {Lavendula Angustifolia} and Lavender Spike {Lavendula Latifolia}. It is very
similar to Lavender but without the sedative properties; as such it has the ability to refresh
a tired mind. One of its main uses is as a pain killer, and can help with tired and stiff muscles.
Its cicatrisant effect can help with mildly scarred and blemished skin.


Lavender (Mont Blanc – High Alt) {Lavendula Angustifolia}: See Lavender.
Often has a better sedative effect helping give a good nights sleep.


Lavender {Spike} {Lavendula Latifolia}: This oil is a wonderful cerebro-spinal analgesic,
helping calm nerve pain too, makes this very useful oil for sports injury, and other aches
and pains. Some times known as the male lavender as the scent is less flowery and more
clearer and fresher. As this oil is has as emmenagogic effect it is best avoided in pregnancy.


Lavender {Lavendula Angustifolia}: This is the most used oil in Aromatherapy. It has a
soothing and sedative effect, thus helping with sleep difficulties. Further it has a balancing
effect upon the central nervous system so may help with bi-polar disorder. Its sedative action
also helps reduce blood pressure. It’s pain relief properties make it a great oil for sprains or
strains, especially in a blend with Marjoram. As it promotes the growth of new cells, it is
suitable for all skin conditions. It has a very good effect upon burns and sunburn.
Great for healing wounds and preventing infection. A great hair and scalp tonic too.
Like Ylang-Ylang, Lavender is available in different levels, 30/32 40/42 50/52.
The most therapeutic being a 50/52 but for most uses a 40/42 is standard. In some years,
as Essential oils are natural, there will be no 50/52 produced.


Lemon {Citrus Limonum}: Felling hot and bothered? Try this cooling and refreshing oil.
A good tonic for the circulatory system. As it helps liquefy the blood, it can be very helpful
for people with heart problems, and can have a good effect upon varicose veins.
Helps brighten dull complexions, and has a good effect upon spider veins and broken
capillaries. Further it has a cleansing action upon greasy skin and hair. Strengthens brittle nails.
Do not use in direct sunlight, as it is a photo-toxic oil.


Lemon Verbena {Lippia Citriodora}: This oil is famous for helping to banish depression, as it
reduces stress and tension it has very beneficial effects upon the mind. Further, by helping
to reduce tension it can be useful for stress related sexual problems, and could explain it’s
reputation as an aphrodisiac. Also this oil reduces puffiness in skin and is a good hair tonic.
Some tests have shown this oil to be photo toxic, so best avoided before going out into direct sun light.
Lemongrass {Cymbopogan Flexuosus}: A revitalising oil that helps with states of exhaustion,
lifting the spirits too. A good tonic for the body, helping the glands. Reputed to help with colitis.
In massage it helps make muscles suppler. Helps give good tone to the skin, and helps open
the pores, thus can help with clearing acne. Also as it helps keep insects at bay it can be a
great oil for the traveler too.


Lime {Citrus Aurantifolia}: Useful uplifting oil for helping deal with apathy. As a digestive stimulant it can also help with Anorexia. Its astringent, refreshing and toning qualities helps with greasy skin. As with all the citrus oils it has a photo-toxic effect, so best avoided before going out into direct sun light.


Linden blossom {Tilia Europaea}: A relaxing oil that can help with sleeping problems.
Good for reducing blood pressure. On the skin it has a softening and soothing action,
and is reputed to help keep wrinkles at bay too. Further it has a reputation for helping
with blemished skin. A good scalp and hair tonic that is said to help promote hair growth.


Macadamia Nut {Macadmia Integrifolia}: Potentially one of the most useful of the carrier oils.
As the lightest oil, lighter than even Coconut, it is the best carrier oil for people with very
sensitive skins. Further as a light oil it can be used on very oily skins, yet is suitable for all skin types.


Mandarin {Citrus Reticulata var Blanco}: A much milder oil than many of the other citrus oils.
Yet still has the same refreshing quality of this class of oils. When used in a blend with Neroli
and Lavender can be used to lessen the effects of stretch marks.


Manuka {Leptopermum Scoparium}: Another of the relatively new oils now used in
Aromatherapy that have come from traditional medicines of the Maori and Aboriginal peoples.
The hype from the main distillers say; “This oil could be more important and effective than
Lavender” Away from the hype, it does have good skin regenerating qualities.
The New Zealand Fire service are using this oil to treat burns victims, and with its pain
killing qualities it is seen as possibly very effective. This oil reputedly had good skin toning properties too.


Marjoram Sweet {Origanum Marjorama}: A wonderful calming oil, helping reduce stress,
works well with those whom over work. Helps reduce blood pressure, and aids painful
and sore muscles. Helps disperse bruises. As a mild emmenagogue it should be avoided
in pregnancy. Also it will diminish sexual desire.


Marjoram Wood {Thymus Mastichina}: See Marjoram Sweet. Also known as Wild Marjoram.
The properties of this oil are very similar to Sweet Marjoram but milder.


May Chang {Litsea Cubeba}: This oil has come to Aromatherapy via Traditional Chinese
Medicine, where it is used as a Bronchodilator, making it useful for Asthma and other
respiratory problems. In TCM it is also used as a heart tonic. A very uplifting oil, and
very useful for oily skin and hair.


Melissa {Melissa Officinalis}: A wonderful oil that is very useful for shock and bereavement.
Useful for states of hysteria too. Further it has a calming effect upon the circulatory system.
Melissa is also very useful for menstrual and reproductive problems, and can help some
women having difficulty conceiving. Useful with soothing allergic reactions. As it can help
stem bleeding it can be useful in a natural After-shave. Further it is useful for greasy skin
and hair. It is reputed to counteract baldness.


Mimosa {Acacia Dealbata}: A very useful skin conditioning oil, with its soothing and muscle
relaxing qualities. Also known as an anti-inflammatory and anti depressant too.


Myrrh commiphora Myrrha}: A very useful oil for stimulating the immune system.
Works well on many gynaecological problems. This oil has a drying effect upon the skin and
works well for treating boils and acne. A useful oil for athletes foot too.


Myrtle {Myrtus communis}: Also known as Bog Myrtle. This oil can be useful is quelling feelings
of anger. Also can help with night sweats associated with menopause. A good skin cleanser
helping clear congested skins. Useful for acne and blemished skin.


Neroli {Citrus Aurantium var Amara}: An extremely calming oil that can instill a sense of peace.
Useful treating chronic depression, anxiety, hysteria and shock. Useful for insomnia.
Also effective in treating neuralgia {nerve pain}. Its stress reducing qualities make it useful for
treating sexual problems, and could be the source of its reputation as an aphrodisiac. Also aids
with emotional problems relating to Pre menstrual syndrome, and irritability and tearfulness in
menopause. All in all a very good health tonic. This oil is good for skin, improving elasticity and
helping cells to regenerate. Generally an excellent skin conditioner.


Niaouli {Melaleuca Viridflora}: Related to Tea Tree {MelaleucaAlternifolia} but it has a more
pronounced effect upon the immune system. Works well in suppressing any viral infection.
A good skin cleanser, firming tissues and aiding healing.


Nutmeg {Myristica Fragrans}: Has an overall good effect upon the digestive system, and can
aid the body to break down fats. Can be useful in Pre menstrual syndrome, and menopause,
as it imitates oestrogen. Also can aid childbirth as it excites the motor nerves strengthening
contractions. But best avoided during pregnancy. Also a good hair tonic.


Oakmoss {Evernia Prunastri}: Has good skin toning and cleansing properties.


Olive {Olea Europae}: This is the same oil as used in cooking but without the preservatives
that are frequently added. Thus a cosmetic grade is better for use on the skin. Normally
used as just 10% of total volume of carrier. Very good for the skin and hair.
In Aromatherapy often used for rheumatic conditions.


Orange {Citrus Aurantium var Dulcis}: Adds a little zest to gloomy moods, dispelling stress.
Said to help the body absorb vitamin C, and is a great oil to use to clear the air following illness.
Promotes the formation of collagen, thus helps to smooth out wrinkles.  Also helps dispel toxins from the skin. Suitable for all skin types but most effective on dry skin.


Orange Bitter {Citrus Aurantium var Amara}: See Orange. The bitter orange seems to be more effective for dermatitis.


Oregano common {Origanum Vulgare}: This oil has beneficial effects upon psychosomatic
disorders. Over all a good tonic for the digestive system, especially the liver and spleen.
The effect upon the liver could explain its reputation as helping reduce cellulite.


Osmanthus {Osmanthus Fragrans}: While its main use is as a perfume ingredient, it does
help reduce stress and have some anti depressant qualities too.


Palmarosa {Cymbopogon Martini}: A very useful oil for reducing high temperatures in fevers.
Has good anti bacterial and anti viral properties too. It is reputed to eradicate wrinkles,
as it helps the skin cells balance their water content as well as the natural oil sebum, it
could be reducing them. Very useful for dry skins, but a good general skin tonic.


Parsley Seed {Petroselinum Sativum}: A very potent oil that should be used with care.
However it has a good cooling and clearing action on the mind. Used mainly as a
diuretic to counter water retention during menstruation. It also has been used in fighting
cellulite. Also useful when used in labor as it strengthens uterine contractions. But for the
same reasons it should not be used during pregnancy, or painful menstruation. It is a
good tonic for the digestive system, especially the liver and kidneys as it improves
circulation and helps cleanse the blood. However it should not be used in people with
kidney problems, as it could over stimulate a weak organ. A good skin and scalp tonic.
Use infrequently.


Patchouli {Pogostemon Patchouli}: A strong earthy oil that will forever be associated with
hippies and the 60s. It has a balancing action upon the mind, useful for overcoming lethargy
and increasing objectivity. As it has a mild appetite suppressant quality it is frequently used
to aid dieting. It’s astringent qualities may help tighten loose skin after dieting too.
Useful in the menopause for helping with hot flushes, and is frequently used as a natural
deodorant. Also very useful for cracked and weeping skin


Peach Kernel {Prunus persica}: A very useful carrier oil, suitable for all skin types, but
especially dry skins. Can be used as moisturizing base too.


Peppermint {Mentha Arvensis}: Should more correctly be called Cornmint, Very good for
helping clear the respiratory system. Is reputed to help speed up the metabolism and has
been used to help with weight loss. A refreshing oil that can sharpen the senses in the
morning. Can irritate sensitive skins, and over use can over stimulate the nervous system.


Peppermint {Mentha Piperita}: A cooling and soothing oil. Very effective for all respiratory
conditions, and has a relaxing effect upon digestive problems. The cooling effect upon joint
inflammation can make it useful for arthritis, and it works on muscle pain too. A useful skin
cleanser that helps remove blackheads, and its cooling action can relieve itching and help
with sunburn. Effective upon greasy skin and hair.


Petitgrain {Citrus Aurantium}: A nice calming oil that can be used to aid Convalescence.
A good cleansing oil that can help clearing up blemishes like pimples or even acne.


Pimento Berry {Pimento Officinalis}: A potent yet useful oil, which helps stimulate local circulation. This can aid rheumatic and arthritic conditions. Also can help with muscle cramp and pain. It can be a good overall tonic for the body. Over use on the skin can cause a rash.


Pimento Leaf {Pimento Officinalis}: A milder effect than Pimento Berry, and more suitable
for people with sensitive skin.


Pine Needle {Pinus Sylvestris}: A very powerful antiseptic. Helps with Bronchitis and other
respiratory conditions. A useful Kidney cleanser, and it can help with cystitis. Further it has
an anti-inflammatory effect upon the gall bladder. Also has a beneficial effect upon prostrate
problems in men. And is reputed to help overcome male impotency. In women it can help
with uterine inflammation too.


Ravensara {Ravensara Aromatica}: A very useful oil for cleaning and clearing the breathing
passages. Also works well upon the sinuses too. A useful toning oil that can help tighten
underused muscles, further it can help keep the breasts firm. Useful for treating menstrual cramps too.


Rose Hip {Rosa Mosqueta}: The skin rejuvenating properties of rose are utilized in this
carrier oil. Normally used at 5% to 10% of total carrier oil volume, it can add a feel of
luxury to a conditioning blend.


Rose Otto {Rosa damascena}: This is a truly feminine oil. It’s effect upon the mind is
reputed to be more pronounced in women, and is said to make her feel more positive
about herself. Said to increase the production of dopamine. Further this oil is a useful
tonic for reproductive problems, from aiding pre menstrual syndrome to aiding vaginal
secretions during intercourse. Yet it also is reputed to increase semen production in men.
Useful for all skin types, yet particularly effective on Mature, Dry, or Sensitive skin.
Further it can soften hard skin, and is a wonderful oil for hardworking hands.
A valuable treatment for broken and thread veins.


Rosemary {Rosmarinus Officinalis}: A wonderful energizing oil, with its pain killing qualities
without the sedative action makes it a useful oil for muscular aches and pains. A good oil for
treating headaches and Migraine. A useful toning oil. Said to help with anemia, and is
reputed to help with cellulite too. Useful for sagging and puffy skin. However as it raises
blood pressure it should be avoided by people with hypertension as well as people with Epilepsy.


Rosewood {Aniba Rosaeaodora}: Also known as Bois de Rose. Illegal logging and rain forest
depletion has seriously endangered this source spices. It is however still useful for chronic
conditions. Yet it is it’s reputation as an aphrodisiac that seems to keep it on the general market.


Sage {Salvia lavandulaefolia}: A calming oil when used sparingly. Beneficial for menstrual
and reproductive problems. As it imitates Oestrogen, it can help with regulating the
menstrual cycle. Has a good reputation for aiding conception. Further in menopause it
can help with excessive sweating and hot flushes. Useful tonic for the liver and kidneys,
promotes urine flow, and this diuretic effect can help with weight loss. Very effective in
helping close large pores. Gives dull hair back its shine.


Sage {Salvia Officinalis}: See Sage {Salvia lavandulaefolia}. This variant has a toxic effect,
even at low doses, so is best avoided for home use.
Sage {Salvia lavandulaefolia} does not have this toxic effect but is still a potent oil.


Sandalwood Mysore {Santalum Album}: While Sandalwood does grow in other areas of the world, it only the Sandalwood from the Mysore region that has the full therapeutic effect. It has a strong calming effect but should not be used for depression as it can deepen the depression. However it is very useful for helping the terminally ill as it can bring feelings of acceptance. A useful oil for it’s genito-urinary action and can be used to treat Cystitis. A useful skin oil especially for dry skin, and skin conditions. Further it can help with acne.


Savoury {Satureja Hortensis}: A very powerful antiseptic, very useful for helping formation of scar tissue. Also aids insect stings and bites. A soothing oil that can help with burns too. Reputed to be an aphrodisiac.


Savoury {Satureja Montana}: See Savoury {Satureja Hortensis}. This is the winter Savoury;
{Satureja Hortensis} is the Summer Savoury.


Sesame {Sesamum Indicum}: Another carrier oil, can be used at 100% of total.


Spearmint {Mentha Spicata}: A useful oil for treating nausea and may help with travel sickness too. Can soothe itchy skin. Wonderfully refreshing skin cleanser, but as a potent oil it should be used with care and only on localized areas, never to be used on whole body massage.


Spearmint {Mentha Viridis}: See Spearmint {Mentha Spicata}. A variant.


Spikenard {Nardostachys Jatamansi}: A wonderful relaxing oil that can help induce restful sleep.
Also its anti-inflammatory action can help with inflamed skin conditions.


St John’s Wort {Hypericum Perfotatum}: Recent research in Germany has shown this oil to be
very useful for helping treat mild to moderate depression. However this oil does have a
photo-toxic action, so best used at 50% of total carrier oil volume.


Sunflower {Helianthus Annus}: Another carrier oil, can be used at 100% of total.


Sweet Almond {Prunus Amygdalus}: The most widely used carrier oil in Aromatherapy.
Suitable for all skin types, and can be used on it’s own as a moisturizer.


Tagetes {Tagetes Minuta}: A useful oil for helping regain a grip on the emotions.
It’s anti microbial action makes it a useful oil for mosquito bites, also useful for keeping
them at bay. Very useful for fungal infections like athletes foot. A very potent oil, do not over use.


Tangerine {Citrus Reticulata}: As the Tangerine is an earlier harvested Mandarin, See also Mandarin. Helps give color to pale complexions. When blended with Lavender and Neroli it can smooth out stretch marks. A useful skin cleanser.


Tarragon {Artemisia Dracunculus}: A wonderful oil for helping with apathy and boredom,
thus helping with anorexia. A good kidney tonic that also helps eliminate uric acid. Useful in treating weeping skin conditions.


Tea Tree {Melaleuca Alternifolia}: The anti-viral, anti-septic, and anti-fungal properties of this
oil make it one of the most useful and popular oils in Aromatherapy. It has been shown to
boost the immune system, and is very useful in helping fight disease. Very useful for all skin
conditions, and all skin types.


Thuja {Thuja Occidentalis}: Used by Professional therapists to treat psoriasis and other skin
conditions. But as this oil is toxic it should not be used at home.


Thyme Red {Thymus Vulgaris}: See Thyme White. There is a myth that White Thyme comes
from the white flowering plant and the red from the red flowering plant. In fact it is oxidization
of the oil. This oxidisation has an effect upon the potency of the oil, and makes it kinder if
used for treating conditions like cystitis.


Thyme White {Thymus Vulgaris}: An extremely potent oil and one of the best natural
antiseptics known. It is known to become toxic from over use. Very useful for most
respiratory conditions, and is known to stimulate white blood cells. Further it can reduce
the swelling in Arthritic joints. Useful when dealing with loss of period, but as a potent
emmenagogue it should not be used while pregnant. Very useful for clearing dandruff too.
Should not be used by people with high blood pressure.


Thyme White – Rectified {Thymus Vulgaris}: See Thyme White. Due to the toxic side effects,
this rectified version of Thyme is preferable for home use.


Thyme Wild {Serpolet} {Thymus Serpyllum}: See Thyme White. This oil is useful for helping with
menstruation following a miscarriage.


Tuberose {Polyanthus Tuberosa}: Used as a perfume. Unknown uses in Aromatherapy.


Turmeric {Curcuma Longa}: This warming oil can help lift the emotions.
Helpful in dealing with rheumatic pain.


Valerian Root {Valeriana Wallachi}: It’s main use is as nerve stimulant and pain killer.
Normally used at less than 1% in a blend.


Vanilla {Vanilla Planifolia}: A wonderful oil for softening and smoothing the skin.
Also widely used as an aphrodisiac.


Vetivert {Vetiveria Zizanoides}: A panacea for stress. A great oil to use just before a job
interview or taking an exam. Also useful for deep-rooted psychological problems. It is
reputed to help improve the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, and could help
with muscular aches and pains. Also helps with clearing acne. Violet Leaf {Viola Oderata}:
An excellent oil for the kidneys and bladder, making it useful for treating cystitis.
Also eases lower back pain associated with kidney problems. Reputed to help with
jaundice and the effects over drinking can have on the liver. Further it can help with low libido.
Can alleviate irritability and hot flushes in the menopause. Also a great oil for healing cracked
nipples, but the blend would need to be washed off with Witch Hazel if the cracked
nipples are the result of nursing baby.


Vitamin E {Dl-Alpha tocopherol}: As a natural preservative, it is very useful in binding and
preserving blends. Moreover, it does appear to help nourish the skin too.


Wheatgerm Refined {Triticum Sativum}: Normally used at 10% of total carrier oil. As it has
great skin conditioning properties it can be used as a skin-conditioning base. Useful for
prematurely ageing skin, as well as conditions like eczema, and psoriasis.


Wintergreen {Gaultheria Procubens}: A useful skin cleanser that needs to be used at no
more than 2% dilution. Very harmful and possibly fatal if taken internally. Avoid if pregnant.


Witch Hazel {Hamamelis Virginiana}: A simple and wonderful cleanser. Especially useful for
cleaning the skin of the face before and after massage on the face.


Yarrow {Achillea Millefolium}: After Clary Sage, this oil is the most important oil for treating
Menstrual and reproductive problems in women. For many conditions it could be first choice
but as a very potent oil, it can induce headaches and irritate the skin. However it is a great
tonic for the body, and stimulates the bone marrow improving the production of red blood cells.
Said to help with varicose veins. Very useful for back pain. It helps clear oily skin, and is a
slow but sure healing oil on inflamed wounds, chapped hands, ulcers and cuts.
Also a very good scalp and hair conditioner, that seems to stimulate hair growth.


Ylang Ylang Extra {Cananga Odorata}: Sometimes also described as Superior. A very useful oil for reducing stress as it helps regulate adrenaline flow. Very useful for reducing blood pressure. The feeling of joy and togetherness this oil can inspire has given it a reputation as an aphrodisiac, and it can be used to treat sexual problems. Further it can help a mother bond with her child especially after a caesarean birth. A very useful oil for the skin helping balance the natural oils in the skin. Further it is reputed to help keep breasts firm. Also a great scalp tonic, reputed to help produce a luxurious head of hair.


Ylang Ylang I {Cananga Odorata}: Ylang Ylang has five levels of scent, and each
has similar therapeutic values. However the contra indications of these oils, predominately
headaches and nausea from over use, are less pronounced in the higher levels. See Ylang Ylang Extra.


Ylang Ylang complete {Cananga Odorata}: Some say that the combination of the four
distillations of the levels, is best for Aromatherapy.

Herbs for Every Zodiac Sign


Herbs can be mixed and combined to produce a “recipe” that’s just right for each of us.
Since the Sun sign you were born under has such an amazing influence on your health and
well-being, using the herbs that correspond with that sign alone can be a tremendous help in
times of stress or illness. Here’s a short list of herbs that seem to be tailor-made for each of the
signs, due to their associations with both the planetary ruler and the positive qualities of that sign.

Aries – Mars
Allspice, basil, cayenne, garlic, ginger, mustard, onion, pepper. It’s no secret that Aries is the astrological equivalent of a bullet. It’s a red-hot burst of energy that’s capable of overcoming any
obstacle by charging straight for it. The ruler of Aries is Mars, the “red” planet, the ancient god of war who was known for his equally fiery temperament. No wonder, then, the herbs that correspond with your sign are also a bit “hot” to the taste. Use them in cooking to raise your
endorphin, the substance Mars loves best.

Taurus – Venus
Apple, apricot, blackberry, cherry, heather, hibiscus, raspberry, rose. Taurus is the sign that’s fondest of the pleasures that life inside these bodies can provide. Whether it’s a blazing sunset, a symphony by Mozart, or a delicious meal, you folks are experts at enjoying the physical delights of the senses. It’s no surprise that the herbs you’ll enjoy most are the sweet ones, since your planet, Venus, is the purveyor of sweetness. Use each of them to satisfy that sweet tooth.

Gemini – Mercury
Clover, eye bright, fennel, lemongrass, lemon verbena, marjoram, parsley. Your quick-witted, fleet-footed energy just loves variety – in fact, the expression “variety is the spice of life” was written with you in mind. Each of these herbs provide a different type of taste, and most can be
combined in a light, aromatic tea you can sip on the run. Use clove or slippery elm to protect against gossip and to keep your thoughts and actions grounded.

Cancer – Moon
Aloe, lemon balm, chamomile, mimosa, lavender, lilac. Nurturing is your business, Cancer, and you distribute your soothing touch to one and all. There’s nothing you like better than a home that smells good, too, whether it’s because there’s something wonderful simmering on the stove, a vase of fresh flowers on the dining room table, or a warm, fragrant bubble bath waiting for you upstairs. Each of the herbs listed above are known for their ability to calm, heal, or bring a wonderful aroma to the environment. Use aloe to soothe burns and scrapes and chamomile for a wonderful bedtime tea.

Leo – Sun
Chicory, cinnamon, golden seal, rosemary, St. John’s Wort, sandalwood. Your planet is the Sun, Leo, the source of life and warmth that keeps us all alive and provides us with the energy we need to keep pursuing our life’s quest. It makes perfect sense, then, that the bright, cheerful sunflower would be the perfect representation of your equally bright and happy sign. Herbs like golden seal and St. John’s Wort are tailor-made for you, too, since their ability to keep the body resistant to illness and depression are well known. Mix a bit of chicory with your morning coffee to help remove any obstacles that come up.

Virgo – Mercury
Caraway, dill, eyebright, horehound, lily of the valley, marjoram, savory. Your quick-thinking meticulous sign likes nothing better than a mental challenge, Virgo, whether it’s organizing a pile of papers at the office, solving a puzzle, or learning a new skill. The herbs listed above are all well known for their subtle abilities to strengthen the mind, and many can be mixed together in teas to give you a boost you often need at the end of a long day. The lily of the valley seems perfect for you, too, with its subtle, “clean” scent and delicate flowers.

Libra – Venus
Catnip, passion flower, persimmon, rose, sugar cane, violet. There’s no sign as fond of pleasing others as yours, Libra, whether it’s by saying just the right thing to bring warring factions together, or by using your polite charm to draw the object of your desires closer. Of course, catnip is famous for its effects on our feline friends, but its also traditionally used in conjunction with rose petals to bring loving relationships that last forever. Since you’re ruled by Venus, you’re
capable of being every bit as sweet as the sugar cane – but if you need a bit of help to attract a beloved, use this potent plant (sugar cane) that’s long been used to conjure love – sweetly.

Scorpio – Pluto/Mars
Ginseng, dill, patchouli, pomegranate, saffron, vanilla. As fond as you are of intensity and intimacy, Scorpio, it’s no wonder the herbs you’ll love best are famous for their use in stirring up
passion. Drink ginseng tea (or offer some to your beloved) to induce a magnetic physical attraction. Wear patchouli to arouse lust and silently conjure the magic of the Beltane rituals. Present the object of your desire with a pomegranate, the fruit traditionally associated with
seductive Pluto, your ruling planet.

Sagittarius – Jupiter
Anise, clove, fig, hyssop, mugwort, myrtle, nutmeg, rosemary, sage. There’s no sign that hangs on to youth with more fervency and determination than yours Sagittarius. To keep that youthful appearance and disposition going as you travel the world in search of yet another experience, drink a tea made of anise, rosemary, and Vervain. To aid in making your dreams more prophetic than they already are, use mugwort. Burn clove incense to attract the wealth you’ll need to pay for your travels.

Capricorn – Saturn
Comfrey, horsetail, mint, poppy, sassafras, woodruff. You’ve always been described as a very “focused” sign, Capricorn, intent on self-sufficiency and material success. The influence of your planet, Saturn, gives you the ambition and self-discipline to attain those goals, and to ensure success and prosperity in business matters, too. Each of the herbs mentioned above are known for their ability to attract that success, and most can be mixed together in a tea.

Aquarius – Uranus/Saturn
Anise, bittersweet, citron, dandelion, lemon verbena, rosemary, sage. Your sign is a cerebral one, Aquarius, and your ability to turn “odd” or eccentric ideas into strokes of genius is well known. Since communication (and mass communication in particular) is your specialty, the herbs above are all associated with the air principle, which rules the intellectual side of life. To increase your already powerful intuition, use citron, clover, or rosemary. Above all else, listen to that intuition. It will seldom prove to be wrong.

Pisces – Neptune/Jupiter
Aloe, bay, cotton, eucalyptus, lavender, Norfolk Island pine, rue. As the most sensitive and psychic of all signs, Pisces, yours is the one that requires help to ward off the adverse thoughts and intentions of others. Since you have no boundaries to keep you separate from others, you also need protection against negative influences. To that end, use rue, a powerful herb known to ward off ills of every kind. To stay positive and healthy keep a lavender plant growing either outside or inside your home.

Herbs and Their Magickal Properties


The following is a list of common witches’ herbs and magickal properties:
ACACIA: divination
ADDER”S TONGUE: divination
ANGELICA: excorcism, healing, and protection against evil influences.
AVENS: soul purification.
BASIL: exorcism, love spells and protection against evil influences.
BAY: clairvoyance, healing, good luck and protection against evil influences.
BERGAMOT: prosperity.
CAMPHOR: divination.
CATNIP: love spells.
CARNATION: psychic healing.
CEDAR: healing, prosperity and sanctification.
CHAMOMILE: sleep potions.
CINNAMON: clairvoyance, healing and love spells.
CINQUEFOIL: prosperity.
CLOVES: diviation, exorcism, love and spiritual purification.
CLOVER: anti-sorcery, counterspells and protection against evil influences.
CORIANDER: love spells.
DILL: anti-sorcery and protection against evil influences.
DRAGON’S BLOOD: exorcism and love spells.
ELDER: aphrodisiac, love spells and prosperity.
FENNEL: healing and purification.
FERN: exorcism and spells to attract rain.
FRANKINCENSE: consecration, divination, exorcism, healing, love spells and spiritual purification.
GARDENIA: healing and love spells.
GARLIC: exorcism, protection against evil influences and purification.
GINGER: aphrodisiacs and love spells.
HAWTHORNE FLOWERS: clairvoyance and divination.
HAZEL: aphrodisiacs and love spells.
HONEYSUCKLE: divinaton.
HOPS: healing and sleep potions.
JASMINE: aphrodisiacs and love spells.
JUNIPER: aphrodisiacs, exorcism, healing, love spells and protection against evil influences.
LAVENDER: aphrodisiacs and love spells.
LEMON BALM: healing and love spells.
LEMON GRASS: divination.
LILAC: exorcism.
LOVAGE: aphrodisiacs and love spells.
MACE: divination.
MALLOW: exorcism.
MANDRAKE ROOT: aphrodisiac, cursing enemies, love spells, protection
against evil influences and spells to ncrease psychic powers.
MARJORAM: prophetic dreams and protection against evil influences.
MINT: exorcism and healing.
MUGWORT: astral projection, clairvoyance, divination, prophetic dreams, and Spells to increase psychic powers.
MYRRH:consecration, exorcism, healing and meditation.
MYRTLE: sleep potions.
NUTMEG: divination and healing.
ORRIS ROOT: clairvoyance and divination.
PASSION FLOWER: sleep potions.
PATCHOULI: invocation of elemental powers.
PEONY ROOT: anti-sorcery and protection against evil influences.
PINE: prosperity.
ROSE: divination, healing and love spells.
ROSEMARY: counter spells, healing, love spells and purification.
RUE: exorcism and hexing of enemies.
SAFFRON: love spells.
SANDALWOOD: consecration, healing and protecting against evil influences.
SASSAFRAS: prosperity.
SERPENTARIA ROOT: aphrodisiacs and love spells.
SOLOMON’S SEAL: exorcism.
THISTLE: exorcism.
THYME: divination and healing.
TONKA: love spells and prosperity.
VERVAIN: anti-sorcery, astral projection and sleep potions.
VIOLET: Healing and love spells.
WILLOW: healing.
WOOD ALOE: prosperity.
WOODRUFF: prosperity.
WORMWOOD: clairvoyance, divination and good luck.
YARROW: divination, exorcism, love spells, prophetic dreams,and spells to increases psychic powers.
YERBA SANTA: healing.

About the Common Herbs



Aloe (Aloe vera) : Called the “Burn Plant” because of its effect on burns of all types. It is the best herb for sunburn. Aloe is also effective in spells for preventing accidents involving fire or heat. A charged Aloe growing in your kitchen affords not only it’s healing properties, but also protection against kitchen burns and fires.

Anise (Pimpinella anisum) : A daily cup of anise tea will preserve youth. Anise burned on charcoal before bed will promote prophetic dreams.

Balm (Melissa officinalis) : Bathe in a bath of Balm to attract love. Add to incense and sachets for love and to promote healing.

Barley (Hordeum spp.) : Sprinkle Barley around the perimeter of your yard [or on windowsills] to ward off evil. A few grains under your doormat will offer protection and repell negativity and evil that would enter.

Basil (Ocimum basilicum) : Basil oil rubbed on a green candle before burning will attract wealth. The incense smoke is beneficial for the same, plus banishing, exorcising and for protection. It also makes one hell of a spagetti sauce!

Blackberry (Rubus villosus) : To work your way through a bramble of blackberries is near impossible – but it is rumored to dispell, and protect from, all disease and evil.

Caraway (Carum carvi) : Use in your wedding cake, and throw caraway seeds after the ceremony. It promotes lust and fidelity. Of course – it doesn’t have to be your wedding night/cake.

Catnip (Nepeta cataria) : Well, we’ve seen it’s effect on our feline friends…giving your cat this herb can help create the psychic link needed for a familiar. Add catnip to your sachets to attract love [but keep it away from your cat].

Cayenne (Capsicum annuum) : Eat a meal hot with cayenne before a night of Bacchanalian celebrating – it will curb drunkeness.

Chamomile (Anthemsis nobilis) : Ancient Egytians assiciated Chamomile with Ra for its healing powers. Even other plants in your herb garden will benefit from this herb, as it repells insects & promotes healing. Chamomile also has the properties of attracting wealth

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) : First cultivated and used in the East, Cinnamon was burned to purify the temple. It also promotes health, vigor and libido.

Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus) : burned smoked or ingested, clove promotes visions.

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) : If you see a puff off a dandelion, but there’s no wind, rain is on the way. Also used to make a great wine, or tea.

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) : Ingested, Fennel promotes virility, fertility, and libido in general. Also acts as a protective herb.

Garlic (Allium sativum) : Ropes of garlic are used to ward off evil. Garlic is also known as a lustful herb when ingested.

Lavendar (Lavendula officinale) : Especially useful in attracting men. Lavendar promotes happiness and harmony in the home, whether burned or simply used in potpourri and sachets.

Marigold (Calendula officianis) : Use as a visionary herb. Burn when doing a divination for love.

Marjoram (Origanum majorana) : Use to dispel negativity and promote love & happiness.

Onion (Allium cepa) : Ingested, onions can promote prophetic visions and dreams. Onion also promotes virility and libido.

Parsley (Retroselinum sativum) : Promotes communion with the Maternal Aspect.

Peppermint (Mentha piperita) : Burn before bed for phrophetic dreams. Peppermint tea aids in divination.

Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) : Increases memory and protects against evil. It has been used in conjunction with juniper berries for centuries to purify the air.

Sage (Salvia officianus) : Promotes strength, courage, longevity and wisdom. It also banishes negativity and evil.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) : Burn when asking advice of loved ones who have passed on.

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) : The herb of Witches. Use for cleansing and self-purification. Ingest with care. This can have side effects, and can make some people ill.

Vervain (Verbena officinalis) : One of the Seven Sacred Herbs of the Druids. Aids in visionary work. The Welsh called it ‘llysiaur hudol’ – or enchanting herb. It promotes love, lust and sexual fulfillment. Use when performing sexual magic. An herb of artists – use before any artistic performances.

Willow (Salix alba) : An herb of immortality.

Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens) : Use to remove jinx. Also good for protecting children.

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginica) : Excellent for making divining rods – which can be used to find more than just water.

A Little Humor for Your Day – More Circle Etiquette

More Circle Etiquette

  • Never summon Anything you can’t banish.
  • Never put asafoetida on the rocks in the sweat lodge.
  • Do not attempt to walk more than 10 paces while wearing all of your ritual jewelry, dream bags and crystals at the same time.
  • When proposing to initiate someone, do not mention the Great Rite, leer, and say, “Hey, your trad or mine?”
  • Never laugh at someone who is skyclad. They can see you, too.
  • Never, *ever* set the Witch on fire.
  • Looking at nifty pictures is not a valid path to mastering the ancient grimoires. Please read thoroughly and carefully from beginning to end so that your madness and gibberings will at least make some sense.
  • A good grasp of ritual and ritual techniques are essential! In the event of a random impaling, or other accidental death amongst the participants, (see next rule) a quick thinker can improvise to ensure successful completion of the Rite. Make them another sacrifice, Demons really love those those.
  • Watch where you wave the sharp pointy items.
  • Avoid walking through disembodied spirits.
  • Carry an all-purpose translator’s dictionary in case the ritual leader begins talking in some strange and unknown language.
  • Avoid joining your life force to anything with glowing red eyes.
  • If asked to sign a contract or pact and you are experiencing doubts or reservations, sign your neighbor’s name. Malevolent entities rarely ask for photo ID.
  • Blood IS thicker than water. Soak ritual garments an extra 30-45 minutes.
  • While drunken weaving may be mistaken for ecstatic dancing, slurring the names of Deities is generally considered bad form.


The Celtic Connection

Astronomy Picture of the Day – A Sudden Jet on Comet 67P

Astronomy Picture of the Day

Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

2015 November 18

A Sudden Jet on Comet 67P
Image Credit: ESA/Rosetta/MPS

Explanation: There she blows! A dramatic demonstration of how short-lived some comet jets can be was documented in late July by the robotic Rosetta spacecraft orbiting the nucleus of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The featured animation depicts changes in the rotating comet with three illuminating stills. Although the first frame shows nothing unusual, the second frame shows a sudden strong jet shooting off the 67P’s surface only 20 minutes later, while the third frame — taken 20 minutes after that — shows but a slight remnant of the once-active jet. As comets near the Sun, they can produce long and beautiful tails that stream across the inner Solar System. How comet jets produce these tails is a topic of research — helped by images like this. Another recent Rosetta measurement indicates that the water on Earth could not have come from comets like 67P because of significant differences in impurities. Comet 67P spans about four kilometers, orbits the Sun between Earth and Jupiter, and has been the home for ESA’s Rosetta spaceship since 2014 August. Rosetta is currently scheduled to make a slow crash onto Comet 67P’s surface in late 2016.

Earth Sky News for November 18th – November is the month of Pleiades

November is the month of Pleiades

Tonight, look for the tiny, misty dipper of stars known as the Pleiades or Seven Sisters.

November is the month of the Pleiades star cluster. On these November nights, the Pleiades cluster shines from nightfall until dawn. It’s low in the east at nightfall, high overhead around midnight and low in the west before dawn. Locate it by the bright star Aldebaran this evening, or any evening soon.

You can view the Pleiades with either the unaided eye or an optical aid, on these November nights. The Pleiades cluster is one of the most recognizable star patterns in the night sky. Its six brightest stars do look like a little dipper. In fact, people in the Northern Hemisphere often mistake the Pleiades for the real Little Dipper asterism, which is located farther north on the sky’s dome. The misty-looking dipper of the Pleiades hovers over the northeastern horizon as darkness falls. It moves across the night sky from east to west, much like the sun does during the day.

So look tonight for the Pleiades!

By the way, Seven Sisters is just another name for the Pleiades. If you look with your eye alone, it’s likely you’ll only see six stars in the Pleiades. Some old Greek legends explore what might have happened to the missing sister, sometimes called the Lost Pleiad.

In the Northern Hemisphere, the Pleiades’ all night appearance coincides with late autumn. As this part of the world moves toward winter, it’s easy to imagine the Pleiades as a frosty patch on the dome of night. But in the Southern Hemisphere now, where spring flowers are blooming, this cluster of nocturnal suns watches over the season of awakening and agriculture. In South Africa, for example, the Pleiades are called the hoeing-stars.

Yearly, on or near November 20, the Pleiades cluster culminates – reaches its highest point in the sky – at midnight. (In this instance, midnight means midway between sunset and sunrise.) Historically, the midnight culmination of the Pleiades was very significant to many ancient and primitive peoples. Some of these Pleiades midnight celebrations still linger into the present, such as the old Druid rite of Halloween. Although the midnight culmination date for the Pleiades advances over the long course of time, the date of Halloween has remained fixed by tradition.


Earth Sky News


Your Daily Influences for November 18

Your Daily Influences
November 18th, 2015


Knight of Swords Reversed
Given to bragging. A bully, prone to fighting. Possibly self destructive.











Kenaz reversed represents a lack of needed knowledge and possible isolation. Information you may need is being withheld from you, or you may not be open to receiving it. Although others may seem distant, if you seek their friendship you may be pleasantly surprised.




The Food Charm
You must take steps to protect your body from what you ingest. This aspect is affected by a poor diet. You have a bad habit of filling your body with things you know are not good for you.



Your Daily Influences represent events and challenges the current day will present for you. They may represent opportunities you should be ready to seize. Or they may forewarn you of problems you may be able to avoid or lessen. Generally it is best to use them as tips to help you manage your day and nothing more.

Your Charm for November 18th is The Cornucopia

Your Charm for Today

        The Cornucopia

Today’s Meaning:
This aspect is need of some pampering, you are in need of some pampering and who better to do it than yourself? Do something extravagant, something out of character and make this aspect a more pleasant place to be.

General Description:
This is a Roman amulet and was worn for many centuries as a charm to attract good fortune. The Cornucopia represents Amaitheia’s Horn, and is a symbol of prosperity, abundance and fruitfulness. Amaltheia daughter of Melissus, King of Crete, nursed the infant Jupiter with goats milk. Jupiter afterwards endowed the goats horn with magical properties, and promising that it would supply in abundance whatever she desired, gave it to his nurse. The idea most probably originated from using the horns of oxen and goats as drinking cups.

Attaining Your Goals Reading for November 18th

Attaining Your Goals Reading

This reading is to assist in reaching, or possibly even defining your goals for the future.




Circles 7
Symbol: Insect

The Insect tile indicates short-term gain through a short flurry of hectic work. It is important to realize that the gains the Insect tile offers are not lasting, or of long-term importance. At best they are a stopgap until more substantial goals come along.

Issues to Address

Circles 4
Symbol: Jade

The Jade tile indicates hard work resulting in spectacular results. Jade is thought to be an “immortal stone” to many. Therefore is also denotes longevity of relationships, life and principled values.


Circles 3
Symbol: Phoenix

The Phoenix tile indicates great happiness and joy. The Phoenix is said to be reborn out its ashes. Accordingly the Phoenix tile also denotes sure recovery from any setbacks encountered.

Primary Strength

Red Dragon
Symbol: Center

The Red Dragon tile is indicative of success and the fulfillment of your goals.

Primary Weakness

Symbol: Pleasure

The Chrysanthemum tile indicates you will enjoy a happy time filled with social activities and leisurely moments untainted by the demands of everyday life.

Your Animal Spirit for November 18th is The Wolverine

Your Animal Spirit for Today
November 18, 2015 


Wolverine is thought to be a bridge between the physical and spirit worlds. He has the ability to survive in the most difficult terrains—and his message to you is of inner strength. Have you forgotten just how powerful you really are? If so, it’s time to refocus and re-dedicate—and remember that Wolverine medicine runs through your blood.

Your Ancient Symbol Card for November 18th is The Hand

Your Ancient Symbol Card for Today

The Hand

Although the exact meaning may vary, The Hand is a symbol of some form of personal power in many cultures and religions. The presence of The Hand is an indication that your personal powers are at or near their zenith. The Hand suggest a time when you should leave your mark on the world.

As a daily card, The Hand suggest that now is a time for you to leave your mark on the world. Your unique strengths are heightened to a point where you can not only expect to make substantial progress towards your goals, but enjoy recognition for your efforts as well.