Deity of the Day – The Morrighan

Deity of the Day – the morrighan

 

The Morrighan – Celtic Goddess of War and Sovereignity

By Patti Wigington, About.com 

In Celtic mythology, the Morrighan is known as a goddess of battle and war. However, there’s a bit more to her than this. Also referred to as Morrígu, Morríghan, or Mor-Ríoghain, she is called the “washer at the ford,” because if a warrior saw her washing his armor in the stream, it meant he was to die that day. She is the goddess who determines whether or not you walk off the field of battle, or are carried off upon your shield. In later Irish folklore, this role would be delegated to the bain sidhe, who foresaw the death of members of a specific family or clan.

The Morrighan often appears in the form of a crow or raven, or is seen accompanied by a group of them. In the stories of the Ulster cycle, she is shown as a cow and a wolf as well. The connection with these two animals suggest that in some areas, she may have been connected to fertility and land.

In some legends, the Morrighan is considered a triune, or triple goddess, but there are a lot of inconsistencies to this. She often appears as a sister to the Badb and Macha. In some Neopagan traditions, she is portrayed in her role as destroyer, representing the Crone Aspect of the Maiden/Mother/Crone cycle, but this seems to be incorrect when one looks at her original Irish history. Some scholars point out that war specifically is not a primary aspect of the Morrighan, and that her connection to cattle presents her as a goddess of sovereignty. The theory is that she can be seen as a deity who guides or protects a king.

In modern literature, there has been some linking of the Morrighan to the character of Morgan Le Fay in the Arthurian legend. It appears, though, that this is more fanciful thinking than anything else. Although Morgan le Fay appears in the Vita Merlini in the twelfth century, a narrative of the life of Merlin by Geoffrey of Monmouth, it’s unlikely that there’s a connection to the Morrighan. Scholars point out that the name “Morgan” is Welsh, and derived from root words connected to the sea. “Morrighan” is Irish, and is rooted in words that are associated with “terror” or “greatness.” In other words, the names sound similar, but the relationship ends there.

There’s an excellent page with plenty of scholarly information on the Morrighan from Reverend Gwynarion Elessacar at http://www.elessacar.com/the_morrighan.php.

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The Morrighan – Celtic Goddess of War and Sovereignity

The Morrighan – Celtic Goddess of War and Sovereignity

By , About.com

In Celtic mythology, the Morrighan is known as a goddess of battle and war. However, there’s a bit more to her than this. Also referred to as Morrígu, Morríghan, or Mor-Ríoghain, she is called the “washer at the ford,” because if a warrior saw her washing his armor in the stream, it meant he was to die that day. She is the goddess who determines whether or not you walk off the field of battle, or are carried off upon your shield. In later Irish folklore, this role would be delegated to the bain sidhe, who foresaw the death of members of a specific family or clan.

The Morrighan often appears in the form of a crow or raven, or is seen accompanied by a group of them. In the stories of the Ulster cycle, she is shown as a cow and a wolf as well. The connection with these two animals suggest that in some areas, she may have been connected to fertility and land.

In some legends, the Morrighan is considered a triune, or triple goddess, but there are a lot of inconsistencies to this. She often appears as a sister to the Badb and Macha. In some Neopagan traditions, she is portrayed in her role as destroyer, representing the Crone aspect of the Maiden/Mother/Crone cycle, but this seems to be incorrect when one looks at her original Irish history. Some scholars point out that war specifically is not a primary aspect of the Morrighan, and that her connection to cattle presents her as a goddess of sovereignty. The theory is that she can be seen as a deity who guides or protects a king.

In modern literature, there has been some linking of the Morrighan to the character of Morgan Le Fay in the Arthurian legend. It appears, though, that this is more fanciful thinking than anything else. Although Morgan le Fay appears in the Vita Merlini in the twelfth century, a narrative of the life of Merlin by Geoffrey of Monmouth, it’s unlikely that there’s a connection to the Morrighan. Scholars point out that the name “Morgan” is Welsh, and derived from root words connected to the sea. “Morrighan” is Irish, and is rooted in words that are associated with “terror” or “greatness.” In other words, the names sound similar, but the relationship ends ther

Calendar of the Moon for August 18th

Calendar of the Moon

18 Tinne/Hekatombaion

Arthur’s Day

Color: Gold
Element: Fire
Altar: Upon a golden cloth place a single red candle, a crown, two crossed swords, and the figure of a knight on horseback.
Offerings: Aid someone in a leadership position.
Daily Meal: Roasted meat.

Invocation to the Spirit of Arthur

To be a King
Is to live a life of compromise
And to do it uncompromisingly.
To be a King is to be the center of every struggle
Yet be not on the front line of the battle.
To be a King is to balance warring forces
Whose very nature is to be opposed,
To rein in the lions and then to release them.
To be a King is to be first among equals
And to never forget that they are equals
Yet never let them forget that you are first.
To be a King is always to be an example
And never forget that you are watched.
To be a King is to be gracious
Even to those who do not deserve it,
And to struggle always between justice and mercy.
To be a King to the land and the people
In the sacred manner,
Is to lead by inspiration
Rather than by force.
To be a King is to be an avatar of the Sun
And to let it burn through you,
Even if you are consumed in the process.
So let us remember those who were consumed
Even to ash of body and soul
And let their lives sift through our fingers
And live again in inspiration.

Song: “Cold Iron”

(End with readings of Arthur and other such who embody the qualities of honorable nobility.)

[Pagan Book of Hours]

Deity of the Day for August 17: Brigid

Brigid

by Lisa Spindler
Name Cognates: Breo Saighead, Brid, Brighid [Eriu], Brigindo, Brigandu [Gaul], Brigan, Brigantia, Brigantis [Briton], Bride [Alba].Breo Saighead, or the “Fiery Arrow or Power,” is a Celtic three-fold goddess, the daughter of The Dagda, and the wife of Bres. Known by many names, Brighid’s three aspects are (1) Fire of Inspiration as patroness of poetry, (2) Fire of the Hearth, as patroness of healing and fertility, and (3) Fire of the Forge, as  patroness of smithcraft and martial arts. She is mother to the craftsmen. Sons of Tuireann: Creidhne, Luchtaine and Giobhniu.

Excalibur, King Arthur’s sword, was forged by the Lady of the Lake, a figure sometimes associated with Brighid because of her fire and forgery aspect. Like the Arthurian Avalon, or “Isle of Apples,” Brigid possessed an apple orchard in the Otherworld to which bees traveled to obtain it’s magickal nectar.

Brigid, which means “one who exaults herself,” is Goddess of the Sacred Flame of Kildare (derived from “Cill Dara,” which means “church of the oak”) and often is considered to be the White Maiden aspect of the Triple Goddess. She was Christianized as the “foster-mother” of Jesus Christ, and called St. Brigit, the daughter of the Druid Dougal the Brown. She sometimes also is associated with the Romano-Celtic goddess Aquae-Sulis in Bathe.

Brighid’s festival is Imbolc, celebrated on or around February 1 when she ushers Spring to the land after The Cailleach’s Winter reign. This mid-Winter feast commences as the ewes begin to lactate and is the start of the new agricultural cycle. During this time Brigid personifies a bride, virgin or maiden aspect and is the protectoress of women in childbirth. Imbolc also is known as Oimelc, Brigid, Candlemas, or even in America as Groundhog Day.

As the foundation for the American Groundhog Day, Brigid’s snake comes out of its mound in which it hibernates and its behavior is said to determine the length of the remaining Winter.

Gailleach, or White Lady, drank from the ancient Well of Youth at dawn. In that instant, she was transformed into her Maiden aspect, the young goddess called Brigid. Wells were considered to be sacred because they arose from oimbelc(literally “in the belly”), or womb of Mother Earth.

Because of her Fire of Inspiration and her connection to the apple and oak trees, Brighid often is considered the patroness of the Druids.

Oak (June 10 – July 7)

OAK LORE

  • 7th Moon of the Celtic Year – (June 10 – July 7)
  • Latin name: white Oak – quercus alba; red Oak – quercus rubra; black Oak – quercus velutina; etc.
  • Celtic name: Duir (pronounced: dur). Duir means ‘door’.
  • Folk or Common names: Duir, Jove’s Nuts and Juglans.
  • Parts Used: Wood, leaves, bark, acorns.
  • Herbal usage: Oaks are known for astringent tonics and therefore tea made from Oak is a good remedy for hemorrhoids (EWWWW!). White Oak bark tea helps in  sinus infections since it helps unglog congestion. Acorns can be peeled and used to make various homeopathic potions used to treat alcoholism, bad breath and  constipation.
  • Magical History & Associations: The word Duir, comes from the Sanskrit “Dwr” meaning “door”, and is the door to the three worlds  of the Shaman. The Oak is associated with the element of fire and is ruled by the sun. The bird associated with this month is the wren, the color is black,  and the gemstone is white carnelian or moonstone. Oak has been considered sacred by just about every culture that has encountered the tree, but it was held  in particular reverence by the Celts and the Norse because of its size, long life, and acorns. The Druids were said to have worshipped in Oak-groves in Gaul.  In Druidic times at “Yule” all fires were extinguished, the Druids then lit the new season fires using Oakwood as Yule logs, and all of the people  would start their fires from this source. The Oak tree is sacred to Brighid, the Dadga, Dianus, Janus, Rhea, Cybele, Hecate, Pan, and Erato. In the Vatican,  there are statues of the goddess Artemis (often as a perpetual youth) wearing a necklace of acorns. The acorn was under the protection of Cybele (the goddess  of Nature). The Oak is also frequently associated with Gods of thunder and lightening such as Zeus, Jupiter, Thor, and the Lithuanian God Perkunas. This  association may be due to the oak’s habit of being a lightening-magnet during storms. Specific oak trees have also been associated with the ‘Wild  Hunt’, which is led by Herne in England and by Wodin in Germany. King Arthur’s Round Table was said to have been made from a single slab of a giant  oak tree.
  • Magickal usage: The month of Oak has summer solstice occurring within it, and Oak is a powerful symbol of Midsummer. In general, Oak can be used in  spells for protection, strength, success and stability, healing, fertility, Health, Money, Potency, and good luck. The different varieties of Oak will lend  their own special ‘flavor’ to the magic: Red Oaks energy is a bit lighter and more ‘firey’ than the other oaks; White Oak is useful for  spells requiring strength and solidity; and Brown oak has a very earthy feel, and is useful for grounding. Acorns can be used specifically for magick done to  attract the opposite gender, increase income and prosperity, or can be used for their divinatory powers. Oak is the tree known as “The King of the  Grove” and was one of the sacred three: ‘Oak, Ash & Thorn’. The worship of the Oak tree may have come from the fact that the acorn was one  of the main food sources of the nomadic tribes of prehistoric Europe. In mystic lore the acorn often represented the supreme form of fertility – creativity  of the mind. Acorns are used to increase fertility (of projects or ideas, or in matters of human reproduction) and to ease pain. Symbolic of immortality,  acorns are especially sacred to the Samhain season, and they can be used to decorate the altar in the fall. The Oak is a holy tree and is the lord of truth.  There is a tradition that the voice of Jupiter may be heard in the rustling of its leaves. It is said that at the summer solstice the future can be divined  by listening to the wind as it blows through the branches of an Oak tree. Oak is also a very powerful herb for protection. The Oak has protected England  through the use of its timbers for the building of ships. Oaks are also used as boundary markers for their protective qualities. Acorns placed in a window  can ward off lightning or creatures that go bump in the night. Acorns can be carried in a pocket or charm bag to protect the bearer from storms, from getting  lost and from evil intent. An oak leaf can worn at the breast, touching the heart, and it will protect the wearer from all deception and the world’s  false glamour. A handful of Oak leaves put in the bath water will cleanse the bather both in body and in spirit. Acorns are carried for immortality and  longevity, to preserve youthfulness, for fertility, and against illness. Three acorns can be made into a charm for youthfulness, beauty and attainment in  life. The three acorns should be tied and bound with the mage’s own hair, blessed under the new moon and the full moon, every month of the year, and then  the charm should be worn. It is said that if you can catch a falling Oak leaf you shall have no colds all winter. When a sick person is in the house make a  fire of Oakwood and warm the house with it to ‘draw off’ the illness. Acorns can be planted in the dark of the moon to bring financial prosperity.  Acorns can also be placed near windows or hung from window shade pulls to bring luck to a house. This custom originates from the Vikings and Druids because  of the strength of the oak tree and its ability to attract lightening. They can also be carried to bring good luck. The Oak is a male wood which is ideal for  the construction of any tool that needs the male influence such as Athames, certain wands and staffs. The wood of an Oak tree can also be used to make  staves, or Religious Idols. The midsummer fire is always Oak and the need fire is always kindled in an Oak log. When gathering Oak, be sure to pour wine on  the roots of the tree to thank it for allowing you to take a part of it. Acorns should be gathered in the daylight, and leaves and wood by night. A waning  moon is the correct time to harvest Oak.

Calendar of the Moon for July 18

Calendar of the Moon

18 Tinne/Hekatombaion

Arthur’s Day

Color: Gold
Element: Fire
Altar: Upon a golden cloth place a single red candle, a crown, two crossed swords, and the figure of a knight on horseback.
Offerings: Aid someone in a leadership position.
Daily Meal: Roasted meat.

Invocation to the Spirit of Arthur

To be a King
Is to live a life of compromise
And to do it uncompromisingly.
To be a King is to be the center of every struggle
Yet be not on the front line of the battle.
To be a King is to balance warring forces
Whose very nature is to be opposed,
To rein in the lions and then to release them.
To be a King is to be first among equals
And to never forget that they are equals
Yet never let them forget that you are first.
To be a King is always to be an example
And never forget that you are watched.
To be a King is to be gracious
Even to those who do not deserve it,
And to struggle always between justice and mercy.
To be a King to the land and the people
In the sacred manner,
Is to lead by inspiration
Rather than by force.
To be a King is to be an avatar of the Sun
And to let it burn through you,
Even if you are consumed in the process.
So let us remember those who were consumed
Even to ash of body and soul
And let their lives sift through our fingers
And live again in inspiration.

Song: “Cold Iron”

(End with readings of Arthur and other such who embody the qualities of honorable nobility.)

[Pagan Book of Hours]

Daily OM for April 25th – The Power of the Circle

The Power of the Circle
Uniting in Thought and Action

When we are in circle with others, the energy stays contained within the group giving back to all. 

 

There are many reasons for why a gathering of people in a circle is powerful. A circle is a shape that is found repeatedly throughout the natural world, and it is a symbol of perfection. We recreate this perfect shape when we join others to form a circle. Being in a circle allows us experience each other as equals. Each person is the same distance apart from the next participant, and no one is seated higher than or stands apart from others in a circle. From tribal circles to the mythical round table of King Arthur, the circle has been the shape adopted by gatherings throughout history.

The circle is acknowledged as an archetype of wholeness and integration, with the center of a circle universally understood to symbolize Spirit – the Source. When a group of people come together in a circle, they are united. This unity becomes even more powerful when each person reaches out to touch a neighbor and clasps hands. This physical connection unites thought and action, mind and body, and spirit and form in a circle. Because a circle has no beginning and no end, the agreement to connect in a circle allows energy to circulate from one person to the next, rather than being dissipated into the environment.

Like a candle used to light another candle, the connection with spirit that results when one person joins hands with another is greater than if each person were to stand alone. People who take part in a circle find that their power increases exponentially while with the group. Like a drop of water rippling on the surface of a pond, the waves of energy produced in a circle radiate outward in circular motion. While one person may act like a single beacon that emanates light, a circle of people is like a satellite dish that sends out energy. There is power in numbers, and when the commitment is made by many to face one another, clasp hands, and focus on one intention, their circle emanates ripples of energy that can change the world.

Lady Of The Lake

Lady Of The Lake

In the Camelot legends, the Lady of the Lake is a mysterious personage. Foster mother to Lancelot, it was said that she raised him beneath the water, grooming him to become the powerful knight he became. She also gifted Arthur with the magickal sword of Excalibur, at the behest of Merlin, and later took it back when it was thrown into the lake. She was one of the three ladies who lead Arthur to Avalon after his death.

Because she is identified as many different women in various texts, it is argued that “Lady of the Lake” may have been a title instead of a name, used to identify a high priestess. It is further suggested that the lady was a water Goddess or a creature from the fairy realm.

Judging by her actions, we can perceive that the Lady of the Lake’s essence was wise and benevolent and tends to function according to intuition.

Dragons In Other Cultures

Dragons In Other Cultures

Everywhere the legged dragon is associalted with creation or life-giving. Throughout the world the Goddess or Great Mother, is connected with serpents, dragons, and spirals. As the great whale-dragon, Ishtar brought about the catastrophic flood which made it possible for a new order of humans to develop. Tiamat of Mesopotamia was the Mother-creator-dragon whose body was shaped inot the heavens and Earth. Worldwide, dragons and serpents are symbolic of the energy source of life, healing, oracular powers, fertility and maternal blessing.

H. P. Blavatsky states in her books that the dragon is a very old sign for Astral Light or Primordial Principle. This means that there is always wisdom in chaos, even if humans cannot see it. The dragon stood for psychical regeneration and immortality. Perhaps the stories which insist that dragons were partial to virgins simply meant that the seeking of wisdom and true innocence of the spirit were traits which attracted draconic beings.

In some cultures a full initiate was called a dragon or snake. Priests of Egypt and Babylon called themselves Sons of the Serpent-God or Sons of the Dragon. Even the Druids of the Celts spoke of themselves as snakes. In Mexico, the priests of Quetzalcoatl referred to themselves as of the race of the Dragon. The Welsh word Draig or dragon, was used to denote a leader, hero, warleader or prince. King Arthur and his father Uther Pendragon were said to have used a dragon as their emblem. Even today the royal banner of Wales has four-legged red and gold dragon on it.

The dragon has become a symbol of evil and the Christian devil only after the church gained power. In an attempt to crush the ancient beliefs of Pagans, the Christians spread their propaganda of their devil, calling them the Dragon. By instilling deep fears, particularly of eternal punishments, the priests and church leaders managed to grasp control of rulers and governments. By becoming the controlling forced behind governments, the church could control the people themselves, either through making their own Christian religious belief the state religion or by influencing the laws that were passed. Even then, though, there were truly individualistic people who refused to give up what they knew to be for them, true spiritual paths. These Pagans had to go underground, living in fear of persecution and death, for centures until they were once again granted the freedom to follow their ancient ways, freely speak of contacting the powerful astral beings who aided them.

 

“Dancing with Dragons”

D. J. Conway

Goddess Of The Month

DEMETER

Goddess of grain and agriculture, pure Nourisher of youth and the green earth, health-giving cycle of life and death, and preserver of both marital fertility and the Sacred Law.

In Greek mythology, Demeter (Greek: “mother-earth” or possibly “distribution-mother” from the noun of the Indo-European mother-earth) is the goddess of grain and agriculture, the pure nourisher of youth and the green earth, the health-giving cycle of life and death, and preserver of both marital fertility and the sacred law. She is invoked as the “bringer of seasons” in the Homeric hymn, a subtle sign that she was worshiped long before the Olympians arrived. The Homeric Hymn to Demeter has been dated to sometime around the seventh century B.C.E. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, which also predate the Olympian pantheon. The Roman equivalent is Ceres, from whom the word “cereal” is derived.

Demeter is easily confused with Gaia or Rhea, and with Cybele. The goddess’ epithets reveal the span of her functions in Greek life. Demeter and Kore (“the maiden”) are usually invoked as to theo (‘”The Two Goddesses”), and they appear in that form in Linear B graffiti at Mycenaean Pylos in pre-classical times. A connection with the goddess-cults of Minoan Crete is quite possible.

According to the Athenian rhetorician Isocrates, the greatest gifts that Demeter gave were cereal, which set humans apart from wild animals, and the mysteries, which give humankind higher hopes in this life and the next.

The Eleusinian Mysteries

Without a doubt, the most important role of Demeter was as a goddess of the Elusinian mystery religion. In this capacity, her primary function was to provide the cultic adherents with hope for eternal life (or a pleasant afterlife). Though little is known of the specifics of worship, it appears that it involved a hidden knowledge (gnosis) being shared by the participants:

The object of the [mystery] is to place the [participant] in a peculiarly close and privileged relation with the divinity or the deified spirit…. all of the members of the city, gens or household could freely join in the cult, if they were in the ordinary condition or ritualistic cleanliness; and the sacrifice that the priest performed for the state might be repeated by the individual, if he chose to do so, for his own purposes at his own house-altar. Both in the public and in the mystic service a sacrifice of some sort was requisite, and as far as we can see the religious conception of the sacrifice might be the same in both. But in the former the sacrifice with the prayer was the chief act in the ceremony, in the latter it was something besides the sacrifice that was of the essence of the rite; something was shown to the eyes of the initiated, something was done: thus the mystery[.]

These rites are one of the most compelling enigmas in human religious history, as the vow of secrecy that all participants were obliged to take has remained largely unbroken—meaning that many elements of these practices have been lost to the mists of time.

Demeter and Poseidon

Demeter and Poseidon’s names are linked in the earliest scratched notes in Linear B found at Mycenaean Pylos, where they appear as PO-SE-DA-WO-NE and DA-MA-TE in the context of sacralized lot-casting. The ‘DA‘ element in each of their names is seemingly connected to an Proto-Indo-European root relating to distribution of land and honors (compare Latin dare “to give”). Poseidon (his name seems to signify “consort of the distributor”) once pursued Demeter, in her archaic form as a mare-goddess. She resisted the sea king’s advances, but she could not disguise her divinity among the horses of King Onkios. Poseidon became a stallion and “covered” (read: violated) her. Demeter was literally furious (“Demeter Erinys”) at the assault, but washed away her anger in the River Ladon (“Demeter Lousia”). She bore to Poseidon a daughter, whose name could not be uttered outside the Eleusinian Mysteries, and a steed named Arion, with a black mane. In Arcadia, Demeter was worshiped as a horse-headed deity into historical times:

The second mountain, Mt. Elaios, is about 30 stades from Phigaleia, and has a cave sacred to Demeter Melaine [“Black”]… the Phigalians say, they accounted the cave sacred to Demeter, and set up a wooden image in it. The image was made in the following fashion: it was seated on a rock, and was like a woman in all respects save the head. She had the head and hair of a horse, and serpents and other beasts grew out of her head. Her chiton reached right to her feet, and she held a dolphin in one hand, a dove in the other. Why they made the xoanon like this should be clear to any intelligent man who is versed in tradition. They say they named her Black because the goddess wore black clothing. However, they cannot remember who made this xoanon or how it caught fire; but when it was destroyed the Phigalians gave no new image to the goddess and largely neglected her festivals and sacrifices, until finally barrenness fell upon the land.

Demeter, Persephone and the Eleusinian Mysteries

The central myth of Demeter, which is at the heart of the Eleusinian Mysteries, is her relationship with Persephone, her daughter through a dalliance with Zeus. In the tale, Persephone becomes the unwilling consort of Hades (Roman Pluto, the underworld god of wealth) and is taken from her mother’s side into her new spouse’s dusky kingdom. Demeter, distraught over the loss of her precious daughter, devoted the entirety of her time and attention to seeking her, which had the consequence of halting the progression of seasons. During her search, she had many additional adventures, though none of them were sufficient to distract her from her maternal concerns. Eventually, the situation on Earth grew so dire that Zeus found it necessary to intercede directly, imploring his brother to return Persephone to her mother. Before she was released, however, Hades tricked her into eating six pomegranate seeds, which forced her to return to his realm for six months each year. When Demeter and her daughter were together, the earth flourished with vegetation. But for six months each year, when Persephone returned to the underworld, the earth once again became a barren realm. This myth, in addition to providing an aetiological explanation for the progression of the seasons, also explain the connection between Demeter/Persephone and the Eleusinian Mysteries (which were centered around the achievement of eternal life).

Demeter’s stay at Eleusis

While Demeter was searching for her daughter Persephone, she found it expedient to adopt the guise of an old woman (Doso). In this form, she received a hospitable welcome from Celeus, the king of Eleusis in Attica (and also Phytalus). He asked her to nurse Demophon and Triptolemus, his sons by Metanira.

As a gift to Celeus (in thanks for his hospitality), Demeter planned to make Demophon as a god, which was achieved by coating and anointing him with Ambrosia, breathing gently upon him while holding him in her arms and bosom, and by burning away his mortal spirit in the family hearth every night. Unfortunately, Demeter was unable to complete the ritual because one night Metanira (the child’s mother) walked in and saw her son in the fire and screamed in fright. This angered the fertility goddess, who lamented that foolish mortals did not understand the power of her ritual.

Instead of making Demophon immortal, Demeter chose instead to repay her host’s generosity by teaching Triptolemus the art of agriculture. From him, the rest of Greece learned to plant and reap crops.

Portrayals of Demeter

  • Demeter is usually portrayed on a chariot, is frequently associated with images of the harvest, including flowers, fruit, and grain. She was also sometimes pictured with Persephone.
  • Demeter is not generally portrayed with a consort, though the exception is Iasion, the youth of Crete who lay with the goddess in a thrice-ploughed field and was sacrificed afterwards.
  • Demeter placed Aethon, the god of famine, in Erysichthon’s gut, making him permanently famished. This was a punishment for cutting down trees in a sacred grove.

Reference:

New World Encyclopedia