Today’s Tarot Card for March 2nd – The Fool

The Fool

Sunday, Mar 2nd, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

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Today’s Tarot Card for February 10th is The Fool

The Fool

Monday, Feb 10th, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

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Your Tarot Card for January 21 is The Fool

The Fool

Tuesday, Jan 21st, 2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

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Today’s Tarot Card for October 28th is The Fool

The Fool

Monday, Oct 28th, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our

Today’s Tarot Card for October 8th is The Fool

The Fool

Tuesday, Oct 8th, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today's Tarot Card for September 18 is The Fool

The Fool

Wednesday, Sep 18th, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today's Tarot Card for August 9th is The Fool

The Fool

Friday, Aug 9th, 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today’s Tarot for January 21st is The Fool

The Fool

January  21, 2013

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today’s Tarot Card for December 26th is The Fool

The Fool

Wednesday, Dec 26th, 2012

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Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today’s Tarot for December 6th is The Fool

The Fool

Thursday, Dec 6th, 2012

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today’s Tarot Card for November 16 is The Fool

The Fool

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today’s Tarot Card for October 27th is The Fool

The Fool

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization

Today’s Tarot for October 7 is The Fool

The Fool

Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Today’s Tarot Card for August 28 is The Fool

The Fool

This Tarot Deck: Aquarian

General Meaning:  Pamela Coleman-Smith’s artful rendition of an “innocent Fool” archetype (Rider-Waite deck) is often used to represent Tarot in general. Early classical versions of the Fool card, however, portray quite a different character — a person driven by base needs and urges, who has fallen into a state of poverty and deprivation.

In some instances, he is made out to be a carnival entertainer or a huckster. In others, he is portrayed as decrepit and vulnerable — as the cumulative result of his delusions and failures. Not until the 20th century do you see the popular Rider-Waite image of the Fool arise — that of an innocent Soul before its Fall into Matter, as yet untainted by contact with society and all its ills.

Modern decks usually borrow from the Rider-Waite imagery. Most Fool cards copy the bucolic mountainside scene, the butterfly, the potential misplaced step that will send the Fool tumbling into the unknown. Don’t forget, however, that the earlier versions of this card represented already-fallen humanity, over-identified with the material plane of existence, and beginning a pilgrimage towards self-knowledge, and eventually, wisdom. The Fool reminds us to recognize the path of personal development within ourselves — and the stage upon that path where we find ourselves — in order to energize our movement toward deeper self-realization.

Using the Tarot as a Tool of Healing

Using the Tarot as a Tool of Healing

by Dr. Neala Peake, selected from AllThingsHealing.com

The Tarot,  long a powerful tool of divination, can also be used as a dramatic tool of healing,  and for shifting deep patterns. The deck that I suggest for this, the  Rider-Waite, is perhaps the most well-known deck in the Western world. Created  by Dr. Arthur Edward Waite (1857-1942), a scholar of occultism, and illustrated  by Pamela Coleman Smith, a theatrical designer and American member of The Order  of the Golden Dawn, it is the “standard” teaching deck, and the first to use  detailed illustrations of the Minor Arcana, not just the Major.

The Deck Itself

The 78 cards of the tarot deck are divided into two groups: 22 Major Arcana Cards, and 56 Minor Arcana cards, made up of pip or suit cards (1-10), as well as court cards, which more or less correspond with traditional playing cards. The meanings of the Major Arcana are generally considered more far-reaching, relating to our journey for meaning and enlightenment, while the minors are considered more transient, representative of day-to-day activities.

The Seven Chakras

Using both the structure of the seven Chakras and the images of the Rider-Waite deck, the Chakra Lube Job illustrates how the  cards of a layout may be replaced as the healing progresses; as the images  shift, they actually depict the process of growth and resolution, similar to  time-elapsed photography.

The term Chakra is the Sanskrit word for “wheel,” and refers to our  own energy system: the interface between our energetic and physical selves, our  body and consciousness. Just as the car’s engine requires regular maintenance,  the Chakras, too, require regular “tune-ups.” This not only keeps its system  running smoothly, but addresses any blocks or problems on the core level.

While the chakras can be “tuned-up” through meditation, energy work with  light, sound, color, crystals, singing bowls, musical instruments and others,  the method which I’ve created and coined is known as The Chakra Lube Job.

The Chakras, one through seven, are: #1, the Root, at the base of the spine,  which relates to our ability to prosper and thrive on the earth; #2, the Sacrum  relates to our ability to gratify ourselves; #3, the Solar Plexus addresses our  own personal power and capacity to be comfortable in our skin; #4, the Heart  preserves unconditional love, and the integration of all polarities; #5, the  Throat, the center of the seven, is self-expression; #6, the Third Eye, our  ability to see the big picture and our psychic center; and, #7, the Crown, at  the top of the head, is our connection to the universal, wisdom and bliss.

The Chakra Lube Job Reading

Here is a sample healing Chakra Lube Job, to show you how this works. This  was a session with a woman in her early fifties, who is accomplished in her  field, and highly regarded in her community. She pulled seven cards, one for  each of the seven primary Chakras, in a vertical formation. She then continued  pulling cards, until I, or, she, or both of us felt the process was complete.  This process uses the images of the Rider-Wait deck to heal and shift the  chakric patterns, in a very conscious fashion, and may take anywhere from 20  minutes to several hours. (You may want to use your own deck to follow  along.)

Initial Layout The Chakra Lube Job  Layout

Card #1 (Root) Ace of Pentacles (an immense  pentacle shown emerging from a cloud, held by a huge celestial hand, above a  flowering hedge and archway leading out to mountains)

Interpretation: This is a wonderful, life-affirming card  that points to new beginnings, particularly of a financial nature. This ties in  beautifully with the meaning of this chakra; the primary concern with this  image, however, is that it refers to divine intervention, and points to a  fundamental belief on this person’s part that she did not hold the power for her  capacity to thrive in her own hands.

Card # 2 (Sacrum) Three of Wands (man on land, facing away  from three wands).

Interpretation: This card indicates that this woman has  given up on fulfilling her own sexual and emotional needs. She has turned her  back on any expectation, but does not know where she will go from here.

Card #3 (Solar Plexus) The Magician (#1) Major Arcana (an  androgynous figure in a red coat holding a wand that points upwards and  downwards, behind a table bearing a cup, a pentacle, a sword and a wand)

Interpretation: This is a powerful Major Arcana or destiny  Card, #1 in this sequence, which like the Ace of Pentacles, which she pulled for  the first Chakra, (also a #1), shows she is in a powerful new cycle of putting  herself first or fresh beginnings. This card shows that she has all the  resources and power she needs to transform her life, and create all that she  envisions. She loved this card, and we did not feel guided to choose any other  cards. (This is quite unusual to stay with the first card chosen, and indicates  that this area of personal power is very solid for her, and that she has  everything she needs to make her life as she desires.)

Card #4 (Heart) Four of Wands (two women celebrating in the  background near a castle tower; in foreground, four wands forming a lush  canopy)

Interpretation: This is a beautiful celebratory card. My  primary concern was that the two women were so far in the background, indicating  they did not feel they were at the center of this area of their lives. They  clearly loved life and had a great capacity to give and receive love, but tended  to put themselves in the background.

Card #5 (Throat) King of Swords (Virile dark-haired young  king, in blue robes, seated on a throne, holding a sword erect)

Interpretation: This card indicates that this woman feels  very powerful in her position as a communicator; it is important, however, to  note that this is a strongly masculine or patriarchal card, indicating that she  does not necessarily feel this power as a woman, but more in a socially  determined position of authority.

Card #6 (Third Eye) Two of Cups (man and woman making an  oath or promise. I call this the “going steady” card, not as serious as The  Lovers, Major Arcana)

Interpretation: This is the second card that depicts two  people in it. This indicates that she does not feel completely self-reliant in  her capacity to express her intuitive gifts or see the big picture. It may  indicate that she prefers to be validated or supported by a partner (in this  case a male or romantic partner).

Card #7 (Crown) The Emperor #4 Major Arcana* (an imposing  bearded white haired ruler or father figure, in red robes and warrior armor,  seated on a stone throne, holding an ankh.)

Interpretation: This is the second card of powerful male  authority that she drew. This indicates that she feels strongly connected to her  higher wisdom and the Universe, but in a form of male authority, or following in  the footsteps of the father. It is no surprise that this woman has Saturn  prominently in her chart, which points to a tendency to look for authority, and  hence validation, within the framework of the established order of things. It  also indicates that she looks to work and outer sources of acknowledgement (such  as success, status and approval) for her personal validation. This is a powerful  card, as it is a Major Arcana, and points to an overriding theme in her  life.

The Crown

The remaining session lasted two hours, and while we don’t have time to show  the entire process, we will give the example of the Crown position to  demonstrate the process. I asked the woman to draw a card for a chakra position  in which she felt the need for healing. After interpreting that card, I asked  her to draw another card until she felt complete with the healing on that  chakra. We did this with each chakra until all were complete and healed.

Crown sequence

Card #1 The Emperor (see above)*

Card #2 Ten of Wands (shows a blond androgynous individual  carrying ten wands, as if burdened, on his/her shoulders. With home in the not  too distant background, she/he is closer to home than he/she realizes.)

Interpretation: This card indicates that she feels  overwhelmed by all that she has to do. This is emblematic of someone who always  has a chore to accomplish or a deadline to meet. While they feel overwhelmed by  this pattern, they don’t know any other way. The fact that they are closer to  home then they realize, indicates she is maxed out on this tendency, and very  close to reaching a place where she no longer will continue with this  pattern.

Card #3: The Empress #3 Major Arcana

Interpretation: I was thrilled to see her pull this card,  the female counterpart to the Emperor, and a Major Arcana card, showing a major  shift in core perception. This is Venusian card, a celebration of one’s  femaleness, a card where someone is allowing themselves to live in concert with  the natural cycles, enjoying life and comfortable in their female essence in a  powerful and celebratory way. This card indicates no pressure to succeed, and a  joy in just being, enjoying and being receptive to the sensual and natural  pleasures of life itself.

This short sequence demonstrates how this process maps a major shift in  self-perception. It displays this process, using the simultaneity of cause and  effect, and mirrors back to us, using the archetypal illustrations of the  Rider-Waite, our own healing.

This healing affects our own Chakric well-being, as well as our own  relationship to our self, and to the Universe. This process demonstrates how The  Chakra Lube Job functions to both heal and maintain a healthy and  life-affirmative relationship to mind, body and spirit, allowing us to prosper  and thrive, continuing on our path to true happiness and true self, fulfilling  our destiny, as we go.

The Chakra Lube Job is a term and technique created by Cathy  H. Burroughs and is protected by copyright. Any reference to the technique or  usage of the title of the technique must be attributed to Cathy H.  Burroughs.