The Pagan Calendar for November 9th to November 10th

Witchcraft

The Pagan Calendar for November 9th to November 10th

 

Khalkeia–Old Greek festival honoring Goddess Athena and God Hephaistos for their gifts of crafts and technology. [a/k/a Hephaistia]

 

About The Goddess Athena

Daughter of Zeus, and only by him, the Goddess Athena was not generated by any woman. She leaped from the head of Zeus, already adult, dressed with her armor. But the mother is not completely missing from the miraculous birth of Pallas Athena. According to Hesiod’s account of the weddings of Zeus, the King of the Gods chose Metis as his first wife. She was of all beings “the most knowing” (as the word metis is interpreted), or “of many counsels” as translated in the sense of the Homeric epithet polymetis. As she was about to give birth to the Goddess Athena, Zeus deceived his pregnant wife with cunning words and assimilated her into his own body. Mother Earth and Father Sky had advised him to do this so as to prevent any of his descendants from robbing him of his kingly rank. For it was destined that the most brilliant children were to be born to the Goddess Metis: first, the daughter Athena, and later a son, the future King of Gods and men. In the most ancient account, the Iliad, Athena is the Goddess of ferocious and implacable fight, but, wherever she can be found, she only is a warrior to defend the State and the native land against the enemies coming from outside. She is, above all, the Goddess of the City, the protectress of civilized life, of artesian activities, and of agriculture. She also invented the horse-bit, which, for the first time, tamed horses, allowing men to use them. She is the favorite daughter of Zeus; and that’s why he let her use his insignia: the terrible shield, the aegis and his devastating weapon, the ray. The most used expression to describe her is “the bright eyed”. She is the first of the three virgin Goddesses, also known as Maiden, Parthenos, and from this name was taken the name to the most important Temple dedicated to her, the Parthenon. In poetry she is the incarnation of Wisdom, Reason and Purity. Athens is her city; the olive tree, created by her, is her tree; the owl, is the birth consecrated to her.

 

About the God Hephaistos

Hephaistos was the Greek god of blacksmiths, sculptors, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes; thus, he is symbolized with a hammer, an anvil and a pair of tongs.

According to Homer’s epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, he was the son of Zeus and Hera. However, Hesiod informs us that Hera bore Hephaistos alone. According to an account, after Hephaistos was born, Hera threw him from Olympus because he was crippled; he fell into the ocean and was raised by Thetis and Eurynome. Another myth has it that he once tried to protect his mother from Zeus’ advances and as a result, the father of the Gods flung him down from Olympus, which caused his physical disability; he fell on the island of Lemnos where he became a master craftsman. He was later accepted back to Olympus, and became the craftsman of the gods, creating majestic armors, shields and weapons.

He was married to Aphrodite; after he learned his wife had an affair with her brother, Ares, he devised a plan with which he humiliated both lovers to the other gods.

 

References:

The Shrine of the Goddess Athena

Greek Mythology

 

 

Hekate: A Devotee’s View

Hekate: A Devotee’s View

Author: Alorer

Hekate (Hecate is the Latin spelling and being Greek I prefer the Greek one) is perhaps one of the most misinterpreted and misrepresented deities in modern Paganism. From being given the Crone aspect when no historical or mythological source supports it verifiably (and because Neo-Paganism tends to cater to stereotypes heavily) to the misinterpretation of Her triplicity to unfounded overemphasizing of Her darker traits to virtually anything you can imagine.

Hekate has been misconstrued by many Neo-Pagans, mainly due to the lack of research and study of reputed sources (Hesiod’s Theogony comes to mind as a very basic and vital work on the mythology of the Gods) but also due to the overwhelming sense of “being special” that many Neo-Pagans seem to have. Note that this isn’t a blog on poking the – admittedly big – portion of the “bad apples” in our big community tree. This is a post attempting to educate somewhat regarding a well-known but also exploited deity. However, in order to do so, one needs to shed light upon the shadows of ignorance and misinformation that cloud Hekate’s image.

Before I delve deeper into Hekate’s case, let me share some information on Her.

Hekate is the daughter and only child of the Titans Perses and Asteria. She inherited power over the earth, sea and sky from Her parents. Hekate is one of the very few Titans to have survived the Titanomachy and the Olympian reign “unscathed” (which is an allegoric/mythological way to portray the survival of Her cults and worship as opposed to that of most other Titans) as well as the only Titan to be praised equally to the Olympians. In the Theogony, Hesiod notes how Zeus praised Her above all others, did not take anything from Her power and even gave Her a share in the dominion of most other Gods. She is the one He often went to for advice.

Hekate is a Goddess of liminal places and times, key and torch bearing maiden, guide, psycho pomp and “opener of ways”. She is a counselor and companion of those in need and protectress from and against witchcraft. At the same time She is the governor of all magical acts and believed to have invented theurgy. That is also why Hekate, alongside Hermes and/or Iris, was to be appeased and petitioned before any ritual act for the Gods, as She was the one (or rather one of those) responsible for and permitting the mortals to reach out for the Gods. Should Hekate refuse to aid you, your calls will remain unanswered and fall to deaf ears.

Hekate is also a Goddess related to the Moon (especially with the Dark/New Moon) , childbirth (or more appropriately, child-nurturing) and crossroads. She is one of the minor household deities, a protectress of the home and household from outside perils, alongside Hermes. Note that she only has a connection to the moon. The only Moon Goddess (and that is understood as the one presiding over, embodying and ruling the Moon) in Greek mythology and theology is Selene.

She presides over the darker side of the self as well as the inner one. She governs intuition, divination and insight. Hekate is the Goddess-In-The-Shadows but also the one who can pierce the shadows. She is a “dark Goddess” in the sense that She is Queen of the Unseen but not in the sense of negativity or “evil”. Gods are beyond such human concepts.

She is a maiden Goddess and not a crone contrary to popular (mis) belief. Most mythological-related texts consider Her a virgin as well although some have her double as the mother of Skylla (by Phorkys – in the works of Apollonius Rhodius) or as the mother of Circe, Medea and Aigialeus (by Aeetes – in the works of Diodorus Siculus) . Personally, I prefer the virgin Goddess theory since the rest conflict with the other mythological family trees.

Hekate is often portrayed as a crone due to Her association with Magic. In medieval times, the image of Hekate merged with the stereotypical image of an elderly, scary-looking woman over a cauldron. From that, as well as Her, somewhat “grim” duties, spawned the image of a physically old Hekate, which is, of course, mistaken.

Another “faulty” interpretation of Hekate is Her triplicity. Due to the popularity of the Wiccan/Neo-Wiccan tenet of a Triple Goddess, other “Triple” Goddesses were misappropriated and deemed as being “triple” in the same manner. That is also incorrect. Hekate is triple in a literal sense. Being associated with crossroads and liminal places, Hekate is literally a “three-headed/formed figure”, seeing in all directions. The Triple Goddess tenet of modern Paganism (specifically Wicca) is allegoric in the sense that it’s related to aspects and periods as opposed to a literal, physical figure. In addition, Hekate was also portrayed often as a single person or as having three distinct bodies.

Finally, Hekate is a strict and stern Goddess. She can be very loving, warm and intimate with Her followers, especially those that praise and satisfy Her but She is also not as forgiving as other deities as well as intolerant of many vices, in a greater degree than most deities. A bright example is how She can be quick to remove (at least temporarily or until reformation occurs) Her favor and aid from even a devoted follower of Hers, should he/she stray from the path and fail to meet the requirements and standards set, not so much by the Goddess Herself, as much as by the person. Unlike other deities, Hekate is less direct and more influential, meaning She works in more subtle and indirect ways as well as more affecting ones, since She approaches you in a gentle fashion as opposed to a strong, straightforward manner.

If Hekate calls to you, don’t freak out. She can be strict but also very rewarding. As Hesiod says: “He who has her favor will be showered with riches, for it is within her power.” (paraphrased) . However, be wary. She won’t tolerate the unworthy.


Footnotes:
Hekate: Her Sacred Fires, edited by Sorita D’Este

the Theoi (dot) com website

Today We Honor The Goddess Hecate

Hecate – Dark Goddess of Magic & Sorcery

By Patti Wigington

Hecate (sometimes spelled Hekate) was originally a Thracian, and pre-Olympian Greek goddess, and ruled over the realms of earth and fertility rituals. As a goddess of childbirth, she was often invoked for rites of puberty, and in some cases watched over maidens who were beginning to menstruate. Eventually, Hecate evolved to become a goddess of magic and sorcery. She was venerated as a mother goddess, and during the Ptolemaic period in Alexandria was elevated to her position as goddess of ghosts and the spirit world.

Much like the Celtic hearth goddess Brighid, Hecate is a guardian of crossroads, and often symbolized by a spinning wheel. In addition to her connection to Brighid, she is associated with Diana Lucifera, who is the Roman Diana in her aspect as light-bearer. Hecate is often portrayed wearing the keys to the spirit world at her belt, accompanied by a three-headed hound, and surrounded by lit torches.

The epic poet Hesiod tells us Hecate was the only child of Asteria, a star goddess who was the aunt of Apollo and Artemis. The event of Hecate’s birth was tied to the reappearance of Phoebe, a lunar goddess, who appeared during the darkest phase of the moon.

Today, many contemporary Pagans and Wiccans honor Hecate in her guise as a Dark Goddess, although it would be incorrect to refer to her as an aspect of the Crone, because of her connection to childbirth and maidenhood. It’s more likely that her role as “dark goddess” comes from her connection to the spirit world, ghosts, the dark moon, and magic. She is known as a goddess who is not to be invoked lightly, or by those who are calling upon her frivolously. She is honored on November 30, the night of Hecate Trivia, the night of the crossroads.

 

The Goddess Hecate

The Goddess Hecate

Hecate or Hekate (ancient Greek Ἑκάτη, Hekátē, pronounced /ˈhɛkətiː/, in Shakespeare /ˈhɛkət/) is a chthonic Greco-Roman goddess associated with magic, witchcraft, necromancy, and crossroads. She is attested in poetry as early as Hesiod’s Theogony. An inscription from late archaic Miletus naming her as a protector of entrances is also testimony to her presence in archaic Greek religion.

Regarding the nature of her cult, it has been remarked, “she is more at home on the fringes than in the center of Greek polytheism. Intrinsically ambivalent and polymorphous, she straddles conventional boundaries and eludes definition.” She has been associated with childbirth, nurturing the young, gates and walls, doorways, crossroads, magic, lunar lore, torches and dogs.

Hecate may have originated among the Carians of Anatolia, where children were often given variants of her name. William Berg observes, “Since children are not called after spooks, it is safe to assume that Carian theophoric names involving hekat- refer to a major deity free from the dark and unsavoury ties to the underworld and to witchcraft associated with the Hecate of classical Athens.” But he cautions, “The Laginetan goddess may have had a more infernal character than scholars have been willing to assume.”

In Ptolemaic Alexandria and elsewhere during the Hellenistic period, she appears as a three-faced goddess associated with magic, witchcraft, and curses. Today she is claimed as a goddess of witches and in the context of Hellenic Polytheistic Reconstructionism. Some neo-pagans refer to her as a “crone goddess”, though this characterization appears to conflict with her frequent characterization as a virgin in late antiquity. She closely parallels the Roman goddess Trivia.

Mythology

Hecate has been characterized as a pre-Olympian chthonic goddess. She appears in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and in Hesiod’s Theogony, where she is promoted strongly as a great goddess. The place of origin of her following is uncertain, but it is thought that she had popular followings in Thrace. Her most important sanctuary was Lagina, a theocratic city-state in which the goddess was served by eunuchs. Lagina, where the famous temple of Hecate drew great festal assemblies every year, lay close to the originally Macedonian colony of Stratonikeia, where she was the city’s patroness. In Thrace she played a role similar to that of lesser-Hermes, namely a governess of liminal regions (particularly gates) and the wilderness, bearing little resemblance to the night-walking crone she became. Additionally, this led to her role of aiding women in childbirth and the raising of young men.

Hesiod records that she was esteemed as the offspring of Gaia and Uranus, the Earth and Sky. In Theogony he ascribed great powers to Hecate:

[…] Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven, and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods. For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her. For as many as were born of Earth and Ocean amongst all these she has her due portion. The son of Cronos did her no wrong nor took anything away of all that was her portion among the former Titan gods: but she holds, as the division was at the first from the beginning, privilege both in earth, and in heaven, and in sea.

According to Hesiod, she held sway over many things:

Whom she will she greatly aids and advances: she sits by worshipful kings in judgement, and in the assembly whom she will is distinguished among the people. And when men arm themselves for the battle that destroys men, then the goddess is at hand to give victory and grant glory readily to whom she will. Good is she also when men contend at the games, for there too the goddess is with them and profits them: and he who by might and strength gets the victory wins the rich prize easily with joy, and brings glory to his parents. And she is good to stand by horsemen, whom she will: and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre with Hermes to increase the stock. The droves of kine and wide herds of goats and flocks of fleecy sheep, if she will, she increases from a few, or makes many to be less. So, then, albeit her mother’s only child, she is honored amongst all the deathless gods. And the son of Cronos made her a nurse of the young who after that day saw with their eyes the light of all-seeing Dawn. So from the beginning she is a nurse of the young, and these are her honors.

Hesiod emphasizes that Hecate was an only child, the daughter of Perses and Asteria, a star-goddess who was the sister of Leto (the mother of Artemis and Apollo). Grandmother of the three cousins was Phoebe the ancient Titaness who personified the moon.

Hesiod’s inclusion and praise of Hecate in the Theogony has been troublesome for scholars, in that he seems to hold her in high regard, while the testimony of other writers, and surviving evidence, suggests that this was probably somewhat exceptional. It is theorized that Hesiod’s original village had a substantial Hecate following and that his inclusion of her in the Theogony was a way of adding to her prestige by spreading word of her among his readers.

Hecate possibly originated among the Carians of Anatolia, the region where most theophoric names invoking Hecate, such as Hecataeus or Hecatomnus, the father of Mausolus, are attested, and where Hecate remained a Great Goddess into historical times, at her unrivalled[30] cult site in Lagina. While many researchers favor the idea that she has Anatolian origins, it has been argued that “Hecate must have been a Greek goddess.” The monuments to Hecate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date.

If Hecate’s cult spread from Anatolia into Greece, it is possible it presented a conflict, as her role was already filled by other more prominent deities in the Greek pantheon, above all by Artemis and Selene. This line of reasoning lies behind the widely accepted hypothesis that she was a foreign deity who was incorporated into the Greek pantheon. Other than in the Theogony, the Greek sources do not offer a consistent story of her parentage, or of her relations in the Greek pantheon: sometimes Hecate is related as a Titaness, and a mighty helper and protector of humans. Her continued presence was explained by asserting that, because she was the only Titan who aided Zeus in the battle of gods and Titans, she was not banished into the underworld realms after their defeat by the Olympians.

One surviving group of stories suggests how Hecate might have come to be incorporated into the Greek pantheon without affecting the privileged position of Artemis. Here, Hecate is a mortal priestess often associated with Iphigeneia. She scorns and insults Artemis, who in retribution eventually brings about the mortal’s suicide. There was an area sacred to Hecate in the precincts of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, where the priests, megabyzi, officiated.

Hecate also came to be associated with ghosts, infernal spirits, the dead and sorcery. Like the totems of Hermes—herms placed at borders as a ward against danger—images of Hecate (like Artemis and Diana, often referred to as a “liminal” goddess) were also placed at the gates of cities, and eventually domestic doorways. Over time, the association with keeping out evil spirits could have led to the belief that if offended, Hecate could also allow the evil spirits in. According to one view, this accounts for invocations to Hecate as the supreme governess of the borders between the normal world and the spirit world, and hence as one with mastery over spirits of the dead. Whatever the reasons, Hecate’s power certainly came to be closely associated with sorcery. One interesting passage exists suggesting that the word “jinx” might have originated in a cult object associated with Hecate. “The Byzantine polymath Michael Psellus […] speaks of a bullroarer, consisting of a golden sphere, decorated throughout with symbols and whirled on an oxhide thong. He adds that such an instrument is called a iunx (hence “jinx”), but as for the significance says only that it is ineffable and that the ritual is sacred to Hecate.”

Hecate is one of the most important figures in the so-called Chaldaean Oracles (2nd-3rd century CE), where she is associated in fragment 194 with a strophalos (usually translated as a spinning top, or wheel, used in magic) “Labour thou around the Strophalos of Hecate.” This appears to refer to a variant of the device mentioned by Psellus.

Variations in interpretations of Hecate’s role or roles can be traced in 5th-century Athens. In two fragments of Aeschylus she appears as a great goddess. In Sophocles and Euripides she is characterized as the mistress of witchcraft and the Keres.

In the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Hecate is called the “tender-hearted”, a euphemism perhaps intended to emphasize her concern with the disappearance of Persephone, when she addressed Demeter with sweet words at a time when the goddess was distressed. She later became Persephone’s minister and close companion in the Underworld. But Hecate was never fully incorporated among the Olympian deities.

The modern understanding of Hecate has been strongly influenced by syncretic Hellenistic interpretations. Many of the attributes she was assigned in this period appear to have an older basis. For example, in the magical papyri of Ptolemaic Egypt, she is called the ‘she-dog’ or ‘bitch’, and her presence is signified by the barking of dogs. In late imagery she also has two ghostly dogs as servants by her side. However, her association with dogs predates the conquests of Alexander the Great and the emergence of the Hellenistic world. When Philip II laid siege to Byzantium she had already been associated with dogs for some time; the light in the sky and the barking of dogs that warned the citizens of a night time attack, saving the city, were attributed to Hecate Lampadephoros (the tale is preserved in the Suda). In gratitude the Byzantines erected a statue in her honor.

As a virgin goddess, she remained unmarried and had no regular consort, though some traditions named her as the mother of Scylla.

Although associated with other moon goddesses such as Selene, she ruled over three kingdoms; the earth, the sea, and the sky. She had the power to create or hold back storms, which influenced her patronage of shepherds and sailors.

Goddess of the crossroads

Cult images and altars of Hecate in her triplicate or trimorphic form were placed at crossroads (though they also appeared before private homes and in front of city gates). In this form she came to be known as the goddess Trivia “the three ways” in Roman mythology. In what appears to be a 7th century indication of the survival of cult practices of this general sort, Saint Eligius, in his Sermo warns the sick among his recently converted flock in Flanders against putting “devilish charms at springs or trees or crossroads”, and, according to Saint Ouen would urge them “No Christian should make or render any devotion to the deities of the trivium, where three roads meet…”.[

Animals Associated With Hecate

Dogs were closely associated with Hecate in the Classical world. “In art and in literature Hecate is constantly represented as dog-shaped or as accompanied by a dog. Her approach was heralded by the howling of a dog. The dog was Hecate’s regular sacrificial animal, and was often eaten in solemn sacrament.” The sacrifice of dogs to Hecate is attested for Thrace, Samothrace, Colophon, and Athens.

It has been claimed that her association with dogs is “suggestive of her connection with birth, for the dog was sacred to Eileithyia, Genetyllis, and other birth goddesses. Although in later times Hecate’s dog came to be thought of as a manifestation of restless souls or demons who accompanied her, its docile appearance and its accompaniment of a Hecate who looks completely friendly in many pieces of ancient art suggests that its original signification was positive and thus likelier to have arisen from the dog’s connection with birth than the dog’s demonic associations.”

Athenaeus (writing in the 1st or 2nd century BCE, and drawing on the etymological speculation of Apollodorus) notes that the red mullet is sacred to Hecate, “on account of the resemblance of their names; for that the goddess is trimorphos, of a triple form”. The Greek word for mullet was trigle and later trigla. He goes on to quote a fragment of verse “O mistress Hecate, Trioditis / With three forms and three faces / Propitiated with mullets”. In relation to Greek concepts of pollution, Parker observes, “The fish that was most commonly banned was the red mullet (trigle), which fits neatly into the pattern. It ‘delighted in polluted things,’ and ‘would eat the corpse of a fish or a man’. Blood-coloured itself, it was sacred to the blood-eating goddess Hecate. It seems a symbolic summation of all the negative characteristics of the creatures of the deep.” At Athens, it is said there stood a statue of Hecate Triglathena, to whom the red mullet was offered in sacrifice. After mentioning that this fish was sacred to Hecate, Alan Davidson writes, “Cicero, Horace, Juvenal, Martial, Pliny, Seneca and Suetonius have left abundant and interesting testimony to the red mullet fever which began to affect wealthy Romans during the last years of the Republic and really gripped them in the early Empire. The main symptoms were a preoccupation with size, the consequent rise to absurd heights of the prices of large specimens, a habit of keeping red mullet in captivity, and the enjoyment of the highly specialized aesthetic experience induced by watching the color of the dying fish change.”

The frog, significantly a creature that can cross between two elements, also is sacred to Hecate.

In her three-headed representations, discussed above, Hecate often has one or more animal heads, including cow, dog, boar, serpent and horse.

Lunar Lore

Moon & Witch Comments & Graphics
The line of the horizon was clear and hard against the sky,
and in one particular quarter it showed black against
a silvery climbing phosphorescence that grew and grew.
At last, over the rim of the waiting earth
the moon lifted with slow majesty till it swung clear
of the horizon and rode off, free of moorings;
– Grahame, “The Wind in the Willows.”

“Alilat” – the name by which the Arabs adore nature,
which they represent by a crescent moon.
– Brewer, “Dictionary of Phrase & Fable”.

The month is divided into three periods,
the waxing, the mid-month, and the waning,
which answer to the phases of the moon.
Endnotes to Evelyn-White’s trans. of Hesiod’s “Works and Days.”

  
~Magickal Graphics~

Who is Hecate? Insight into the Goddess of the Witches

Who is Hecate? Insight into the Goddess of the Witches

Author: Helena Domenic

Who is it that we think of when we think of the Goddess Hecate? Is she the Goddesses to whom the three Wyrd sisters in MacBeth cry to? Is she a fearsome creature who aids in cursing as in Medea? From Appolonius Rhodius we get this description:

“…. Hearing from the utmost depths, the dread Goddess approached … all entwined with fearsome serpents and leaves of oak, amidst a shimmering blaze of torchlight, while all around her chthonic hounds bayed shrilly, all the meadows trembled at her footfall and the nymphs of the marshland and river cried aloud.”

A review of all the literature surrounding Hecate yields very conflicting images of Hecate. Early sources from as early as the seventh century BCE present a very different Hecate then the one described by Appolonius Rhodius. In Pre-Classical Greece, she was portrayed as a young woman in a long robe holding burning torches. Later, we find the triple formed statues – three female figures back to back. These statues were found at temple entryways and crossroads – facing three different ways so she could see in all directions.

Evidence from nearly every century can be found that presents a much gentler image of Hecate – a beneficent Deity who guarded gateways, acted as Divine Attendant to Persephone, one who presided over birth and death as well as personal interaction between humans and deities. In the Chaldean Oracles, Hecate is viewed as being synonymous with Soul and considered the Savior of humanity as she acted as intermediary between humanity and the Divine in the crossover point between life and death.

The earliest references to Hecate can be found in Hesiod’s Theogony>/I> where she shares special honors with Zeus and in Homer’s Hymn to Demeter where she hears Persephone’s abduction from her cave and assists Demeter and Persephone both.

Somehow through time, Hecate has received a very unfair bad rap. One thing that can be said for Greek cosmology is that if a Deity presided over a particular area – say birth and death – then they presided over all aspects – positive and negative – of that area. If a Goddess could heal, then it followed that she could also curse. All of the attributes associated with Hecate evolved through time from the Pre-Classical era into the late Classical era, and now she has been adopted once again by modern Neo-Pagans.

One theory of Hecate’s origin places her in Karia – actually in the hinterlands of Asia Minor and the homelands of Hesiod’s family. One theory of Hecate’s preeminence alongside Zeus in the Theogony is that Hesiod created her importance and prominence for personal reasons. (Although from the research I’ve done, I disagree with this) . Hesiod actually only mentions Hecate once – perhaps there may have been no special attachment to Her, and he only placed her in the Theogony to acknowledge his own origins.

The Theogony was not written until the 8th century BCE – knowledge and worship of Hecate was not prevalent until the 6th century BCE. Looking closely at all the evidence – both literary and archeological – presents us with a very complex Goddess of incredible depth.

As I’ve noted, there is a great deal of debate over Hecate’s true nature, from her nation of origin to her genealogy. In Hesiod’s Theogony, she is, among other things, the daughter of the Titans Asteria and Perses; she is honored by Zeus above all others; is invoked at every sacrifice; and bears the title of “Kourotrophos” – nurse to all living beings. This version of Hecate does not bear great resemblance to later versions of her – and the absence of better known traits such as torch bearing and guardianship of the crossroads – have led some scholars to believe Hesiod fabricated the whole thing for his own ends (i.e., bringing favor and honor to his hometown Karian Goddess) . Bacchylides has her as daughter of Asteria and Zeus, Euripides says she is a daughter of Leto, and Thessalian legend has it she is the daughter of Admetus and a mortal woman.

In the Chaldean oracles, Hecate has many interesting attributes that are only now being fully explored by Classical Scholars. According to Sarah Iles Johnston, “She ensouled the Cosmos and the individual men within it, forming the connective boundary between man and god as could lead eventually to the individual soul’s release. She was celestial and potentially beneficent, rather than chthonic and threatening.”

What makes Hecate so interesting are these changing attributions – whether in reference to her origins or her magickal aspects – she changed as different regions and groups adopted her worship. No Greek clan or tribe ever claimed descent from Hecate, which makes good the case she originated outside of Greece.

As mentioned before, it is likely Hecate came from Karia in southwest Asia Minor, and she was incorporated into Greek mythology around the 6th century BCE. Hecate has also been connected with the Egyptian frog goddess Heqit. In pre-dynastic Egypt, the matriarch and wise woman of the tribe was called the “Heq” which echoes the attribution of Hecate to childbirth later on. An Asian name which may have been confused with Hecate is Hekabe – the wife of King Priam of Troy.

Aristophanes and Euripides have both connected her with Hecate. Perhaps more likely is a connection to a Goddess named Hepat. Hepat was a major Goddess of the Hurrians, a Bronze Age people of eastern Asia Minor who would have had contact with the Karians.

Hecate’s name also has several possible meanings. Among them ‘She who works her will’ is most commonly accepted, but also the ‘far off one’ or ‘far darting one’ are also suggested. She has had a variety of titles attached to her name which seem to extend its meaning:

Antaia: to whom one makes supplication.

Propylaia: Guardian of Gateways – Aischylos writes of ‘Lady Hecate, the one before the doors.’ Aristophanes refers to “just as a Hekataion is everywhere before doors.”

In this form, the boundary serves three purposes: 1) to establish a boundary and to protect inside from outside; 2) helping travelers setting out or returning; and 3) to watch over the actual transition that the entrance entails.

Apotropaios: Averter of Evil

Kleidouchos: Key holder (Is she the Key Master? Oops, sorry for the tacky Ghost Busters reference) .

Kourotrophos: Nurse, possibly referring to a nurse of child rearing, not necessarily involved in childbirth. Many Goddesses who bore this title were specifically associated with a city. Hecate is the oldest known Kourotrophos, which is where the association ‘Nurse of all living things’ comes in. There is also a possible connection with this title to marriage, as Hecate presided over transitions, and marriage most definitely is a transition.

Goddess of Roads: protector of travelers at crossroads where her statues were erected.
Goddess of Transitions: Hecate helps people cross difficult boundaries of all sorts, where the significance or risk lies in the crossing.

In the Theogony, she is the intermediary link between the mortal and immortal world during sacrifices. Hecate is present at Persephone’s abduction and leads her back from the Underworld. She is also associated with young women who fail to make the transition to womanhood.

Hecate Propolos: Guide and companion. In the Hymn to Demeter, Hecate becomes Persephone’s Guide. She appears in this role on a number of artworks and vases, usually bearing torches. She may also have served an initiatory role in coming of age rituals for women.

Hecate Phosphoros: Light Bringer, Torch Bearer.

Hecate as Moon Goddess: She was sometimes paired with Helios, a Sun God, and her torches show the way at night.

Hecate Soteira: Hecate as Savior of both the Cosmos and the individual souls within it. This will be examined in more detail a little later.

Another derivation of Hecate’s name, “Most Shining One” can be seen in depictions of her as a young beautiful Goddess who carries torches and wears a head dress of stars. She has been associated with both Helios and Apollo – and Apollo sometimes bears the epithet Apollo Hekatos.

Although the Olympians adopted Hecate after defeating the Titans, she never lived among them. They dwelt in Olympus. She, on the other hand, was considered a chthonic deity – that is, of the earth. In the Theogony, Zeus gives her dominion over Heaven, Earth, and Sea, and with Zeus, she had the ability to grant or withhold gifts to humanity. Interestingly, in the Demeter/Persephone myth cycle, Hecate is always the Maiden, Persephone the Wife or Mother, and Demeter the Crone. This is just one example of Hecate’s function as a Triple Goddess. There is evidence that point to her being honored in the Rites of Eleusis – possibly in her aspect as Guide or Nurse.

Hecate’s best-known role in Greek myth is in Homer’s Hymn to Demeter. After Persephone is abducted by Hades, Hecate reveals the truth to Demeter, and together they try to rescue Persephone. Home says of Hecate, “Hecate, with the bright headband, who heard from her cave.” Once Persephone’s fate is determined, it is Hecate who acts as her guide between the worlds. This is very much a different image from the one that later developed.

In the fifth century BCE, we begin to see a new, frightening side to Hecate. She is associated with restless, violent spirits, with sacrifices of dogs and offerings of food left at the Crossroads at the Full Moon. Now she is Hecate Chthonia. Chthonic means “of the Earth” as opposed to the Olympian Gods who lived on Mount Olympus. In this aspect, we see the use of low altars on which offerings are made into the earth as opposed to the air; also the sacrifice of whole animals. Chthonic deities would have been associated with fertility, childbirth, crops, fate and death.

Another later aspect is Hecate Enodia, Hecate at the Crossroads. How did Hecate begin to be associated with the darker aspects? It is possible that there so many images of young, maidenly Goddesses that some artists felt compelled to depict her in a different way – hence the three Hecates back to back, which we see in the Hekataion statues. It was also not unusual for Greek Gods and Goddesses to have many inconsistent qualities.

The stories of Medea may have propagated a negative image of Hecate. In Euripides’ version of the tale, Medea was a priestess of Hecate – she had helped Jason get the Golden Fleece and was subsequently dumped for someone younger. She kills their children in revenge. A misogynistic concept around witches and women was built up around these stories, and around Hecate.

Another story associated with Hecate is that of Iphigenia – a young woman sacrificed by her step-father, Agamemnon at the outset of the Trojan War. Young women who died before their time were associated with Hecate, and Iphigenia is said to have been transformed into Hecate by Artemis. Hecate governs the souls of these young women who die before their time.

An epitaph from the Roman era reads, “I lie here, the Goddess Hekate, as you see. Formerly I was mortal; now I am immortal and ageless. Julia, daughter of Nikias, a great hearted man.” Perhaps because of her association with dead young women, Hecate became associated with the restless, angry dead.

As an aside, Greek mythology can be confusing in that deities can be both Chthonic and Olympian. Hecate is actually both, as are Hermes, Demeter, Zeus, and Gaia. She hears Persephone’s abduction from her cave, after all.

In later Classical times, Hecate became associated with a practice known as curse tablets. These were lead tablets inscribed with curses, which were to be taken by the dead souls to deities such as Hecate and Hermes. Most of these tablets are associated with Hermes, but Hecate is also called upon by some of them. Interestingly, her name never appears alone on these tablets – it is always in association with Hermes.

The rise of thought involving Hecate as a Savior figure came during a time when philosophy and religion were finding more common ground than previously, and Neo-Platonists became involved in discussions of theurgy, philosophy and magic. In her identification of the Platonic Cosmic Soul, some scholars have interpreted Her presence in the Chaldean Oracles as an omnipotent Goddess.

Hecate as Cosmic Soul comprised what the Platonic philosophers called the “Sensible World” – the world of the Gods and the Cosmos – and the “Intelligible World” – the world of humanity, and as such was able to cross both boundaries at will. It was thought that the Cosmic Soul generated the physical Cosmos. (Although stated explicitly in any literature I have come across, this aspect of Hecate does suggest a Creatrix of some sort at the very least) . This ability of Hecate to cross easily between the world of the Gods and the world of humanity does connect well to her earlier association with crossroads.

Platonic thought placed the Moon at the crossroads of life and death – that is, when humans died, they were thought to enter the Moon as an intermediary place before going on to their ultimate destination – either re-birth or joining with the godhead. Chaldean thought placed Hecate as being on or in the Moon as part of that intermediary process – she was called the Mistress of the Moon. Again, in this particular connection between Hecate and the Moon, we see her association as mediary between humanity and divinity. Plato saw the Moon as Hecate’s “lot” – that is – the place in the Universe most suited to her. The Moon’s role in Platonic thought was to receive and nurture and then send forth souls.

Hecate was also connected to the race known as “Daemones” – not demons as we know them today, but a golden race somewhere between the Divine and humanity that watched over humans. Traditionally, daemons were understood to be the souls of humans who had not had proper burials, and as such, wandered between the worlds – an attribute they shared with Hecate. These souls were assigned the task of watching over the recently dead and guiding them to their proper resting places. These souls, along with Hecate, could either aid the ascent, or force the descent of the recently departed.

Another interesting component to Hecate’s worship during this time was the use of the “Hecate top, ” or iynx wheel. This instrument was used in magic to aid the working at hand. A Hecate top was actually more like a bullroarer, and the sound it made while being operated was considered crucial to the success of the operation.

Iynges might also be found hanging from the ceiling around a king’s throne to symbolize man’s separation and subordination to the gods, as well as the division of the universe into human and divine portions. The revolutions of the iynges represent the turnings of Hecate herself – the whirling and sounds of an iynx serve to symbolize and strengthen the sympathetic magic invoked by the theurgist.

Hecate was involved in three major mysteries: at Eleusis, Samothrace, and Aiginia. By their nature, little has been revealed of what went on in the mysteries, but given the role in the story of Demeter and Persephone, Hecate may have been a guide to Initiates. At Eleusis, thick nails were driven into the ground or altar, piercing through a piece of parchment rolled into a flattened tub, on which was written the name of someone to be cursed – most commonly politicians. Hecate was to be invoked as the parchment was ritually burnt. Hecate had a great deal more associated with her then curses, however. There were a variety of animals that were sacred to her.

The animal most commonly associated with Hecate was the dog. In the later Hellenistic and Roman works, Hecate’s approach is heralded by the barking of dogs. Dogs have a bad reputation in Greek mythology – they were considered polluted and impure, symbols of shameless behavior. There may have been an old belief that souls of the unburied dead could appear as dogs. Dogs were sacrificed to Hecate in purification rituals. A female dog would be sacrificed to aid in childbirth, in the belief that dogs gave birth with ease. The image of these sacrificed dogs may explain the later picture of ghostly dogs accompanying Hecate.

The image of dog as guardian – a much more positive association – echoes Hecate’s role as guardian. Plutarch wrote that dogs as well as Hecate were credited with excellent night vision. Aischylos and Plutarch both wrote about dogs barking to frighten intruders, but how they were loving and loyal to those they protected.

There were also herbs attributed to Hecate. Aconite (also known as Hecateis, Monkshood, or Wolfsbane) was a highly poisonous plant that was sacred to Hecate. According to myth, the plant sprang up where drops of saliva from Cerberos fell to earth when Hercules dragged the dog beast from the Underworld.

Hecate appears as a daughter of Zeus and Hera in later myths. Hecate was sent to the Underworld after incurring the wrath of Hera for stealing a pot of rouge for Europa, one of Zeus’ lovers. Hecate fled to earth and hid in the house of a woman who had just given birth. In late Classical Greece, childbirth was impure, so Cabiri plunged Hecate into the Underworld River Acheron to cleanse her. From then on, Hecate remained in the Underworld. There may be connections between the red rouge in this myth and the red henna used by worshippers to stain their hands and feet.

In the Aeneid, Aeneas travels to the Underworld with the Sibyl of Cumae. It was Hecate who originally took Sibyl there and showed her all the punishments of Tartarus. Hecate gave Sibyl the power to control the Avernus Wood, the passageway to the entrance of the Underworld. To allow passage for Aeneas, Sibyl sacrificed four black bullocks to Hecate, who then allowed Sibyl and Aeneas passage through the entrance and across the Styx.

In the fourth book of the Aeneid, Hecate is invoked by Dido. Aeneas had left her heart broken, so she called upon Hecate to curse the Trojans before she flung herself on her dagger. Her curse was effective; not only did the Trojans wander around for many years, when they finally reached Rome, Aeneas was killed in the fighting.

Athenians were especially respectful towards Hecate and she was often invoked in midnight rituals. Her worshippers gathered at crossroads at the New Moon to share Hecate suppers and then placed leftovers outdoors as offerings. Honey, black female lambs and dogs were sacrificed to her.

The yew, cypress, hazel, black poplar and willow are all sacred to Hecate. The leaves of the black poplar are dark on one side, and light on the other, symbolizing the boundary between the worlds. The yew has long been associated with the Underworld. It is the longest living creature in Europe and naturally resurrects itself – as the central trunk dies, a new tree grows within the rotting core.

As can be seen from ancient writings and modern scholarship, Hecate is a many-faceted Goddess indeed. She is much more than the dark, dreaded “Goddess of the Witches” that we see in some television accounts of Wicca, and indeed, she may be older than the Greco-Roman origins she is usually attributed with.

However modern media may choose to paint Her, She is indeed a true “Goddess of the Witches”, a complex and interesting Goddess with many stories and rituals yet to be told and created.

 


Footnotes:
SOURCES:
Johnston, S. I. (1990) . Hekate Soteira: A Study of Hekate’s Roles in the Chaldean Oracles and Related Literature. Atlanta: GA: Scholars Press.

Von Rudolf, R. (1999) . Hekate: In Ancient Greek Religion. Victoria, B.C: Horned Owl Publishing.