NEVER AGAIN!

burning7

“Never Again,” shall be our cry,

For we will never forget how much

You gave and how much you sacrificed

for us and future generations to come,

Rest now dear brothers & sisters,

Your work is done and ours just begun.

Rest now and find well-deserved peace at last!

The Burning Times, Never Forget (Page 3)

Scottish Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES

Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

 

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Adams, Thomas executed 1704 Pittenweem
Allen, Jonet burned 1661
Balfour, Alison burned 1594 – Dec. 16 Edinburgh
Barker, Janet burned 1643
Barton, William executed
Bean, Margrat executed 1597 Aberdeen
Bowman, Janet burned 1572
Brown, Janet burned 1643
Brugh, John burned 1643
Cornfoot, Janet mob violence 1704 Pittenweem
Corset, Janet mob violence 1704 Pittenweem
Chalmers, Bessie 1621 Inverkiething
Chatto, Marioun 1621 Inverkiething
Couper, Marable burned 1622 Northern Scotland
Craw, William burned 1680
Cumlaquoy, Marian burned 1643 Orkney
Douglas, Janet burned 1557 – July 17 Castle Hill
Drummond, Alexander executed 1670 Edinburgh
Duncan, Gellie hanged 1591
Dunhome, Margaret burned
Dunlop, Bessie burned 1576 Castle Hill
Dyneis, Jonka burned 1622 Northern Scotland
Cunningham, John burned 1591 Edinburgh
Fian, John hanged 1591 Edinburgh
Fynnie, Agnes burned 1643
Gerard, Katherine executed 1597 Aberdeen
Grant, Jonet executed 1597 Aberdeen
Grant, Marion executed 1597 Aberdeen
Grierson, Isobel burned 1607
Hamilton, Margaret burned 1680
Hamyltoun, Christiane 1621 Inverkiething
Harlow, Bessie 1621 Inverkiething
Horne, Janet of Dornoch burned 1722 Ross-shire
Hunter, Alexander burned 1629 Edinburgh
Jollie, Alison executed 1596
Jones, Katherine burned 1622 Northern Scotland
Kent, Margaret 1621 Inverkiething
Lauder, Margaret burned 1643
Lang, Beatrix died 1704 Pittenweem
Leyis, Thomas executed 1597 Aberdeen
Macalzean, Euphemia burned alive 1591 – June 25
MacEwen, Elspeth 1698 Kirkcudbright Prison
Man, Andro executed 1597 Aberdeen
Mundie, Beatrice 1621 Inverkiething
Napier, Barbara hanged 1591
Og, Margrat executed 1597 Aberdeen
Oige, Issobell executed 1597 Aberdeen
Oswald, Catherine burned 1670
Paris, ? hanged 1569 St. Andrews
Pearson, Alison 1588 – May 28
Peebles, Marion 1643
Pringle, Margaret 1680
Rattray, George executed 1705
Rattray, Lachlan executed 1705
Reid, Christen executed 1597 Aberdeen
Reid, John hanged himself 1697
Reoch, Elspeth burned 1622 Northern Scotland
Richie, Issobell executed 1597 Aberdeen
Rogie, Helen executed 1597 Aberdeen
Sampsoune, Agnes strangled, burned 1591
Scottie, Agnes burned 1622 Northern Scotland
Spaldarg, Jonet executed 1597 Aberdeen
Steward, William hanged 1569 St. Andrews
Stewart, Christian strangled, burned 1596 – Nov.
Thompson, Annaple burned 1680
Tod, Beigis burned 1608 – May 27 Lang Nydrie
Vickar, Bessie burned 1680
Wallace, Margaret executed 1622 Glascow
Weir, Thomas burned 1670 – April 11 Edinburgh / Leith
Wisherr, Jonet executed 1597 Aberdeen
Yullock, Agnes burned 1622 Northern Scotland

 

Italian Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES

Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

 

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Baroni, Catterina beheaded, burned 1647 – April 14 Castelnovo
Bragadini,
Mark Antony
beheaded 1500’s
Camelli, Domenica beheaded, burned 1647 – April 14 Castelnovo
Caveden, Lucia beheaded, burned 1647 – April 14 Castelnovo
Cemola, Zinevra beheaded, burned 1647 – April 14 Castelnovo
Gratiadei, Domenica beheaded, burned 1647 – April 14 Castelnovo
Quattrino, Dominic burned 1583 Mesolcina

 

Other Known Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES  Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Askew, Anne burned 1546
Bayerin, Anna executed 1751 Salzburg, AUSTRIA
Goeldi, Anna hanged 1782 – June 17 Glaris, SWITZERLAND
la Valle, Gracia burned
(1st in Spain)
1498 Saragossa, SPAIN
Meath, Petronilla de burned
(1st in Ireland)
1324 – Nov. 3 IRELAND
Rais, Gilles de executed 1440 – Oct. 26
Vuil, Daniel executed 1662 Beaufort, CANADA

The Burning Times, Never Forget (Page 2)

African Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES

Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

 

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Manzayiwa, Tomi murdered 1998 – Dec. 19 Umtata, South Africa
Khawuta, Zamabhengu burned 1999 – Jan. Balasi, E.P., S.A
Ntele, Anna beaten to death 1999 – Feb. South Africa
Ntleki, Aphiwe burned 1999 – Jan. Balasi, E.P., S.A
Ntleki, Lihle burned 1999 – Jan. Balasi, E.P., S.A
Ntleki, Madinda burned 1999 – Jan. Balasi, E.P., S.A
Ntleki, Zamabhala burned 1999 – Jan. Balasi, E.P., S.A
Ntleki, Zisanda burned 1999 – Jan. Balasi, E.P., S.A
Qamza, Hlanjiwe burned 1999 – Jan. Bizana, S.A

 

French Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES

Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

 

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Amalaric, Madeline burned 1550’s
Andrius, Barthelemy burned 1330 Carcassonne
Andrius, Jean burned 1330 Carcassonne
Andrius, Phillippe burned 1330 Carcassonne
d’Arc, Joan
(Joan of Ark)
burned 1431 – May 30 Rouen
Audibert, Etienne 1619 – March 20
Aupetit, Pierre burned 1500’s Bordeaux
Balcoin, Marie burned 1598
Barthe, Angela de la burned 1275 Toulouse
Belon, Jean executed 1597
Bonnet, Jean burned alive 1583 Boissy-en-Ferez
Boulay, Anne burned 1620 Nancy
Boulle, Thomas burned alive 1647 – Aug. 21 Rouen
Brigue, Jehane de burned alive 1391 – Aug. 19 Pig Market in Paris
Bunot, Leon murdered 1948 – Nov. 26
Corrillaut, Etienne executed 1440 Machecoul
Challiot, ? murdered 1922 – Feb. St. Georges
Chamoulliard, ? burned 1597
de Chantraine, Anne burned 1622 – Oct. 17 Waret-la-Chaussee
Ciceron, Andre burned alive 1335 Carcassone
deLarue, ? burned 1540 Rouen
Delort, Catherine burned 1335 Toulouse
DeMolay, Jacques burned 1314 – March 19
Desbordes, ? burned 1628
Doree, Catherine executed 1577 Courveres
Dorlady, Fernando burned, accused of ‘the devil’s banker’ 1610 – Jan. 18 Vesoul
Dorlady, Mansfredo burned 1610 – Jan. 18 Vesoul
Flade, Dietrich executed 1589 Treves
Fief, Mary le 1573 – Oct. 13
Francoise (last name N/A) burned 1606 – July 30
Galigai, Leonora beheaded, burned 1617 – July 8 Place de Grieve
Garnier, Gilles burned, accused of being a werewolf 1574 Dole
Gaufridi, Louis burned 1611 – April 30 Marseilles
Georgel, Anna Marie burned 1335 Toulouse
Geraud, Hughes burned 1317 Leger
Grandier, Urbain burned 1634 – Aug. 18 Loudon
Greland, Jean burned 1438 Chamonix
Griart, Henri executed 1440 Machecoul
Harvilliers, Jeanne executed 1578
Henry III,
(King of France)
assasssinated 1589 – Aug. 1
Jennin, ? burned 1460 Cambrai
Leclerc, ? 1615
Leger, ? 1616 – May 6
Manseneé, Desle la executed 1529 – Dec. 18 Anjux
Marguerite burned 1586 Paris
Marigny, Enguerrand hanged 1315
Martin, Marie executed 1586
Mirot, Dominic burned 1586 Paris
Morin, ? burned 1540 Rouen
Pajot, Marguerite executed 1576 Tonnerre
de la Plaine, Sylvanie burned 1616 Pays de Labourde
Poiret, ? burned 1620 Nancy
Porte, Vidal de la 1597 Riom
Rodier, Catala burned alive 1335 Carcassone
Rodier, Paul burned alive 1335 Carcassone
Rosseau, ? (sr.) 1593 – Oct. 2
Rosseau, ? 1593 – Oct. 2
Roulet, Jacques burned alive,  accused of being a werewolf 1597 Angiers
Rue, Abel de la 1592 – July 20 Coulommiers
de Ruilly, Macette burned alive 1391 – Aug. 19 Pig Market in Paris
Sechelle, ? burned 1586 Paris
Trois-Echelles executed 1571 Paris
Valee, Melchoir de la burned 1631 Nancy
Vallin, Pierre executed 1438

 

Mexican Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES

Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

 

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Arista, Josephine burned 1955 – July 3 Ojinaga
Maquixtle, Eduardo Quiahua murdered 1996 Vicente Guererro
Maquixtle, Andrea murdered 1996 Vicente Guererro
Maquixtle, (sib.) murdered 1996 Vicente Guererro
Maquixtle, (sib.) murdered 1996 Vicente Guererro
Maquixtle, (sib.) murdered 1996 Vicente Guererro
Maquixtle, (sib.) murdered 1996 Vicente Guererro
Sabina, Benita murdered 1956 – Sept. 8 Alfajayucan
Trajo, Christina murdered 1956 – Sept. 8 Alfajayucan

 

German Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES

Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

 

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION

 

Ancker, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Babel, Zuickel beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Babel, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Bannach, ? (mr.) beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Bannach, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Basser, Fredrick beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Batsch, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Baunach, ? executed 1628 Würzburg
Beaumont, Sieur de 1596 – Oct. 21
Bebelin, Gabriel beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Beck, Viertel beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Beck, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Berger, Christopher beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Bentz, ? (mrs.) beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Bentz, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Beuchel, Anna burned 1581 Waldsee
Beutler, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Birenseng, Agata burned 1594 – June 25 Waldsee
Brack, ? executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Brickmann, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Brose, Elizabeth tortured to death 1660 – Nov. 4 Castle Gommern
Buckh, Appollonia burned 1581 Waldsee
Bugler, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Bursten-Binderin beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Canzler, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Crots, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Deiner, Hans burned Waldsee
Dormar, Anna burned 1586 – Oct. 9 Waldsee
Echtinger, Barbara 1545 – Aug. 24 Waldsee
Edelfrau, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Einseler, Catharina burned 1581 – July 6 Waldsee
Ellroth, ? executed 1663 – June 17 Lindheim
Erb, Anna burned 1586 – March 9 Waldsee
Esch, Klaus executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Euler, Anna executed 1663 – June 12 Lindheim
Eyering, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Fleischbaum, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Flieger, Catharina burned 1581 – July 6 Waldsee
Fray, Ursula burned 1587 – June 12 Waldsee
Fray, Margaret burned 1594 – June 25 Waldsee
Geissler, Clara strangled 1630 Gelnhausen
Gering, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Glaser, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Gobel, Barbara burned 1628 Würzburg
Gobel’s child executed 1628 Würzburg
Goldschmidt beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Gutbrod, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Gwinner, Else executed 1601 – Dec. 21
Haan, George burned 1626 Bamberg
Haan, ? (mrs.) burned 1626 Bamberg
Haan, ? (sib.) burned 1626 Bamberg
Haan, ? (sib.) burned 1626 Bamberg
Hafner, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hammellmann, Melchoir beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hans, David beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hans, Kilian beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Harfner, ? hanged herself 1627 Bamberg Prison
Haus, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hennot, Catherine burned alive 1627
Hezensohn, Joachim beheaded 1557 Waldsee
Hirsch, Nicodemus beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hoecker, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hofschmidt, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hofseiler, ? beheaded 1628 Wurzburg
Holtzmann, Stoffel beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Hoppo, ? executed 1599
Hoyd, Anna burned 1586 – Nov. 24 Waldsee
Huebmeyer, Barbara burned 1589 – Sept. 11 Waldsee
Huebmeyer, Appela burned 1589 – Sept. 11 Waldsee
Isel, Ursula burned 1586 – Nov. 7 Waldsee
Isolin, Madlen burned 1581 – July 6 Waldsee
Julius, Johannes executed 1628 – August 6 Bamberg
Jung, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Kanzler, ? executed 1628 Würzburg
Kleiss, Anna burned 1586 – Oct. 30 Waldsee
Kless, Catharina burned 1587 – June 12 Waldsee
Knertz, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Knor, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Kramerin, Schelmerey beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Kuhn, Margarethe executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Kuhnlin, Elsa 1518 Waldsee
Kuler, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Lachenmeyer, Waldburg burned 1585 – July 5 Waldsee
Laubbach, ? executed 1597 Eichstatt
Lambrecht, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Lemp, Rebecca executed 1590 – Sept. 9 Nordlingen
Leschier, Heinrich executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Leschier, Maria executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Liebler, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Lutz, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Mark, Bernhard burned alive 1628 Würzburg
Mayer, Christina burned 1586 – Oct. 9 Waldsee
Mazelier, Hanchemand de 1439 Neuchatel
Metzler, Elisabeth executed 1663 – June 12 Lindheim
Meurer, Katharina executed 1663 – June 12 Lindheim
Meyer, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Mossau, Renata von beheaded, burned 1749 – June 21 Bavaria
Mullerin, Elsbet burned 1531 Waldsee
Nathan, Abraham executed 1772 – Sept. 24 Haeck

 

Paeffin, Elsa burned 1518 Waldsee
Pappenheimer, Anna executed 1600 Bavaria
Pichler, Emerenziana burned 1680 – Sept. 25 Defereggen
Pichler, ? (sib.) burned 1680 – Sept. 27 Defereggen
Pichler, ? (sib.) burned 1680 – Sept. 27 Defereggen
Pomp, Anna executed 1633 Lindheim
Pöppel, Hans executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Rauffains, Catharina burned 1586 – Nov. 7 Waldsee
Reich, Maria burned 1585 – July 5 Waldsee
Reuneg, Anna executed 1663 – June 12 Lindheim
Reuneg, Else executed 1663 Lindheim
Reuneg, Johann executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Reuneg, Katharina executed 1663 – June 12 Lindheim
Reuneg, Philipp executed 1664 – March 1 Lindheim
Rohrfelder, Margaret burned 1585 – Aug. 24 Waldsee
Rosch, Maria burned 1581 – July 6 Waldsee
Rullmann, ? executed 1664 – March 1 Lindheim
Rum, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Rutchser, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Sailler, Ursula burned 1585 – Aug. 24 Waldsee
Scharber, Elsbeth burned 1581 Waldsee
Schneider, Felicitas burned 1586 – March 9 Waldsee
Schnelling, Anna burned 1589 – Sept. 11 Waldsee
Schüler, Martha burned 1664 – Feb. 23 Lindheim
Schutz, Babel beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schwaegel,
Anna Maria
beheaded 1775 – April 11 Kempten
Schwartz, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schenck, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schellhar, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schickelte, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schneider, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schneider, Margarethe executed 1663 – June 12 Lindheim
Schneider, Margarethe executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Schleipner, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Schuler, ? burned 1663 – Feb. 23 Lindheim
Schultheiss, Ursula burned 1586 – March 9 Waldsee
Schwaegel,
Anna Maria
beheaded 1775 – April 11
Schwarz, Eva burned 1581 Waldsee
Schwarz, ? executed 1628 Würzburg
Schwerdt, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Seiler, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Shultz (infant), ? executed 1628 Würzburg
Silberhans, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stadelmann, Ursula burned 1586 – Nov. 7 Waldsee
Stadlin, ? executed 1599
Steicher, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Steinacher, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Steinbach, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stier, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stepper, ? executed 1628 Würzburg
Stolzberger, ? (sib.) beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stolzberger, ? (sib.) beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stolzberger, ? (mrs.) beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stubb, Peter executed, accused of being a werewolf 1589 Cologne
Stuber, Laurence beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Stuell, Gertrud burned alive 1590 Alchen
Sturmer, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Thausser, Simon burned 1518 Waldsee
Thausser, ? burned 1518 Waldsee
Treher, Anna burned 1585 – July 5 Waldsee
Tungerslieber, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Uhlmer, Barbara burned 1585 – Aug. 24 Waldsee
Valkenburger, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Vaecker, Paul beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Wachin, Ursula burned 1528 Waldsee
Wagner, Michael beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Wagner, ? burned alive 1628 Würzburg
Weber, Katharina executed 1663 – Aug. 25 Lindheim
Weiss, Agatha burned 1586 – July 5 Waldsee
Weydenbusch, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Wirth, Klingen beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Wirth, Trauben burned 1585 – July 5 Waldsee
Wuncil, Brigida burned 1581 – July 6 Waldsee
Wunth, ? beheaded 1628 Würzburg
Veronica Zerritsch executed 1754 Bavaria

 

THE BURNING TIMES, NEVER FORGET! (Page 1)

THE BURNING TIMES

The probable number of people executed during the Burning Times was between 200,000 and 500,000. In the late1940’s and early 1950’s, several British Witches and occultists started talking about 9,000,000 “witches” killed. This number appears to have derived not from any research, but rather from an attempt to “one-up” the number of Jews exterminated by the Nazis in WW II. In order to support this contention, the definition of the Burning Times was changed. First, the period of the major witch hunts was extended from its peak, 1550 – 1675, backwards to the founding of the Inquisition (early 13th century). Second, the figures for judicial executions of heretics, notably the Cathari and the Waldensians, were included in the total. Finally, all judicial executions which took place during the Catholic “civil war” (the Avignon Papacy) were included. In effect, the definition of “witch” was changed to include “heretic”.

This definitional change is most interesting, since it parallels the definitional change that took place in the Catholic churches construction of demonic witchcraft (see, for example, Ginzburg’s “Ecstacies”). The “facts” of the situation where “changed” when the definition of the term “witch” was changed. “Witch” was defined as “not-orthodox” and, as such, included all heretics and non-Christians. To me, the interesting point is that this definition was created not by the Catholic church, but by Gerald Gardner in an attempt to prove that “witches” had suffered more than Jews.

Although the list below contains dates even earlier than the 13th century, all victims were tried, convicted, and sentenced to death from Witchcraft persecution, most from the Catholic church. I compiled this list for research and memorial purposes, and the hatchet is buried, BUT, Witchcraft persecution carries on to this very day. With that said:

NeverAgainAWbl

____________________________

KILLING of WITCHES

Some numbers of the unknown:

17,000+ killed in Scotland from 1563 to 1603 
70,000 killed in England after 1573 
40,000 executed between 1600-1680 in Great Britain 
22,000 executed in Bamberg, Germany  1610-1840 
30,000 burned by the Inquisition 
300+ killed in South Africa between 1986 and 1996
100+ killed in Indonesia, 1998

The above numbers are approximations.
Of course the list below is far from complete.
Most victims are unfortunately recordless.

THE LIST

THIS IS A VERIFIED LIST OF VICTIMS OF ‘THE BURNING TIMES’.
ALL LISTED HERE DIED AS A RESULT OF WITCHCRAFT PERSECTION.
MOST WERE INNOCENT…

American Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES
Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Bishop, Briget
(1st in Salem Trials)
hanged 1692 – June 10 Salem, MA
Burroughs, George executed 1692 – Aug. 19 Salem, MA
Carrier, Martha executed 1692 – Aug. 19 Salem, MA
Corey, Martha executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Corey, Giles pressed to death 1692 – Sept. 19 Salem, MA
Dustin, Sarah died in prison MA
Dyer, Mary hanged 1660 – June 1 MA
Easty, Mary executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Glover, Goody hanged 1688 Salem, MA
Good, Sarah executed 1692 – July 19 Salem, MA
Greensmith, ? hanged 1662 – Jan. 20 Hartford, CT
Hibbins, Anne hanged 1656 – June 19 Boston, MA
Howe, Elizabeth executed 1692 – July 19 Salem, MA
Jacobs, George executed 1692 – Aug. 19 Salem, MA
Jones, Margaret executed 1648 – June 15 Charlestown
Lake, Alice executed 1651 Boston, MA
Martin, Susannah executed 1692 – July 19 Salem, MA
Nurse, Rebecca executed 1692 – July 19 Salem, MA
Osburne, Sarah died in prison 1692 – May 10
Parker, Alice executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Parker, Mary executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Procter, John executed 1692 – Aug. 19 Salem, MA
Pudeator, Anne executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Reed, Wilmot executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Scott, Margaret executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Wardwell, Samuel executed 1692 – Sept. 22 Salem, MA
Wildes, Sarah executed 1692 – July 19 Salem, MA
Willard, John executed 1692 – Aug. 19 Salem, MA
Younge, Alse hanged 1647 – May 26 Connecticut

 

 

English Victims
OF THE BURNING TIMES
Take a moment and give these souls the repect they deserve!

NAME RESULT: DATE LOCATION
Adamson, Francis executed 1652 Durham
Albano, Peter of died in prison 1310
Allen, Joan hanged at the
Old Bailey
1650 London
Arnold, ? hanged 1574 Barking
Ashby, Anne hanged 1652 – July Maidstone
Baguely, Mary hanged 1675 Chester
Baker, Anne executed 1619 Leicester
Barber, Mary executed 1612 – July 22 Northhampton
Barclay, Margaret
Bateman, Mary 1808 Yorkshire
Berrye, Agnes hanged 1616 Enfield
Bennet, Elizabeth executed 1582 St. Osyth
Bill, Arthur executed 1612 – July 22 Northhampton
Bodenham, Anne hanged 1653 Salisbury
Boram, ? (mrs.) hanged 1655 Bury St Edmunds
Boram, ? hanged 1655 Bury St Edmunds
Boleyn, Anne beheaded 1536 – May 19 London
Bolingbroke, Roger hanged, drawn and quartered 1441 – Nov. 18 Tyburn
Brigge, Mabel executed 1538 York
Browne, Agnes executed 1612 – July 22 Northhampton
Browne, Joan executed 1612 – July 22 Northhampton
Browne, Mary hanged 1652 – July Maidstone
Brooks, Jane hanged 1658 – March 26
Bulcock, John executed 1612 Lancaster
Bulcock, Jane executed 1612 Lancaster
Bull, Edmund hanged 1631 Taunton
Bulmer, Matthew hanged 1649 Newcastle
Calles, Helen executed 1595 – Dec. 1 Braynford
Cardien, Joan executed 1645 – Sept. 29 Faversham, Kent
Chambers, ? died in prison 1693
Cockie, Isabel burned at a cost of   105 silver pieces 1596
“Old Widow  Coneman” executed 1699 Coggeshall
Cox, Julian executed 1663 Taunton
Crierson, Robert executed 1594 North Berwick
Cullender, Rose executed 1664 – March 17 Bury St Edmunds
Cunny, Joan hanged 1589 Chelmsford
Demdike, Elizabeth died in prison 1612 Lancaster
Deshayes, Catherine burned 1680 – Feb. 22
Device, Elizabeth executed 1612 Lancaster
Device, James executed 1612 Lancaster
Device, Alizon executed 1612 Lancaster
“Dummy” mob violence 1865 – Aug. 3 Sible Hedingham
Duny, Amy executed 1664 – March 17 Bury St Edmunds
Edwards, Susanna hanged 1682 – Aug. 25 Bideford
Flower, Joan died in custody 1619 Lincoln
Flower, Margaret executed 1619 – March Lincoln
Flower, Phillippa executed 1619 – March Lincoln
Foster, Anne hanged 1674 Northhampton
Frances, Elizabeth executed 1579 Chelmsford
Gabley, executed 1582 King’s Lynn
Goodridge, Alse executed 1597 Darbie
Green, Ellen executed 1619 Leicester
Hacket, Margaret executed 1585 – Feb. 19 Tyburn
Harrisson, Joanna executed 1606 Hertford
Harrisson, ? (sib.) executed 1606 Hertford
Hewitt, Katherine executed 1612 Lancaster
Holt, Jane executed 1645 – Sept. 29 Faversham, Kent
Hunt, Joan hanged 1615 Middlesex
Huxley, Catherine hanged 1652 Worcester
Jordemaine, Margery burned 1441 – Oct. 27 Smithfield
Kempe, Ursula executed 1582 St. Osyth
Kerke, Anne executed 1599 Tyburn
Jenkenson, Helen executed 1612 – July 22 Northhampton
Knott, Elizabeth hanged 1649 St. Albans
Lakeland, ? burned 1645 Ipswich
Lamb, Dr stoned,
mobviolence
1640 St. Paul’s Cross, London
Lloyd, Temperance hanged 1682 – Aug. 25 Bideford
Louis, ? executed 1646 Suffolk
Lowes, John hanged 1645 Bury
Martyn, Anne hanged 1652 – July Maidstone
Molland, Alice executed 1684 Exeter
Newell, John executed 1595 Dec. 1 Barnett
Newell, Joane executed 1595 Dec. 1 Barnett
Newman, Elizabeth executed 1653 Whitechapel
Nottingham, John of died in custody 1324 Coventry
Nutter, Alice executed 1612 Lancaster
Oliver, Mary burned 1658 Norwich
Orchard, ? executed 1658 Salisbury
Osborne, ?, (mr.) mob violence 1750 – April 22 Tring, Herefordshire
Osborne, ? mob violence 1750 – April 22 Tring, Herefordshire
Palmer, John hanged 1649 St. Albans
Pannel, Mary executed 1603 Yorkshire
Peterson, Joan hanged 1652 – April 12 Tyburn
Philipps, Mary executed 1705 – March 17 Northamtonshire
Powle, ? executed 1652 Durham
Prentice, Joan hanged 1589 Chelmsford
Preston, Jennet executed 1612 York
Reade, Mary hanged 1652 – July Maidstone
Redfearne, Anne executed 1612 Lancaster
Robey, Isobel executed 1612 Lancaster
Robson, Donald executed 1590 North Berwick
Russel, Alice mob violence 1808 – May 20 Great Paxton
Rutter, Elizabeth hanged 1616 Middlesex
Samuels, ? 1593 – April 4 Warboys
Samuels, ? 1593 – April 4 Warboys
Samuels, ? 1593 – April 4 Warboys
Sawyer, Elizabeth hanged 1621 – April 19 Tyburn
Shaw, Elinor executed 1705 – March 17 Northamtonshire
Smith, Mary hanged 1616 King’s Lynn
Style, Elizabeth died in prison 1664 Taunton
Sutton, ? executed 1613 Bedford
Sutton, Mary executed 1613 Bedford
Tod, Christian executed 1590 North Berwick
Townsend, Amey mob violence 1700 – Jan 8 St. Albans
Trembles, Mary hanged 1682 – Aug. 25 Bideford
Turner, Ann murdered 1875
Upney, Joan hanged 1589 Chelsford
Utley, ? hanged 1630 Lancaster
Waterhouse, Agnes executed 1566 – July 29 Chelmsford
Waterhouse, ? hanged 1565 Dorset
Wanderson, ? wife executed 1644 – Jan.
Wanderson, ? 2nd wife executed 1644 – Jan.
Whittle, Anne executed 1612 Lancaster
Williford, Joan executed 1645 – Sept. 29 Faversham, Kent
Willimot, Joan executed 1619 Leicester
Wilson, Anne hanged 1652 – July Maidstone
Wright, Mildred hanged 1652 – July Maidstone

English Witchcraft Laws

English Witchcraft Laws

Definition:

Until 1951, England had laws strictly prohibiting the practice of witchcraft. When the last act was repealed, Gerald Gardner began to publish his work, and brought witchcraft back into the public eye without threat of prosecution. Put into effect on June 1, 1653, the Witchcraft Laws mandated the outlawing of any kind of witchcraft-related activities. The 1951 repeal made it easier for modern Wiccans — Gardner was able to go public just a few years later, when he published Witchcraft Today in 1954.

It’s important to note that the 1653 Witchcraft Laws were not the first to appear in the English judicial system. In 1541, King Henry VIII passed a piece of legislation that made witchcraft a felony, punishable by death. In 1562, Henry’s daughter, Queen Elizabeth I, passed a new law that said witchcraft would only be punished with death if harm had been caused – if no physical harm was done to the alleged victim, then the accused only faced imprisonment.

Examples: Prior to the repeal of the English Witchcraft Laws, British pagans had to practice in secret to avoid prosecution.

 

 

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American Witchcraft Laws

American Witchcraft Laws

A reader writes in, “I notice that there are a lot of references made to the English Witchcraft Laws, but what about law in America? Didn’t the Salem witches in Massachusetts get burned at the stake because of laws against witchcraft?

The Salem witch trials were indeed held in Massachusetts. However, in 1692, when these trials took place, Massachusetts was not “American” at all. It was a British colony, and therefore fell under British rule and law.

In other words, the Salem Colony was not American in 1692, because “America” didn’t exist. In fact, it didn’t exist until about eighty years later. Also, no one has ever been burned at the stake for witchcraft in America. In Salem, a number of people were hanged, and one was pressed to death. It is unlikely that any of those people were actually practicing any sort of witchcraft (except possibly Tituba), and more likely that they were all just unfortunate victims of mass hysteria.

Now, that having been said, in some states, there are laws against fortunetelling, Tarot card reading, and other divinatory practices. These are not outlawed because of an injunction against witchcraft, but because of municipal leaders trying to protect gullible residents from being swindled by con artists. These ordinances are passed on local levels and are typically part of zoning regulations, but they’re not anti-witchcraft laws – they’re anti-fraud laws.

In addition, there have been cases in the United States where specific religious practices have been challenged in court.

In 2009, Jose Merced sued the city of Euless, Texas, when they told him he could no longer perform animal sacrifices as part of his religious practice. The city told him that “animal sacrifices jeopardize public health and violate its slaughterhouse and animal cruelty ordinances.” The 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans said the Euless ordinance “placed a substantial burden on Merced’s free exercise of religion without advancing a compelling governmental interest.”

Again, this was not a specific injunction against witchcraft or religion. Because it was a specific religious practice, and the city couldn’t provide enough evidence to support their claim of it being a health issue, the court ruled in favor of Merced and his right to practice animal sacrifice.

In the 1980s, the District Court of Virginia court recognized witchcraft as a valid and legitimate religion, in the case of Dettmer v Landon, and this was upheld later on by a Federal court, determining that people who practice witchcraft as a religion are entitled to the same Constitutional protections as those who follow other belief systems.

Believe it or not, Pagans – and other practitioners of earth-based faiths – have the same rights as everyone else in this country. Learn about your rights as a parent, as an employee, and even as a member of the United States military:

  • Protect Your Legal Rights: Learn what you can do to reduce the chance that you’ll be a victim of religious discrimination.
  • Your Rights as a Pagan Parent: In the United States, we have the same rights as parents of any other religion. Learn how you can avoid discrimination in schools, simply by opening up the lines of communication.
  • Rights of Pagans in the Workplace: What rights do Pagans and Wiccans have in the workplace? Can your employer treat you differently just because you’re not part of a mainstream religious group?
  • Rights of Pagans in the Military: If you or someone you love is an active duty member of the military, you need to be aware of your rights as a Pagan or Wiccan soldier.

 

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Was Rebecca Nurse Really A Witch?

Rebecca Nurse

Early Life and Family:

Rebecca was born the daughter of William Towne and his wife Joanna Blessing Towne, in 1621. As a teenager, her parents relocated from Yarmouth, England, to the village of Salem, Massachussetts. When Rebecca was about 24, she married Frances Nurse, who made trays and other wooden household items. Frances and Rebecca had four sons and four daughters together. Rebecca and her family attended church regularly, and she and her husband were well-respected in the community.

In fact, she was considered an example of “piety that was virtually unchallenged in the community.”

Accusations Begin:

Rebecca and Frances lived on a tract of land owned by the Putnam family, and they had been involved in a number of nasty land disputes with the Putnams. In March of 1692, young Ann Putnam accused her 71-year-old neighbor Rebecca of witchcraft. Rebecca was arrested, and there was a great public outcry, given her pious character and standing in society. Several people spoke on her behalf at her trial, but Ann Putnam frequently broke into fits in the courtroom, claiming Rebecca was tormenting her. Many of the other teenage girls who were “afflicted” were reluctant to bring accusations against Rebecca.

A Verdict Reversed:

At the end of Rebecca’s trial, the jury returned a verdict of Not Guilty. However, there was much public outcry, due in part to the fact that the accusing girls were continuing to have fits and attacks in the courtroom. The magistrate instructed jurors to reconsider the verdict.

At one point, another accused woman was heard to have said “[Rebecca] was one of us.” When asked to comment, Rebecca did not reply — most likely because she had been deaf for some time. The jury interpreted this as a mark of guilt, and found Rebecca guilty after all. She was sentenced to hang on July 19.

Aftermath:

As Rebecca Nurse walked to the gallows, many people commented on her dignified manner, later referring to her as a “model of Christian behavior”. Following her death, she was buried in a shallow grave. Because she was convicted of witchcraft, she was seen as undeserving of a proper Christian burial. However, Rebecca’s family came along later and dug her body up, so that she could be buried at the family homestead. In 1885, the descendants of Rebecca Nurse placed a granite memorial at her grave at what is now known as the Rebecca Nurse Homestead cemetery, located in Danvers (formerly Salem Village), Massachusetts.

Descendants Visit, Pay Their Respects:

In 2007, over a hundred of Rebecca’s descendants visited the family homestead in Danvers. The entire group was comprised of descendants of Nurse’s parents, William and Joanna Towne. Of William and Joanna’s children, Rebecca and two of her sisters were accused of witchcraft.

Some of the visitors were descended from Rebecca herself, and others from her brothers and sisters. Because of the insular nature of colonial society, many of Rebecca’s descendants can also claim kinship with other “witch trial families”, such as the Putnams. New Englanders have long memories, and for many of the families of the accused, the Homestead is a central place where they can meet to honor those who died in the trials. Mary Towne, a great-something-granddaughter of Rebecca’s brother Jacob, probably summed things up best, when she said, “Chilling, the whole thing is chilling.”

Rebecca Nurse is featured as a major character in the play The Crucible by Arthur Miller, which depicts the events of the Salem witch trials.

 

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Bridget Bishop – The First to Die in Salem Witch Trials

Bridget Bishop – The First to Die in Salem Witch Trials

 

Bridget Bishop was one of nineteen people executed for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692. Born some time in the 1630s, Bishop had was on her third marriage by the time the witch craze began. Bridget had one daughter, Christian Oliver, by her second husband in 1667, and married Edward Bishop, a lumber worker, in 1685.

Bridget was well-known in her neighborhood. She publicly fought with all of her husbands, dressed flamboyantly (although for Puritans, that just meant she liked to wear big hats and a red bodice with her black dress), and was the mistress not one but two taverns.

She developed a reputation for entertaining into the wee hours of the night, playing forbidden games such as shuffle board, and generally being the target of much speculation and gossip. In other words, Bridget Bishop didn’t seem to care what society thought of her – and because of that, she became a likely target when the accusations began. She was, in personality and reputation, the polar opposite of the pious Rebecca Nurse, although they both ended up on a scaffold.

In April, 1692, a warrant was issued for Bishop’s arrest on charges of performing witchcraft and consorting with the devil himself. When she entered the courthouse, a number of the “afflicted” girls, including Mercy Lewis and Ann Putnam, howled that she was causing them pain. Bishop denied any wrongdoing, swearing that she was “innocent as the child unborn,” according to Mary Norton’s In the Devil’s Snare.

Bishop’s wild ways were used as evidence against her. Certainly the town dyer’s claim that she brought him yards of lace to color was proof that she was up to something; after all, no sensible or respectable woman could need that much colored lace.

In addition to this damning testimony, and the accusations of the teenage girls, Bishop’s own brother-in-law swore he’d seen her “conversing with the Devil” who “came bodily into her.” She was executed on June 10.

After Bishop’s hanging, eighteen others were executed for the crime of witchcraft, and one man was pressed to death. Several others died in prison. Within months of Bridget Bishop’s death, her husband remarried.

Bridget’s descendants through Christian Oliver still live in New England today, and her tavern, the Bishop House, still stands.

 

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The Salem Witch Trials – The Colony and Accusers

The Salem Witch Trials – The Colony and Accusers

We often hear terrible stories of the Salem Witch Trials, and certainly, some members of the modern Pagan community toss out the Salem case as a reminder of the religious intolerance that has existed for centuries. But what really happened in Salem, back in 1692? More importantly, why did it happen, and what changes did it bring about?

The Colony

The witch trials stemmed from accusations made by a group of young girls that various townsfolk, including a black slave, were in cahoots with the Devil.

Although the list of specifics is far too detailed to go into here, it’s important to note that there were many factors that came into play at the time. First and foremost, this was an area that had been devastated by illness for a good part of the seventeenth century. Sanitation was poor, there had been smallpox epidemics, and on top of all of that, people lived in a constant fear of attack from local Native American tribes.

Salem was also a fairly litigious sort of town, and neighbors constantly battled with neighbors over things like where a fence should be put, whose cow ate whose crops, and whether or not debts were paid in a timely fashion. It was, to put it mildly, a breeding ground for fearmongering, accusations, and suspicion.

At the time, Salem was part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and fell under British law. Consorting with the Devil was, according to British law, a crime against the Crown itself, and therefore punishable by death. Because of the Puritanical background of the colony, it was generally accepted that Satan himself was lurking in every corner, trying to tempt good people to sin.

Prior to the Salem trials, a dozen or so people had been put to death in New England for the crime of witchcraft.

The Accusers

In January 1692, the daughter of Reverend Samuel Parris fell ill, as did her cousin. The doctor’s diagnosis was a simple one – that little Betty Parris and Anne Williams had been “bewitched.” They writhed on the floor, screamed uncontrollably, and had “fits” that could not be explained. Even more horrifying, soon several neighbor girls began demonstrating the same bizarre behaviors. Ann Putnam and Elizabeth Hubbard joined in the fray.

Before long, the girls were claiming to experience “afflictions” from several local women. They accused Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, and a slave named Tituba of causing their distress. Interestingly, all three of these women were perfect targets for accusations. Tituba was one of Reverend Parris’ slaves, and is believed to be from somewhere in the Caribbean, although her exact origins are undocumented. Sarah Goode was a beggar with no home or husband, and Sarah Osborne was disliked by most of the community for her outrageous behavior.

Fear and Suspicion

In addition to Sarah Goode, Sarah Osbourne, and Tituba, a number of other men and women were accused of consorting with the Devil. At the height of the hysteria – and hysteria it was, with the entire town becoming involved – some hundred and fifty individuals had been accused throughout the community. Throughout the spring, accusations flew that these people had had sexual encounters with the Devil, that they had signed away their souls to him, and that they were deliberately torturing the good, God-fearing citizens of Salem at his behest. No one was immune to charges, and women were imprisoned side by side with their husbands – entire families facing prosecution together. Sarah Goode’s daughter, four-year-old Dorcas, was charged with witchcraft as well, and is commonly known as the youngest of the Salem accused.

By May, trials were underway, and in June, the hangings began.

Indictments and Executions

On June 10, 1692, Bridget Bishop was convicted and hanged in Salem. Her death is acknowledged as the first of the deaths in the witch trials of that year. Throughout July and August, more examinations and trials went on, and by September, another eighteen people had been convicted.

One man, Giles Corey, who was accused along with his wife Martha, refused to enter a plea in court.

He was pressed beneath a load of heavy stones placed upon a board, in hope of this torture causing him to enter a plea. He didn’t plead guilty or not guilty, but died after two days of this treatment. Giles Corey was eighty years old.

Five of the convicted were executed on August 19, 1692. A month later, on September 22, another eight people were hanged. A few people escaped death – one woman was granted a reprieve because she was pregnant, another escaped from prison. By the middle of 1693, it was all over, and Salem was back to normal.

Aftermath

There are a number of theories about the Salem hysteria, including that it all began with a disagreement between families, or that the girls who were “afflicted” actually suffered from ergot poisoning, or that a group of young women in a very repressive society contrived to act out their frustrations in a manner that got out of hand.

Although the hangings were in 1692, the effects on Salem were long-lasting. As adults, several of the accusers wrote letters of apologies to the families of the convicted.

A number of the executed were excommunicated from the church, and most of those orders have been reversed by Salem church officials. In 1711, the governor of the colony offered monetary compensation to a number of people who were imprisoned and later released.

Dorcas Goode was four years old when she entered prison with her mother, where she remained for nine months. Although she was not hanged, she witnessed her mother’s death and the mass hysteria that had consumed her town. As a young adult, her father expressed concern that his daughter was unable to “govern herself” and was acknowledged to have been driven mad by her experiences as a child.

Salem Today

Today, Salem is well known as the “Witch City,” and residents tend to embrace the town’s history. The original village of Salem is now actually the town of Danvers.

The following individuals were executed during the Salem trials:

  • Bridget Bishop
  • George Burroughs
  • Martha Carrier
  • Giles Corey*
  • Martha Corey
  • Mary Easty
  • Sarah Goode
  • Elizabeth Howe
  • George Jacobs, Sr.
  • Susannah Martin
  • Rebecca Nurse
  • Alice Parker
  • Mary Parker
  • John Proctor
  • Ann Pudeator
  • Wilmott Redd
  • Margaret Scott
  • Samuel Wardwell
  • Sarah Wildes
  • John Willard

*While the other men and women were hanged, Giles Corey was the only one pressed to death.

Finally, it’s important to note that while many modern-day Pagans cite the Salem trials as an example of religious intolerance, at the time, witchcraft was not seen as a religion at all. It was viewed as a sin against God, the church, and the Crown, and thus was treated as a crime. It’s also important to remember that there is no evidence, other than spectral evidence and coerced confessions, that any of the accused actually did practice witchcraft. There has been some speculation that the only person likely to have practiced any sort of magic at all was Tituba, because of her background in the Caribbean (or possibly the West Indies), but that has never been confirmed. Tituba was released from jail shortly after the hangings began, and was never tried or convicted. There is no documentation of where she may have gone after the trials.

For Further Reading

  • A Guide to the Salem Witchcraft Hysteria of 1692, by David C. Brown
  • In the Devil’s Snare, by Mary Beth Norton
  • The Salem Witch Trials – A Day by Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege, by Marilynne K. Roach

 

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What Were the Burning Times?

What Were the Burning Times?

Facts and Fiction About the European Witch Hunts

We’ve all seen the bumper stickers and the t-shirts: Never Again the Burning Times! It’s a rally cry for many born-again Pagans and Wiccans, and indicates a need to reclaim what’s ours – our rights to worship and celebrate as we choose. The phrase Burning Times is often used in modern Paganism and Wicca to indicate the era from the Dark Ages to around the nineteenth century, when charges of heresy were enough to get a witch burned at the stake.

Some have claimed that as many as nine million people were killed in the name of “witch hunts.” However, there’s a lot of discussion within the Pagan world about the accuracy of that number, and some scholars have estimated it significantly lower, possibly as few as 200,000. That’s still a pretty big number, but a lot less than some of the other claims that have been made.

For the past thirty years or so, scholars – as well as many members of the Pagan and Wiccan communities — have debated the validity of the astronomical numbers of victims cited during the Burning Times. The problem with the early estimates of numbers is that, much like in war, the victor writes the history. In other words, the only documentation we have about the European witch hunts was written by the people who actually conducted those same witch hunts!

Jenny Gibbons’ thesis, Recent Developments in the Great European Witch Hunt, goes into great depth about some of these inflated numbers. Essentially, Gibbons states, bigger numbers of witches looked better for the witch hunters, who were the ones keeping track of things in the first place.

As time progressed, countries like England eventually repealed their proscriptions against witchcraft, and the Neopagan and Wiccan movements later moved into place both in Britain and the United States. As feminist writers latched on to the Goddess-centered movement, there was a tendency to portray the healer-midwife-village wisewoman as an innocent victim of evil patriarchal Catholic oppressors.

In the past, Wiccans and Pagans were often the first to point out that the European witch hunts targeted women – after all, these poor country girls were simply the victims of the misogynistic societies of their times. However, what is often overlooked is that although overall about 80% of the accused were female, in some areas, more men than women were persecuted as witches. Scandinavian countries in particular seemed to have equal numbers of both male and female accused.

Timeline

Let’s look at a brief timeline of the witch craze in Europe:

  • 906 C.E. The Canon Episcopi is written by a young abbot named Regino of Treves. Regino’s treatise reinforces the Church’s existing stance on witchcraft, which is that it doesn’t exist.
  • Around 975 C.E. The Church decides that the penalty for witchcraft – which apparently does in fact exist, despite the Canon Episcopi’s assertions to the contrary – is fairly mild. A woman convicted of the use of “witchcraft and enchantment and … magical philters” shall be sentenced to a year-long diet of bread and water.
  • 1227 C.E. Pope Gregory IX announces that it’s time to form an Inquisitorial Court to weed out heretics, who are summarily executed.
  • 1252 C.E. Pope Innocent III carries on the Inquisitions. However, he discovers that a much higher rate of confession is obtained if torture is permitted.
  • 1326 C.E. The Church authorizes the Inquisition to go beyond the investigations of heresy. Now they are encouraged to ferret out people practicing Witchcraft. The theory of demonology is created, establishing a link between witches and the Christian Satan.
  • 1340’s C.E. Europe is pummeled by the Black Plague, and a significant amount of people die. Witches, Jews and lepers are accused of spreading disease intentionally.
  • 1450 C.E. The Catholic Church announces that witches eat babies and sell their souls to the Devil. Witch hunts begin in earnest throughout Europe.
  • 1487 C.E. Publication of Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches’ Hammer). This book describes all sorts of vile activities allegedly practiced by Witches, and also details some creative methods of getting confessions out of the accused.
  • 1517 C.E. Martin Luther leads the way to the Protestant Reformation, which in turn causes a decrease in the number of witchcraft convictions in England – because the Protestants won’t allow torture.
  • 1550 – 1650 C.E. Trials and executions reach their peak. Many of the people accused of witchcraft are actually being targeted in battles between Catholics and Protestants, and others are landowners whose property has been seized by the Church.
  • 1716 C.E. The last accused witches – Mary Hicks and her daughter Elizabeth — are executed in England. Other countries eventually follow suit and stop executing people for witchcraft.

 

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