‘THINK on THESE THINGS’ for May 2nd

‘THINK on THESE THINGS’
By Joyce Sequichie Hifler

All things in sequence, first the bud and then the flower. We can no more hold back the blossom than we can the daylight. It is inevitably there, beautifully delicate and subject to crushing. Only through very careful tending will it withstand the winds and rain and pressures of the outside.

Sequence is the order of human life. God intended us to unfold as the flower: first the seed in fertile soil, the birth, the growth, the learning, the discoveries, the knowledge, the desires, the fulfillment as each phase of life follows its own sequence. We hold back the flowering of life only if we want it to be nonexistent, for it must progress. And in some of the most tender spots progression must be slow, easy, and reverently handled, for it can be as fragile as the flower.

There is within us a delicacy of thought which entwines itself throughout our beings, crossing from phase to phase, creating within us conflicts not easily understood. Something out of sequence in one phase may postpone the flowering of another phase. The very roots of our souls must be watered with reverence to successfully follow the sequence of life. If no other human understands or cares to understand, if we do, then continue – first the bud and then the flower.

Of all the intricate and complicated creations in the world, humanity occupies the first place. Our lives are made up of such flexuous combinations of body, soul, and spirit that we do not even understand ourselves.

We all desire to know what makes us tick and how to go about making ourselves tick better. Whether we realize it or not, we are in search of the truth of our own being. Why are we here? What step should we take next? One problem after another, questions after question brings us to this place again and again.

They are our personal problems and the wisest of persons cannot give us the answers. We will always need help to encourage us in our search, but we must go within ourselves to cure, to live, to feel, to believe.

We must win our own hearts before we can find happiness with others. We must know what we want and be willing to share it with others, for it is written that life is made up, not of great sacrifices or duties, but of little things, in which smiles and kindnesses win and preserve the heart.

English divine John Mason wrote these words, “By these things examine thyself: By whose rules am I acting: in whose name; in whose strength. In whose glory? What faith, humility, self-denial and live of God and to man have there been in all my actions?”

___________________________________

Available online! ‘Cherokee Feast of Days’
By Joyce Sequichie Hifler.

Visit her web site to purchase the wonderful books by Joyce as gifts for yourself or for loved ones……and also for those who don’t have access to the Internet: http://www.hifler.com
Click Here to Buy her books at Amazon.com

Elder’s Meditation of the Day
By White Bison, Inc., an American Indian-owned nonprofit organization. Order their many products from their web site:
http://www.whitebison.org

Elder’s Meditation of the Day May 2

Elder’s Meditation of the Day May 2

“Think only about what is holy. Empty your mind.”

–Archie Fire Lame Deer, LAKOTA

If we let our minds wander, we will come up with a lot of junk: maybe bad thoughts about a brother or sister, maybe angry thoughts, maybe self-pity thoughts. Our minds are not the boss. We can instruct our mind to think about whatever we want to think about. We cannot stop thinking, be we can choose what to think about. The Elders say we move towards what we think about. That’s why they say, “Think about what is holy, think about the Grandfathers, think about culture, think about values, think about ceremonies, and think about good.”

Great Spirit, today, empty my mind and let me experience what it would be like to think about what is holy.

May 2 – Daily Feast

May 2 – Daily Feast

It is true that if we get past this one hard place, all our problems will be solved? But each day has its share of such places – if not in our lives, then in the lives of those we care so much about. We are so interchangeably connected that whatever touches one of us touches us all. A ne lv to di, one strong effort, one day at a time, one step, one question, Are we reliable? Or do we get other people to cover our tracks so that we can go on doing what we want to do? When a hard spot, a habit, an addiction dogs our tracks, it is because we have not made up our minds to turn around and face it. Trying to make it acceptable only robs us of what we need most of all – to love ourselves and to respect ourselves. But we cannot do it alone. Only the Great Holy Spirit, and He alone, can give us the power.

~ The Great Spirit does right. He knows what is best for His children. ~

SENECA

‘A Cherokee Feast of Days’, by Joyce Sequichie Hifler

The Daily Motivator for May 2nd – Honesty of being

Honesty of being

Instead of striving to figure out what to do, just do. There is no need to program or plan out every last detail of your success when you are simply and elegantly living it.

Rather than putting a lot of effort into understanding yourself, be yourself. Instead of collecting mere tokens of your desires, spend your time living and fulfilling your actual desires.

Don’t frustrate yourself seeking some arbitrary ideal of perfection. Fulfill your best possibilities in each and every moment through the simple, direct honesty of being.

Rather than striving for a specific result, put your energy into what you truly love. With authentic love as your motivation, the results you get will be very much to your liking.

Stop trying and start being. Stop trying and just start doing.

You can do truly amazing things when you give up the burdensome need to be amazing. Be, do, and live the wonder.

— Ralph Marston

 

Source:
The Daily Motivator

The Daily OM for May 2nd – Begetting Change

Begetting Change
Same Choices, Same Results

by Madisyn Taylor

A change in perspective, behavior, or response can do so much more to help us move past issues left unresolved.

Repeated bouts of adversity are an unavoidable aspect of human existence. We battle against our inner struggles or outer world forces, and in many cases, we emerge on the opposite side of struggle stronger and better equipped to cope with the challenges yet to come. However, we can occasionally encounter trials that seem utterly hopeless. We strike at them with all of our creativity and perseverance, hoping desperately to bring about change, only to meet with the same results as always. Our first instinct in such situations is often to push harder against the seemingly immovable obstruction before us, assuming that this time we will be met with a different outcome. But staying power and stamina net us little when the same choices consistently garner the same results. A change in perspective, behavior, or response can do so much more to help us move past points where no amount of effort seems sufficient to overcome the difficulties before us.

Whether our intention is to change ourselves or some element of the world around us, we cannot simply wish for transformation or hope that our lives will be altered through circumstance. If our patterns of thought and behavior remain unchanged, our lives will continue to unfold much as they have previously. Patterns in which fruitless efforts prevail can be overcome with self examination and courage. It is our bravery that allows us to question the choices we have made thus far and to channel our effort into innovation. Asking questions and making small adjustments to your thought processes and behaviors will help you discover what works, so you can leave that which does not work behind you. To break free from those unconscious patterns that have long held sway over your actions and reactions, you will likely have to challenge your assumptions on a most basic level. You must accept once and for all that your beliefs with regard to cause and effect may no longer be in accordance with your needs.

Stagnation is often a sign that great changes are on the horizon. Courting the change you wish to see in yourself and in the world around you is a matter of acknowledging that only change begets change. The results you so ardently want to realize are well within the realm of possibility, and you need only step away from the well-worn circular path to explore the untried paths that lie beyond it.

Source:

The Daily OM

INQUISITION

INQUISITION

Again the burning came,
She felt the heat, the searing pain
a cry lanced through her heart
“Why, My Lady, Why”

She lay quietly, remembering
lost within the labyrinth of the past
and the future
she did not feel the bite of the cruel blade.
Bleeding, moaning, she saw the man
his face, and heart masked with black
she knew his choices and his pain
Oh, to cause pain, to accept his own
if only she could Touch him, Heal him.

“I love you” she whispered
dark eyes calm, yet full of pain
“Don’t ” cried the man “I want to see you die”
“I love you and forgive you” she said
tears rolled freely down her cheeks

Again, and again the searing pain
As the man applied the red hot blade
“Do you still love me, and forgive me” he screamed?

Despite the pain she answered strongly
“I do”, She smiled
“Blessed be” she whispered.

A wave of pain sent her among the stars.
“My Lady” she cried “I’m frightened”
Strong arms held her close
“You have done well my child, rest now”

The man watched as the blade grew cold
As the young body before him cooled
tears streamed down his face
and he whispered
“Forgive me”

LEST WE NOT FORGET

LEST WE NOT FORGET

The year is 1500. Thousands of your friends, relatives, and even enemies are being tortured, hung, burned and worse. Your local church says that it’s in the name of God to protect others from the devil’s ways, but you’re not sure you totally agree with what’s going on. Now stop for a moment. Answer these questions.

================
1.) Do you have a birthmark, mole, disfigurement, or do you even have a pimple?
2.) Are you a liberal type?
3.) Do you like to dance?
4.) Do you have a pet cat, mouse, snake, goat?
5.) Do you own a broom?
6.) Do you speak out against what you don’t believe is right?
7.) Do you sometimes give your husband or mother grief or do you “obey his/her every command like you should?”
8.) Have you ever had any enemies or just someone who didn’t think highly of you?
9.) Have you ever lived near someone that lost their job? Had a pet that died? Had a bad crop? Had a family member that died? That got sick?
10.) Have you ever gone out for a walk by yourself after nightfall?
11.) Has there ever been a hail storm or even a wicked thunder storm in the same area that you live?
=============

Answering yes to just one of these questions would have gotten you tried, persecuted, tortured and either hung or burned at a stake between the dates of 1100-1700. Men, women, children, the elderly, the crippled and even pets, all ended up as victims during the Witch Craze (aka The Burning Times and Witch Hunts/Craze). More middle-aged women than any other were tortured and killed though.

During the times when man was just discovering and concurring “new frontiers”, fears began to develop of the unknown that lie ahead in these “new worlds”.

These fears lead to the largest global killing spree on any scale. Many refute that the Burning times all started with the two girls who claimed they were “bewitched”.

But in fact, the start of the hatred towards Pagans, Wiccans, and Witches started far, far earlier during the renaissance period. When the Christians first arrived on the British shores, they encountered the Pagans and their rituals.

At first they worshipped side by side, but in time the Christians realized that the Pagans had a much larger following than them so they decided that something needed to be done to get more followers of Christ in their churches. Pagan Sabbats were starting to be broken up by groups of people against their ways.

Pagan temples were being destroyed. And eventually all of the beautiful ways, practices and the worshipping of the Old Gods was outlawed. The Pagan God was perverted into the depiction of the Christian Devil to scare away others from “the temptation of those heathen practices”.

Celebrations that turned into Christian Holidays were conveniently dated close and even on the same date to Pagan Sabbats to further deter others from going to the gatherings. Pagan followers had to practice in secret and seclusion.

They were no longer sure of who they could trust with their true feelings. Eventually, the old clans split up in fear of being caught and they moved far away from the newcomers.

The Christians had the law on their side and they kept a very watchful eye on their congregation. Anyone with thoughts, notions, or opinions different than that of the teachings of Christ were shamed, teased, persecuted and forced to leave or be jailed.

Fear and hatred started to breed…one thing lead to another and the Witch Craze was starting to happen.

——————–

The most infamous Witchcraft Trials was the Salem Witchcraft Trials in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692. Although only 30 were killed there, it was ironic how a “fresh start in a New World” ended up as a killing spree on innocent victims.

Reasoning in the trials in the New World included political tensions, land related grievances, disease and religious repression. Because of the strict religious society of the time, with it’s adamant upbringing of children to follow the Bible, it created a very strong belief in the Devil.

(By this time the Christians and Catholics has already done a “great job” of spreading the word that the Pagan God was actually the Devil in the Bible.)

So it only took the hysterics of two young girls ( Elizabeth Parris and Abigail Williams),one of them was the daughter of Rev. Samuel Parris, to start off the madness of the Witch Hunts there.

The two girls became interested in the magickal culture of a West Indian slave named Tituba, who was incidentally was “owned” by Rev. Parris. They started doing divinations about future husbands, and various other things.

When some of the towns people caught them in the act of doing some of the divination techniques on their own, they quickly claimed they were bewitched to do it to save their butts.

Tibtuta, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne were the first named by the two girls and arrested as the perpetrators of their “bewitchment” on February 29, 1692. From that point on, neighbors and friends instantly became back-stabbers and foes.
—————————
In the year 1233, Pope Gregory IX instituted the Roman Catholic Inquisition in an attempt to gain popularity for Catholicism and his church. In 1320, Pope John XXII requested that the church officially declare Witchcraft ,and the Old Religion of the Pagans, as a “heretical movement” and a “hostile threat” to Christianity.
———————————-
The single most influential piece of propaganda that fueled their campaign was commissioned by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 . He instructed the Dominican monks, Heinrich Kraemer and Jacob Sprenger, to publish a manual for Witch-hunters. Two years later the Malleus malificarum, or “The Witches’ Hammer” was produced. The manual was used for the next 250 years in the church’s
attempt to destroy the Old Religion.
=============

A clip from the book of Exodus states ,
“Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live”. This quote, alone, sealed the fate for many of the accused as well as the true followers of the Olde Ways.

However, this is a false translation. What has been translated as “witch” comes from the Hebrew chaspah, a “poisoner” or murderer. The verse can be reinterpreted to mean not to tolerate people who poison–or murderers. This is very different from condoning the brutal murder of witches. Regardless, the witch hunters were able to claim the backing of God in their tasks, and the
support of towns folk that would not question their methods.

The reasoning behind why the Witch Hunters were so interested in their “work” was largely due to their financial gain. The estate of a convicted witch was confiscated, and so more witches would mean more wealth.

Torturers, executioners, and others involved in the persecutions benefited as well. The costs of torturing, imprisoning, and executing the accused came from the accused’s own purse. Additional money was made from the selling of charms and amulets to ward of the curses of witches; and even a person who did not buy such a trinket would fall under suspicion.

Finally in 1711, the General Court reversed twenty-two of the thirty one convictions. It was not until 1957 that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts reversed the remaining guilty verdicts finally acknowledging the errors of Salem Witchcraft Trials. Unfortunately, when the persecutions finally ended in the 18th century, the stereotype of Witches, Wiccans and Pagans as devil worshippers, murderers, etc sadly remained for those who practiced within the true teachings of Witchcraft.

NEVER AGAIN THE BURNING

NEVER AGAIN THE BURNING

It is always the morning of my execution……

….I know they will come for me today.
Last night the jailer, pulling up his trousers,
Sneered, “Perhaps you’ll fancy the poll
They give you in the morning more then mine,
Stubborn bitch.”   I think
He liked it better when I had strength
And spirit enough to fight him.
He is too stupid to lie just to torment me.
I will welcome death, though the dying scares me…
I was a healer…. how long ago? Oh Gods,
I cannot think straight anymore! And I know
That their gross insults to my body will never mend.
And the pain is constant, and they have sworn me
That I will go to the fire conscious and aware.
My Goddess, I am sick to my very soul with shame;
At the last I gave them screaming what they wanted,
Mouthed any obscenity they asked, told them
What they told me to say. My sanity remains
Only because Your names to with me to the pyre,
And the grave beyond, and only there.
Oh, Beloved, if I could only see you
One last time, that your clean spirit’s fire
Could rid me of this filth and fear….
The crowd gathers now.
I hear them outside, laughing, festive….
Gods grant I will be entertaining enough….
I wonder if those pious souls who in the past
Have asked my help will mourn me?
Well, I shall be glad to quit this stinking cell…
The rats grow bolder as I decline…
Oh, Mother, give me strength!
I hear the guards outside.
“What,” I taunt, “three of you
All for one small half-starved wench?
Indeed, terrible I must be!”
They have the grace to look ashamed,
The youngest one grown pale and horrified
At the light of me; I delivered his wife
Of a fine strong one not many weeks ago.
But now I dare not ask how the child fares.
“Nay, you must carry me or drag me,
My fine bravos….these ruined feet will never
Bear my weight again. I fear I danced too long
With your good priest and his fine Spanish boots.”
They haul me to my feel and the pain….
I will not scream again for their amusement!
I must go naked, then, to my death before these fools?
I would not have them see me so, who danced
Naked for the Goddess, graceful and free,
On winged feet without a trace of shame.
Their avaricious eyes defile me; as their
Twisted priests defiled my body’s temple….
There are many strangers here in the square,
Churchmen and villagers from all the country round….
I am to be a marvelous, far-felt lesson, I see.
They bind me to their stake, too tight, more agony…
The splintering pole claws my raw back,
My shoulders wrenched and cramping, the rough rope
Burning my wrists. My legs will not support me,
And I sag in my bonds, and I fill with terror,
As a pitcher with muddy water. A priest approaches….
Oh, Goddess, must I suffer them even now?
The crowd protests the cup in his hands.
He exhorts them gently; his sect bears mercy towards all,
Malice towards none, and might not even such as I
Be saved at the bitter end?
I don’t know this one. I fight to raise my head,
To spit in his face, for one last shred of defiance….
Mother of All, no! Not you…. here!
How have you come, Beloved,
To trade your green robes for their black,
Your antlered crown for their cross?
Surely I dream, I dream…..
But now I smell your clean scent,
And your dear presence cloaks me in peace.
Rage fires in your eyes, but your pure love
Sustains me, strengthens me and warms me.
You brush the hair back form my face….
The cup you hold gently to my bruised lips I gave you
At our handfasting…. softly you whisper,
“Drink deep of salvation, my dear love,”
And your voice, harsh with unshed tears,
Rips at my soul and my own tears begin, and fully
Do I drink of your deep eyes and the chalice,
And the taste of the flying herbs bursts upon my tongue,
Belladonna, aconite, dark sweet dreams….
They are coming now with the fire.
Almost you linger too long, haunted eyes on mine,
But as sleep steals over me, I see you melt
Safely into the throng.
I am drifting now; I hear my mother singing, far away….
The pain is gone. I am a little girl again…I am safe,
My mother is calling me and I run gladly into her arms….
But in the room I have left behind, someone has been careless
With the supper, Mother, they must turn the spit faster,
For I can smell the roasting meat burning,
And the dinner guests are shouting….

I wake in cold sweat, and cannot drink
From the glass you bring me. Oh, sisters, hear:
Our daughters must not dream these dreams!
We must defend ourselves, stand with out brothers,
And make the arsonists let us be.
Oh, sisters, hear: Never again,
Never again the burning.

Gale Perrigo (1985)

AGAINST THE WITCH HUNTERS

AGAINST THE WITCH HUNTERS
Robin Culain

“All this has happened before. And all this will happen again. But this time it happened to …”

Well, us.

The beginning of Sir James Barrie’s Peter Pan must echo what many of us are feeling, as we watch a new and loosely-knit conglomerate of yellow journalists, right-wing eco-spoilers and Evangelical and Fundamental Christians move slowly towards a Witch hunt for the 90’s. Our spiritual ancestors faced similar problems in many times and many lands.

Recall the Priestesses of Eleusis, last of an ancient line, in decline, falling at last to the stratagems of Theseus and his new Attic Gods. Recall the Etruscans, their vision of sexual-political balance overpowered by the might and organization of the husband-headed Roman Empire. And most tender to the touch, recall the agony of the middle ages, as the Catholic, then Protestant churches
consolidated their grip on the rural population, killing six million alleged or actual Witches in the process.

The hunt is in a beginning stage and beginnings are important. The formal focus of the television specials, Redbook articles, diatribes in the LaRouchite New Federalist, “Occult Crime” seminars and newspaper articles is some thing called “Satanism”, which bears little or no relationship to Wicca and Neo-Paganism.

In fact, media “Satanism” bears little resemblance to any historically verifiable Satan-ism. It is neither classical Egyptian Set-worship”, Romantic Ceremonial Satanism a la Huysmanns nor modern Egoist flamboyance per La Vey. Sometimes it’s heavy metal sullenness, drugs and violence, but that’s usually only for starters. The heavy metal boys, we’re usually told, are just dupes of
the Great Conspiracy. And when you get down to the real stuff, the genuine complaint, it’s generally the stuff of horror movies and nightmare — baby-eating, virgin-sacrificing bloodsucking monsters!

All this has happened before. And all this will happen again.

There’s a limited range of things that can be used to stir up the anger of a populace against a group, or deaden moral sensitivity to a persecution. It pretty much boils down to baby-eating, virgin-sacrificing and bloodsucking.

This has been the century of Hitler’s Holocaust, but the Russians who butchered entire Jewish villages in the Pogroms, the inhabitants of York who slaughtered nearly every Jew in the city in the 1100’s didn’t merely think the Yiddim dressed and talked funny. The accusations were the same. By Jesus, those Jews ate babies! They were just like Satanists, with one exception.

You could find the Jews.
There probably aren’t any “Satanists” as portrayed in the articles, seminars and diatrib-es. If there are, they’re certainly not Neo-Pagans or Wiccans. But in the lucrative atmo-sphere in which the press, missionaries and so-called “Crime Advisers” publicize and proselytize the word “Witch” creeps in every third sentence.

Naturally, we Witches and Neo-Pagans have spent a certain amount of effort pointing out that we love children like anybody else, have no particular attraction to virginity, and tend, in the most extreme of our diets, to vegetarianism. In short, we have tried to educate our detractors and the media to our harmlessness.

This tactic is true, and this tactic is good, but I think that if it becomes our primary response to persecution we will ultimately fail to endure.

Imagine a Witch in the Middle Ages in front of a Catholic or Protestant tribunal. In some cases she has been denounced by a business competitor, or an envious rival in love, or a spiteful neighbor. In other cases she has been brought to the dock by an expert in “Occult Crime” — the traveling Witch
Finder.

She stands bound before her Inquisitors, plain or pompous depending on their religious persuasion. Perhaps there’s a crowd around. She tries to educate them to the simple fact that she’s a worshipper of the Old Gods, loves children like anybody else, has no particular attraction to virginity, and tends, in the most extreme of her diets, to vegetar-ianism.

They, in turn, accuse her of worshipping a living fiend, blighting the cattle, and eating babies.

She doesn’t stand a chance.

Now picture another scene, one that has not occurred often. She stands before those assembled, and begins, shall I say, to point out some facts. She points out the medieval physician with the two per cent live delivery rate who wants the local midwifery practice shut down. She points out the priest and bishop who are terrifying the once fun-loving populace into penury and pestilence with the twin threats of damnation and the noose. She denounces the Christian nobles who will brook no interference with their rule, least of all from the old Nobility of the land.

She’d be shut up in short order, but in a different way, for she would be addressing the real issues. The nonsense about babies, Black Men and cattle was then, and is now nothing more than a smoke screen to mask real and significant religious and political differences. It’s all a cheap trick, a coward’s cheat, a way of throwing muck until some sticks. It is only used when the real terms of
debate cannot stand the light of day, and it works only if we permit it!

Our situation is in no way as dire as that of our ancestors. Only now have things moved to the stage where one group, the far-right and sometimes farcical Limonites, actively bait Wiccans and Neo-Pagans as being “as bad as Satanists”. And unlike our ancest-ors, we have a freedom of speech they could only dream of. We will not be silenced if we speak, certainly not at this time. So let’s not waste our opportunity! Whenever the “Witch-Hunters” bait us or attempt to smear us with their cannibal taunts, let’s find out what the real agenda is, and address it. Make the Lyndonite defend himself against whipping up the population against a minor-ity religion as Hitler stirred hatred
against the Jews. Make the entire La Rouche crew explain their suicidal environmental policies, and their editorial statement that “the worship of Mother Earth does indirectly lead to mass murder …” Engage them on the real issues — just what the worship of the Mother really means, and what people are really like that scapegoat innocents and despise nature!

Likewise with the “Occult Crimewatch”. Ask them about their sources of revenue. About their religious agendas and connection with Evangelical missions. Ask the if they support religious freedom, and if non-Evangelical religious belief, in their opinion, is a hazard to the public. Ask them, if you can corner them into a frank reply, what on earth they are doing lecturing hate to police officers sworn to protect all the public, Christian and Pagan!

The media deserve the same. Let’s not spend more than a breath denying lurid charg-es. Instead, ask them why they are sensationalizing and smearing a legitimate religion to make sales. Inquire as to whether the German press in the 30’s had a responsibility for the slanders on the Jews that they printed. Ask them how they’ll feel if harm comes to one Pagan woman or man, girl or boy
through their negligence, indifference to non-sensational fact and search for sales.

In every case we have an opportunity to turn the tide, by coming right out with our real differences in front of the public, and insisting that the terms of debate be on genuine issues. We must refuse to be backed into a defensive posture, denying ever-wilder charges.

Instead let us bring our active advocacy and love of our Gods, of Mother Earth, of our families and children and ourselves to the fore in every debate. We must require our opponents to bare their genuine beliefs and motives, and contrast them clearly with our own in full view. We must sharpen the terms of debate so keenly that no person can leave the scene without having to make a clear and conscious choice about what they value and believe is right.

There’s no point in lecturing to the Cardinal. The audience for every debate is not the Witch Hunter, it is the neutral observer. Let them see the love of the Earth, and contrast it to nearsighted greed and poverty of emotion. Let them see the love of the Old Gods and contrast it to a cringing fear of the Father’s judgment. Let them see generosity and intelligence and refusal to be sacrificed,
and contrast them to venality, cunning and scape goating. In every debate, let us rise to the height of our capability, and let our opponents have it in the Values — right where it hurts!

The Salem Witch Trials 1692

The Salem Witch Trials 1692

A Chronology of Events

——————————————————————————–
What evil spirit have you familiarity with?
None.
Have you made no contract with the devil?
No.
Why do you hurt these children?
I do not hurt them. I scorn it.
Who do you imploy then to do it?
I imploy no body.
What creature do you imploy then?
No creature. I am falsely accused.

Dialogue based on the exmination of Sarah Good by Judges Hathorne and Corwin, from The Salem Witchcraft Papers,Book II, p.355

——————————————————————————–
January 20
Nine-year-old Elizabeth Parris and eleven-year-old Abigail Williams began to exhibit strange behavior, such as blasphemous screaming, convulsive seizures, trance-like states and mysterious spells. Within a short time, several other Salem girls began to demonstrate similar behavior.

Mid-February
Unable to determine any physical cause for the symptoms and dreadful behavior, physicians concluded that the girls were under the influence of Satan.

Late February
Prayer services and community fasting were conducted by Reverand Samuel Parris in hopes of relieving the evil forces that plagued them. In an effort to expose the “witches”, John Indian baked a witch cake made with rye meal and the afflicted girls’ urine. This counter-magic was meant to reveal the identities of the “witches” to the afflicted girls.

Pressured to identify the source of their affliction, the girls named three women, including Tituba, Parris’ Carib Indian slave, as witches. On February 29, warrants were issued for the arrests of Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne.

Although Osborne and Good maintained innocence, Tituba confessed to seeing the devil who appeared to her “sometimes like a hog and sometimes like a great dog”. What’s more, Tituba testified that there was a conspiracy of witches at work in Salem.

March 1
Magistrates John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin examined Tituba, Sarah Good, and Sarah Osborne in the meeting house in Salem Village.  Tituba confessed to practicing witchcraft.

Over the next weeks, other townspeople came forward and testified that they, too, had been harmed by or had seen strange apparitions of some of the community members. As the witch hunt continued, accusations were made against many different people.

Frequently denouced were women whose behavior or economic circumstances were somehow disturbing to the social order and conventions of the time. Some of the accused had previous records of criminal activity, including witchcraft, but others were faithful churchgoers and people of high standing in the community.

March 12
Martha Corey is accused of witchcraft.

March 19
Rebecca Nurse was denounced as a witch.

March 21
Martha Corey was examined before Magistrates Hathorne and Corwin.

March 24
Rebecca Nurse was examined before Magistrates Hathorne and Corwin.

March 28
Elizabeth Proctor was denounced as a witch.

April 3
Sarah Cloyce, Rebecca Nurse’s sister, was accused of witchcraft.

April 11
Elizabeth Proctor and Sarah Cloyce were examined before Hathorne, Corwin, Deputy Governor Thomas Danforth, and Captain Samuel Sewall. During this examination, John Proctor was also accused and imprisoned.

April 19
Abigail Hobbs, Bridget Bishop, Giles Corey, and Mary Warren were examined. Only Abigail Hobbs confessed.

William Hobbs
“I can deny it to my dying day.”

April 22
Nehemiah Abbott, William and Deliverance Hobbs, Edward and Sarah Bishop, Mary
Easty, Mary Black, Sarah Wildes, and Mary English were examined before Hathorne
and Corwin.  Only Nehemiah Abbott was cleared of charges.

May 2
Sarah Morey, Lydia Dustin, Susannah Martin, and Dorcas Hoar were examined by
Hathorne and Corwin.

Dorcas Hoar
“I will speak the truth as long as I live.”

May 4
George Burroughs was arrested in Wells, Maine.

May 9
Burroughs was examined by Hathorne, Corwin, Sewall, and William Stoughton. One
of the afflicted girls, Sarah Churchill, was also examined.

May 10
George Jacobs, Sr. and his granddaughter Margaret were examined before Hathorne and Corwin. Margaret confessed and testified that her grandfather and George Burroughs were both witches.

Sarah Osborne died in prison in Boston.

Margaret Jacobs
“… They told me if I would not confess I should be put down into the dungeon and would be hanged, but if I would confess I should save my life.”

May 14
Increase Mather returned from England, bringing with him a new charter and the new governor, Sir William Phips.

May 18
Mary Easty was released from prison. Yet, due to the outcries and protests of her accusers, she was arrested a second time.

May 27
Governor Phips set up a special Court of Oyer and Terminer comprised of seven judges to try the witchcraft cases. Appointed were Lieutenant Governor William Stoughon, Nathaniel Saltonstall, Bartholomew Gedney, Peter Sergeant, Samuel Sewall, Wait Still Winthrop, John Richards, John Hathorne, and Jonathan Corwin.

These magistrates based their judgments and evaluations on various kinds of intangible evidence, including direct confessions, supernatural attributes (such as “witchmarks”), and reactions of the afflicted girls. Spectral evidence, based on the assumption that the Devil could assume the “specter” of an innocent person, was relied upon despite its controversial nature.

May 31
Martha Carrier, John Alden, Wilmott Redd, Elizabeth Howe, and Phillip English were exmined before Hathorne, Corwin, and Gedney.

June 2
Initial session of the Court of Oyer and Terminer. Bridget Bishop was the first to be pronounced guilty of witchcraft and condemned to death.

Early June
Soon after Bridget Bishop’s trial, Nathaniel Saltonstall resigned from the court, dissatisfied with its proceedings.

June 10
Bridget Bishop was hanged in Salem, the first official execution of the Salem witch trials.

Bridget Bishop
“I am no witch. I am innocent. I know nothing of it.”

Following her death, accusations of witchcraft escalated, but the trials were not unopposed. Several townspeople signed petitions on behalf of accused people they believed to be innocent.

June 29-30
Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Sarah Wildes, Sarah Good and Elizabeth Howe were tried for witchcraft and condemned.

Rebecca Nurse
“Oh Lord, help me! It is false. I am clear. For my life now lies in your hands….”

Mid-July
In an effort to expose the witches afflicting his life, Joseph Ballard of nearby Andover enlisted the aid of the accusing girls of Salem. This action marked the beginning of the Andover witch hunt.

July 19
Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Good, and Sarah Wildes were executed.

Elizabeth Howe
“If it was the last moment I was to live, God knows I am innocent…”

Susannah Martin
“I have no hand in witchcraft.”;

August 2-6
George Jacobs, Sr., Martha Carrier, George Burroughs, John and Elizabeth Proctor, and John Willard were tried for witchcraft and condemned.

Martha Carrier
“…I am wronged. It is a shameful thing that you should mind these folks that are out of their wits.”

August 19
George Jacobs, Sr., Martha Carrier, George Burroughs, John Proctor, and John Willard were hanged on Gallows Hill.

George Jacobs
“Because I am falsely accused. I never did it.”

September 9
Martha Corey, Mary Easty, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Dorcas Hoar, and Mary Bradbury were tried and condemned.

Mary Bradbury
“I do plead not guilty. I am wholly innocent of such wickedness.”

September 17
Margaret Scott, Wilmott Redd, Samuel Wardwell, Mary Parker, Abigail Faulkner, Rebecca Eames, Mary Lacy, Ann Foster, and Abigail Hobbs were tried and condemned.

September 19
Giles Corey was pressed to death for refusing a trial.

September 21
Dorcas Hoar was the first of those pleading innocent to confess. Her execution was delayed.

September 22
Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Mary Easty, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmott Redd, Samuel Wardwell, and Mary Parker were hanged.

October 8
After 20 people had been executed in the Salem witch hunt, Thomas Brattle wrote a letter criticizing the witchcraft trials. This letter had great impact on Governor Phips, who ordered that reliance on spectral and intangible evidence no longer be allowed in trials.

October 29
Governor Phips dissolved the Court of Oyer and Terminer.

November 25
The General Court of the colony created the Superior Court to try the remaining witchcraft cases which took place in May, 1693. This time no one was convicted.

Mary Easty
“…if it be possible no more innocent blood be shed…
…I am clear of this sin.”

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The Witchcraft Hysteria of 1692

The Witchcraft Hysteria of 1692

The events which led to the witch trials actually occurred in what is now the town of Danvers, then  a parish of Salem Town, known as Salem Village. Launching  the hysteria was the bizarre, seemingly inexplicable behavior of two young  girls; the daughter, Betty, and the niece, Abigail Williams, of the Salem  Village minister, Reverend Samuel Parris.

In February, 1692, three accused women were brought to Salem Town and examined by Magistrates Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne. Corwin’s home, the Witch House, still stands at the corner of North and Essex Streets in Salem, providing guided tours and tales of the first witchcraft trials. John Hathorne, an ancestor of author Nathaniel Hawthorne, is buried in the Charter Street Old Burying Point.

By the time the hysteria had spent itself, 24 people had died. Nineteen were hung on Gallows Hill in Salem Town, but some died in prison. Giles Corey pleaded not guilty to charges of witchcraft and refused trial. He was pressed to death over a two-day period during which his examiners placed stone weights on his body according to an antiquated English law allowing such interrogation.

It is remarkable that the original 552 documents recording court testimony during the witchcraft trials have been preserved and are still stored by the Peabody Essex Museum.

Eerie memorabilia associated with the trials, such as the “Witch Pins” used in the examination of witches and a small bottle supposed to contain the finger bones of the victim George Jacobs can be found there as well.

A more provoking commemoration, the Salem Witch Trials Tercentenary Memorial dedicated in 1992, can be found adjacent to the Charter Street Old Burying Point.
——————————————————————————–

Witches Today

Of course, Salem has become known as Witch City! The Salem Witch Museum and the Witch Dungeon take you back in history to 1692, yet, present-day popularization of the witchcraft hysteria doesn’t reveal anything about modern Witches living in Salem today.

In 1995, the City of Salem counts a large number of Witches in its population. Perhaps the best-known member of this group is Laurie Cabot, who was given the complimentary title of “The Official Witch of Salem, Mass.” by Gov. Michael Dukakis.

You can visit the Witches’ League for Public Awareness site to learn about this group founded by Laurie Cabot in 1986 as a “non-profit educational network dedicated to correcting misinformation about Witches”*. More information about the League’s newsletter and activities can be obtained by e-mail to the Witches’ League for Public Awareness, or writing to P.O. Box 8736, Salem, MA
01971-8736.
——————————————————————————–
*Pamphlet, The Witches’ League for Public Awareness, 1988

THE KILLINGS OF “WITCHES”

THE KILLINGS OF “WITCHES”

The following are all documented incidents in the killings of “witches.” ONLY incidents solely relating to witchcraft accusations have been included. Bear in mind that this is probably NOT all of them. Some were guilty. Most were probably innocent. Some were Satanists, others were not. Some were just senile. ALL on this list died as a result of a witchcraft accusation.

******************

Adamson, Francis: executed at Durham, England, in 1652
Albano, Peter of: died in prison circa 1310
Allen, Joan: hanged at the Old Bailey, London, England, in 1650
Allen, Jonet: burned in Scotland in 1661
Amalaric, Madeline: burned in France in mid-1500’s
Ancker, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Andrius, Barthelemy: burned at Carcassonne, France in 1330
Andrius, Jean: burned at Carcassonne, France in 1330
Andrius, Phillippe: burned at Carcassonne, France in 1330
Arnold, (first name unknown): hanged at Barking, England, in 1574
d’Arc, Joan: burned at Rouen, France, on 30 May, 1431 (note: the witchcraft
charge in this case was -implied- and not specific)
Ashby, Anne: hanged at Maidstone, England, in July, 1652
Askew, Anne: burned for witchcraft 1546
Audibert, Etienne: condemned for witchcraft in France, on 20 March 1619
Aupetit, Pierre: burned at Bordeaux, France, in 1598

Babel, Zuickel: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Babel, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Baker, Anne: executed in Leicester, England, in 1619
Balcoin, Marie: burned in the reign of Henry IV of France
Balfour, Alison: burned at Edinburgh, Scotland, on 16 December, 1594
Bannach, (husband) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany,
1628-1629
Bannach, (wife) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Barber, Mary: executed in Northhampton, England, on 22 July, 1612
Barker, Janet: burned in Scotland in 1643
Baroni, Catterina: beheaded and burned at Castelnovo, Italy, on 14 April, 1647
Barthe, Angela de la: burned at Toulouse, France, in 1275
Barton, William: executed in Scotland (year unknown)
Basser, Fredrick: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Batsch, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Bayerin, Anna: executed at Salzburg, Austria, in 1751
Beaumont, Sieur de: accused of witchcraft on 21 October, 1596
Bebelin, Gabriel: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Beck, Viertel: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Beck, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Belon, Jean: executed in France, in 1597
Berger, Christopher: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Berrye, Agnes: hanged at Enfield, England, in 1616
Bentz, (mother) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Bentz, (daughter) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany,
1628-1629
Beuchel, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1581
Beutler, (first name unknown) beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Bill, Arthur: executed in Northhampton, England, on 22 July, 1612
Birenseng, Agata: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 25 June, 1594
Bishop, Briget: hanged at Salem, New England on 10 June, 1692
Bodenham, Anne: hanged at Salisbury, England, in 1653
Bonnet, Jean: burned alive at Boissy-en-Ferez, France, in 1583
Boram, (mother) (first name unknown): hung at Bury St Edmunds, England, in
1655
Boram, (daughter) (first name unknown): hung at Bury St Edmunds, England, in
1655
Bolingbroke, Roger: hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, England, on 18
November, 1441
Boulay, Anne: burned at Nancy, France, in 1620
Boulle, Thomas: burned alive at Rouen, France, on 21 August, 1647
Bowman, Janet: burned in Scotland in 1572
Bragadini, Mark Antony: beheaded in Italy in the 1500’s
Brickmann, (first name unknown) beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Brose, Elizabeth: tortured to death in the castle of Gommern, Germany, on
4 November, 1660
Brown, Janet: burned in Scotland in 1643
Browne, Agnes: executed in Northhampton, England, on 22 July, 1612
Browne, Joan: executed in Northhampton, England, on 22 July, 1612
Browne, Mary: hanged at Maidstone, England, in July, 1652
Brooks, Jane: hanged in England on 26 March, 1658
Brugh, John: burned in Scotland in 1643
Buckh, Appollonia: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1581
Bugler, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Bulcock, John: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Bulcock, Jane: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Bull, Edmund: hanged at Taunton, England, in 1631
Bulmer, Matthew: hanged at Newcastle, England, in 1649
Burroughs, George: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 August, 1692
Bursten-Binderin, (first name unknown) beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-
1629

Calles, Helen: executed at Braynford, England, on 1 December, 1595
Camelli, Domenica: beheaded and burned at Castelnovo, Italy, on 14 April, 1647
Canzler, (first name unknown) beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Carrier, Martha: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 August, 1692
Caveden, Lucia: beheaded and burned at Castelnovo, Italy, on 14 April, 1647
Cemola, Zinevra: beheaded and burned at Castelnovo, Italy, on 14 April, 1647
Corey, Martha: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Corey, Giles: prssed to death at Salem, New England, on 19 September, 1692
Corset, Janet: killed by a mob at Pittenweem, Scotland, in 1704
Challiot, (first name unknown): murdered at St. Georges, France, in February,
1922
Chalmers, Bessie: tried for witchcraft in Inverkiething, Scotland 1621
Chambers, (first name unknown): died in prison, in England, in 1693
Chamoulliard, (first name unknown): burned in France, in 1597
de Chantraine, Anne: burned as a witch in Waret-la-Chaussee, France, on
October 17, 1622
Chatto, Marioun: tried for witchcraft in Inverkiething, Scotland 1621
Ciceron, Andre: burned alive at Carcassone, France, in 1335
Cockie, Isabel: burnt as a witch, at a cost of 105 s. 4 p., in England 1596
Cox, Julian: executed at Taunton, England, in 1663
Couper, Marable: burned in the north of Scotland in 1622
Craw, William: burned in Scotland in 1680
Crots, (son) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Cullender, Rose: executed at Bury St Edmunds, England, on 17 March 1664
Cumlaquoy, Marian: burned at Orkney, Scotland in 1643
Cunningham, John: burned at Edinburgh, in January, 1591
Cunny, Joan: hanged in Chelmsford, England, in 1589

Deiner, Hans: burned at Waldsee, Germany (year unknown)
Delort, Catherine: burned at Toulouse, France, in 1335
Demdike, Elizabeth: convicted, but died in prison, in Lancaster, England,
in 1612
DeMolay, Jacques: Grand Master of the Templars, burned in France on
22 March 1312
Desbordes, (first name unknown): burned in France, in 1628
Deshayes, Catherine: burned on 22 February, 1680
Device, Elizabeth: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Device, James: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Device, Alizon: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Doree, Catherine: executed at Courveres, France, in 1577
Dorlady, Mansfredo: burned at Vesoul, France as being the Devil’s banker, on
18 January, 1610
Dorlady, Fernando: burned at Vesoul, France as being the Devil’s banker, on
18 January, 1610
Dormar, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 9 October, 1586
Douglas, Janet: burned at Castle, Hill, Scotland, on 17 July, 1557
Drummond, Alexander: executed in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1670
“Dummy” (name unknown; he was deaf-and-dumb): killed by a mob at Sible
Hedingham, England, on 3 August, 1865
Duncan, Gellie: hanged in Scotland in 1591
Dunhome, Margaret: burned in Scotland (year unknown)
Dunlop, Bessie: burned at Castle Hill, Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1576
Duny, Amy: executed at Bury St Edmunds, England, on 17 March, 1664
Dyneis, Jonka: burned in the north of Scotland in 1622

Easty, Mary: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Echtinger, Barbara: imprisoned for life at Waldsee, Germany, on 24 August,
1545
Edelfrau, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Edwards, Susanna: hanged at Bideford, England in 1682
Einseler, Catharina: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 6 July, 1581
Erb, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 9 March, 1586
Eyering, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629

Fian, John: hanged at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1591
Fief, Mary le: of Samur, France, accused of witchcraft, on 13 October 1573
Fleischbaum, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Flieger, Catharina: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 6 July, 1581
Flower, Joan: died before trial, at Lincoln, England, 1619
Flower, Margaret: executed at Lincoln, England, in March, 1619
Flower, Phillippa: executed at Lincoln, England, in March, 1619
Foster, Anne: hanged at Northhampton, England, in 1674
Fray, Ursula: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 12 June, 1587
Fray, Margaret: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 25 June, 1594
Fynnie, Agnes: burned in Scotland in 1643

Gabley, (first name unknown): executed at King’s Lynn, England, in 1582
Galigai, Leonora: beheaded at the Place de Grieve, France, on 8 July, 1617
Garnier, Gilles: burned as a werewolf in Dole, France 1574
Gaufridi, Louis: burned at Marseilles, France, at 5:00 pm on 30 April, 1611
Geissler, Clara: strangled at Gelnhausen, Germany circa 1630
Georgel, Anna Marie de: burned at Toulouse, France, in 1335
Geraud, Hughes: burned in France in 1317
Gering, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Glaser, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Glover, Goody: hanged at Salem, New England, in 1688
Gobel, Barbara: burned at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1639
Goeldi, Anna: hanged at Glaris, Switzerland, on 17 June, 1782
Goldschmidt, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Good, Sarah: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 July, 1692
Grandier, Urbain, burned at Loudon, France, on 18 August, 1634
Goodridge, Alse: executed at Darbie, England, in 1597
Gratiadei, Domenica: beheaded and burned at Castelnovo, Italy, on 14 April,
1647
Green, Ellen: executed in Leicester, England, in 1619
Greensmith, (first name unknown): hanged in Hartford, New England, on 20
January, 1662
Greland, Jean: burned at Chamonix, France, in 1438, with 10 others
Grierson, Isobel: burned in Scotland in March, 1607
Gutbrod, (first name unknown:) beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629

Haan, George: burned at Bamberg, Germany, circa 1626, with his wife, daughter,
and son
Hacket, Margaret: executed at Tyburn, England, on 19 February, 1585
Hamilton, Margaret: burned in Scotland in 1680
Hafner, (son) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hammellmann, Melchoir: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hamyltoun, Christiane: tried for witchcraft in Inverkiething, Scotland 1621
Hans, David: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hans, Kilian: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Harfner, (first name unknown): hanged herself in the prison of Bamberg,
1628-1629
Harlow, Bessie: tried for witchcraft in Inverkiething, Scotland 1621
Harrisson, Joanna, and her daughter: executed in Hertford, England, in 1606
Harvilliers, Jeanne: executed in France, in 1578
Haus, (wife) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hennot, Catherine: burned alive in Germany in 1627
Henry III, King of France: assassinated on 1 August, 1589
Hewitt, Katherine: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Hezensohn, Joachim: beheaded at Waldsee, Germany, in 1557
Hibbins, Anne: hanged in Boston, Massachusetts on 19 June, 1656
Hirsch, Nicodemus: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hoecker, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hofschmidt, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Holtzmann, Stoffel: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hofseiler, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Hoppo, (first name unknown): executed in Germany in 1599
How, Elizabeth: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 July, 1692
Hoyd, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 24 November, 1586
Huebmeyer, Barbara: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 11 September, 1589
Huebmeyer, Appela: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 11 September, 1589
Hunt, Joan: hanged in Middlesex, England in 1615
Hunter, Alexander: burned at Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1629
Huxley, Catherine: hanged at Worcester, England in the summer of 1652

Isel, Ursula: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 7 November, 1586
Isolin, Madlen: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 6 July, 1581

Jacobs, George: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 August, 1692
Jenkenson, Helen: executed in Northhampton, England, on 22 July, 1612
Jennin, (first name unknown): burned at Cambrai, France, in 1460
Jollie, Alison: executed in Scotland, in October, 1596
Jones, Katherine: burned in the north of Scotland in 1622
Jones, Margaret: executed in Charlestown, North America, on 15 June, 1648
Jordemaine, Margery: burned at Smithfield, England, on 27 October, 1441
Junius, Johannes: of Bamberg, executed as a witch, on 6 August, 1628
Jung, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629

Kent, Margaret: tried for witchcraft in Inverkiething, Scotland 1621
Kerke, Anne: executed at Tyburn, England, in 1599
Kleiss, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 30 October, 1586
Kless, Catharina: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 12 June, 1587
Knertz, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Knor, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Knott, Elizabeth: hanged at St. Albans, England, in 1649
Kramerin, Schelmerey: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Kuhnlin, Elsa: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1518
Kuler, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629

Lachenmeyer, Waldburg: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 5 July, 1585
deLarue, (first name unknown): burned at Rouen, in 1540
Lauder, Margaret: burned in Scotland in 1643
Leclerc, (no first name given): condemned for witchcraft, in France 1615
Lakeland, (first name unknown): burned at Ipswich, England, in 1645
Lamb, Dr.: stoned to death by a mob at St. Paul’s Cross, London, England,
in 1640
Lambrecht, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Leger, (no first name given): condemmned for witchcraft in France, on 6 May,
1616
Liebler, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Lloyd, Temperance: hanged at Bideford, England in 1682
Louis, (first name unknown): executed at Suffolk, England, in 1646
Lowes, John: hanged at Bury, England, about 1645
Lutz, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629

Macalzean, Euphemia: burned alive in Scotland for witchcraft, on 25 June, 1591
Marigny, Enguerrand de: hanged in France in 1315
Marguerite, (last name unknown): burned at Paris, France, in 1586
Mark, Bernhard: burned alive at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Martin, Marie: executed in France, in 1586
Martin, Susannah: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 July, 1692
Martyn, Anne: hanged at Maidstone, England, in July, 1652
Mayer, Christina: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 9 October, 1586
Mazelier, Hanchemand de: arrested at Neuchatel, Germany 1439
Meath, Petronilla de: burned as a witch, the first such burning in Ireland,
on 3 November, 1324
Meyer, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Mirot, Dominic: burned at Paris, France, in 1586
Morin< (first name unknown): burned at Rouen, in 1540
Mossau, Renata von: beheaded and burned in Bavaria, Germany, on 21 June, 1749
Mullerin, Elsbet: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1531
Mundie, Beatrice: tried for witchcraft in Inverkiething, Scotland 1621

Napier, Barbara: hanged in Scotland in 1591
Nathan, Abraham: executed at Haeck, Germany, on 24 September, 1772
Newell, John: executed at Barnett, England, on 1 December, 1595
Newell, Joane: executed at Barnett, England, on 1 December, 1595
Newman, Elizabeth: executed at Whitechapel, England in 1653
Nottingham, John of: died in custody, Coventry, England, 1324
Nurse, Rebecca: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 July, 1692
Nutter, Alice: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612

Oliver, Mary: burned at Norwich, England, in 1658
Orchard, (first name unknown): executed at Salisbury, England, in 1658
Osborne, (husband) (first name unknown): killed by a mob at Tring,
Herefordshire, England, in 1751
Osborne, (wife) Ruth: killed by a mob at Tring, Herefordshire, England, in
1751
Osburne, Sarah: died in prison at Boston, Massachusetts, 10 May, 1692
Oswald, Catherine: burned in Scotland in 1670

Paeffin, Elsa: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1518
Pajot, Marguerite: executed at Tonnerre, France, in 1576
Paris, (first name unknown): hanged at St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1569
Parker, Alice: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Parker, Mary: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Palmer, John: hanged at St. Albans, England, in 1649
Pannel, Mary: executed in Yorkshire, England, in 1603
Pearson, Alison: burned in Scotland on 28 May, 1588
Peebles, Marion: burned in Scotland in 1643
Peterson, Joan: hanged at Tyburn, England, in April, 1652
Pichler, Emerenziana: burned at Defereggen, Germany, on 25 September, 1680
(her two sons, aged 12 and 14, were also burned two days later)
Poiret, (first name unknown): burned at Nancy, France, in 1620
Pomp, Anna: executed at Lindheim, Germany, in 1633
Porte, Vidal de la: condemned at Riom, France, in 1597
Powle, (first name unknown): executed at Durham, England, in 1652
Prentice, Joan: hanged in Chelmsford, England, in 1589
Preston, Jennet: executed in York, England, in 1612
Pringle, Margaret: burned in Scotland in 1680
Procter, John: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 August, 1692
Pudeator, Anne: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692

Quattrino, Dominic: burned at Mesolcina, Italy, in 1583

Rais, Gilles de: on charges of witchcraft, executed 26 October, 1440
Rattray, George: executed in Spott, Scotland, in 1705
Rattray, Lachlan: executed in Spott, Scotland, in 1705
Rauffains, Catharina: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 7 November, 1586
Reade, Mary: hanged at Maidstone, England, in July, 1652
Redfearne, Anne: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Reed, Wilmot: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Reich, Maria: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 5 July, 1585
Reid, John: hanged himself in prison, in Scotland, in 1697
Reoch, Elspeth: burned in the north of Scotland in 1622
Robey, Isobel: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Rodier, Catala: burned alive at Carcassone, France, in 1335
Rodier, Paul: burned alive at Carcassone, France, in 1335
Rohrfelder, Margaret: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 24 August, 1585
Rosch, Maria: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 6 July, 1581
Rosseau, (no first name given), and his daughter, (no name given) of France,
accused of witchcraft on 2 October 1593
Rue, Abel de la: of Coulommiers, France, accused of witchcraft on 20 July,
1592
Roulet, Jacques: burned alive for being a were-wolf, at Angiers, France, in
1597
Rum, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Russel, Alice: killed by a mob at Great Paxton, England, 20 May, 1808
Rutchser, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Rutter, Elizabeth: hanged in Middlesex, England in 1616

Sailler, Ursula: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 24 August, 1585
Sampsoune, Agnes: tried, strangled, and burnt for a witch in Scotland 1591
Samuels, (family): three members condemned for witchcraft in Warboys,
England, on 4 April, 1593
Sawyer, Elizabeth, hanged at Tyburn, England, on 19 April, 1621
Scharber, Elsbeth: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1581
Schneider, Felicitas: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 9 March, 1586
Schnelling, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 11 September, 1589
Schutz, Babel: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schwaegel, Anna Maria: beheaded at Kempten, Germany, on 11 April, 1775
Schwartz, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schenck, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schellhar, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schickelte, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schneider, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schleipner, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Schuler, (first name not known): burned at Lindheim, Germany on 23 February,
1663
Schultheiss, Ursula: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 9 March, 1586
Schwarz, Eva: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1581
Schwerdt, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Scott, Margaret: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Scottie, Agnes: burned in the north of Scotland in 1622
Sechelle, (first name unknown): burned at Paris, France, in 1586
Smith, Mary: hanged at King’s Lynn, England, in 1616
Stadlin, (first name unknown): executed in Germany in 1599
Steicher, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Steinacher, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Steward, William: hanged at St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1569
Stewart, Christian: strangled and burned in Scotland, in November, 1596
Stolzberger, (son) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany,
1628-1629
Stolzberger, (wife) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany,
1628-1629
Stolzberger, (granddaughter) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg,
Germany, 1628-1629
Stubb, Peter: executed as a werewolf near Cologne, Germany, in 1589
Stuber, Laurence: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Sturmer, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Style, Elizabeth: died in prison, at Taunton, England, in 1664
Seiler, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Silberhans, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Steinbach, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Stier, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Stadelmann, Ursula: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 7 November, 1586
Sutton (mother) (first name unknown): executed in Bedford, England in 1613
Sutton, Mary: executed in Bedford, England in 1613

Thausser, Simon, and his wife (no name given): burned at Waldsee, Germany,
in 1518
Thompson, Annaple: burned in Scotland in 1680
Tod, Beigis: burned at Lang Nydrie, Scotland, on 27 May, 1608
Treher, Anna: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 5 July, 1585
Trembles, Mary: hanged at Bideford, England in 1682
Trois-Echelles (pseud.): executed at Paris, France, in 1571 (or 1574)
Tungerslieber, (first name unknown) beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Turner, Ann: murdered in England, in 1875

Uhlmer, Barbara: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 24 August, 1585
Upney, Joan: hanged in Chelsford, England, in 1589
Utley, (first name unknown): hanged at Lancaster, England, in 1630

Valee, Melchoir de la: burned at Nancy, France, in 1631
Vallin, Pierre: executed  in France, in 1438
Valkenburger, (daughter) (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany,
1628-1629
Vaecker, Paul: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Vickar, Bessie: burned in Scotland in 1680

Wachin, Ursula: burned at Waldsee, Germany, in 1528
Wagner, Michael: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Wagner, (first name unknown): burnt alive at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Wallace, Margaret: executed in Glascow, Scotland, in 1622
Wardwell, Samuel: executed at Salem, New England, on 22 September, 1692
Waterhouse, (first name unknown): hanged in Dorset, England in 1565
Wanderson, (wife 1) (first name unknown): executed in England, in January,
1644.
Wanderson, (wife 2) (first name unknown): executed in England, in January,
1644.
Weir, Thomas: burned between Edinburgh and Leith, Scotland, on 11 April, 1670
Weiss, Agatha: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 9 October, 1586
Weydenbusch, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Whittle, Anne: executed in Lancaster, England, in 1612
Wildes, Sarah: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 July, 1692
Willard, John: executed at Salem, New England, on 19 August, 1692
Willimot, Joan: executed in Leicester, England, in 1619
Wilson, Anne: hanged at Maidstone, England, in July, 1652
Wirth, Klingen: beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629
Wirth, Trauben: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 5 July, 1585
Wright, Mildred: hanged at Maidstone, England, in July, 1652
Wuncil, Brigida: burned at Waldsee, Germany, on 6 July, 1581
Wunth, (first name unknown): beheaded at Wurzburg, Germany, 1628-1629

Younge, Alse: hanged in Connecticut, North America, on 26 May, 1647
Yullock, Agnes: burned in the north of Scotland in 1622

*****************************************

GENERAL SECTION: THE UNKNOWNS

8000 “Stedingers” killed on 27 May, 1234
180 burned for witchcraft at Montwimer, France, on 29 May, 1239
36 Knights Templar died under torture in France, in October, 1307
54 Knights Templar burned in France, on 12 May, 1310
39 Knights Templar burned in France, on 18 March 1314
“Some” burned at Kilkenny, Ireland, 1323
200 + burned at Carcassonne, France, between 1320-1350
63 burned at Toulouse, France, in 1335
8 burned at Carcassonne, France, in 1352
31 burned at Carcassonne, France, in 1357
67 burned at Carcassonne, France, between 1387-1400
1 burned at Berlin, Germany, in 1399
“Several” witches burned alive at Simmenthal, Switzerland, circa 1400
“Several” burned at Carcassonne, France, in 1423
200 + executed in the Valais, France between 1428-1434
167 executed in l’Isere, France, between 1428-1447
16 executed in Toulouse, France, in 1432
8 executed in Toulouse, France, in 1433
150 executed in Briancon, France, in 1437
3 burnt in Savoy between 1446 and 1447
7 killed at Marmande, France, in 1453
1 burned at Locarno, Italy, in 1455
“Many” burned in Arras, France in 1459
2 burned in Burgundy, France, in 1470
3 burned at Forno-Rivara, Italy, in 1472
2 burned at Levone, in Italy, in 1474
5 burned at Forno, Italy, in 1475
12 women and “several” men burned at Edinburgh, in 1479
4 burned at Metz, Germany, in 1482
48 burned at Constance, between 1482-1486
2 burned at Toulouse, France, in 1484
2 burned in Chaucy, France in 1485
1 died in prison, at Metz, Germany 1488
3 executed at Mairange, Germany, on 17 June, 1488
2 executed at Mairange, Germany, on 25 June, 1488
3 executed at Chastel, Germany, on 26 June, 1488
3 executed at Metz, Germany, on 1 July, 1488
1 executed at Salney, Germany, on 3 July, 1488
2 executed at Salney, Germany, on 12 July, 1488
3 executed at Salney, Germany, on 19 July, 1488
1 executed at Brieg, Germany, on 19 July, 1488
2 executed at Juxney, Germany, on 19 August, 1488
5 executed at Thionville, Germany, on 23 August, 1488
1 executed at Metz, Germany, on 2 September, 1488
1 executed at Vigey, Germany, on 15 September, 1488
1 executed at Juxney, Germany, on 22 September, 1488
1 executed in France circa 1500
30 burned in Calahorra, Spain, in 1507
1 burned in Saxony, Germany, in 1510
60 burned in Northern Italy, in 1510
500 + burned in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1515
2 burned in Besancon, France, in 1521
64 burned in Val Camonica, Italy between 1518-1521
100 burned in Como, Italy, in 1523
1000 + in Como, Italy, in 1524
900 executed by Nicholas Remy (years unknown, about 15 years total)
“A large number” executed at Saragossa, Spain, in 1536
7 burned at Nantes, France, in 1549
1 burned at Lyons, France, in 1549
3 burned alive at Derneburg, Germany, on 4 October, 1555
1 burned alive at Bievires, France, in 1556
5 burned at Verneuil, France, in 1561
17,000 + in Scotland from 1563 to 1603
4 burned at Potiers, France, in 1564
1 burned at St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1569
“Many” burned in France in 1571
1 burned at St. Andrews, Scotland, in 1572
70,000 killed in England after 1573
“Several” executed in Paris, France, in 1574
80 executed in one fire at Valery-en-Savoie, France, in 1574
3 executed in Dorset, England, in 1578
36 persons executed at Kilkenny, Ireland, in 1578
18 killed at St. Oses, England, in 1582
“Several” burned in Mesolcina, Italy, in 1583
368 persons killed for witchcraft between 18 January, 1587, and 18 November,
1593, in the diocese of Treves.
1 burned at Riom, France, in 1588
133 persons burned in one day at Quedlinburg, in Germany, in 1589
48 burned in Wurttemberg, Germany, in 1589
2 burned at Cologne, Germany in 1589
54 burned in Franconia in 1590
300 burned in Bern, Switzerland, between 1591-1600
1 burned in Ghent, Holland, in 1591
9 executed in Toulouse, France, in 1595
1 burned in Ghent, Holland, in 1598
24 burned in Aberdeen, Scotland, circa 1598
77 burned in Vaud, Switzerland, in 1599
10 -daily- were burned (average) in the Duchy of Brunswick between 1590-1600
20 executed (other than those listed by name above) in the reign of King James
VI and I of England.
40,000 executed between 1600-1680 in Great Britain
205 burned at the Abbey of Fulda, Germany, between 1603-1605
“Several” witches executed in Derbyshire, England, in 1607
24 burned + 3 suicides in Hagenau, Alsace, in 1607
“A number of women” burned at Breehin, Scotland, in 1608
1 burned alive by a mob at St. Jean de Liuz, France, circa 1608
18 killed at Orleans, France, in 1616
9 hanged at Leicester, England, in 1616
8 hanged at Londinieres, France, in 1618
“Several” witches condemned at Nerac, France, on 26 June, 1619
200 + executed at Labourt, France, in 1619
2 executed at Bedford, England, in 1624
56 executions at Mainz, Germany, between 1626-1629
77 executions at Burgstadt, Germany, between 1626-1629
40 executions at Berndit, Buttan, Ebenheit, Wenchdorf and Heinbach, Germany,
between 1626-1629
8 executions in Prozelten and Amorbach, Germany between 1626-1629
168 executions in the district of Miltenberg, Germany, between 1626-1629
85 burned in Dieburg, Germany, in 1627
79 burned at Offenburg, Austria, from 1627-1629
274 executed in Eichstatt, Germany in 1629
124 executed by the Teutonic Order at Mergentheim, Germany in 1630
900 executions at Bamberg, Germany, between 1627 and 1631
22,000 (approx) executed in Bamberg, Germany between 1610 and 1840
1 hanged at Sandwich, in Kent, England, in 1630
3 executed at Lindheim, Germany in 1631
20 executed in Norfolk, England, on evidence of Matthew Hopkins, before
26 July, 1645
29 condemned, on the evidence of Matthew Hopkins, at Chelmsford, England,
on 29 July, 1645
150 killed in England in the last six months of 1645
2 executed at Norwich, England, in 1648
14 hanged at Newcastle, England, in 1649
220 + in England and Scotland, on evidence of a Scottish Witch-finder, circa
1648-1650
2 killed by a mob at Auxonne, France, in 1650
30 burned in Lindheim, Germany, between 1640-1651
900 killed in Lorraine, France (years unknown)
30,000 (approx) burned by the Inquisition (not all may have been witches)
3-4000 killed during Cromwell’s tenure in England
102 burned in Zuckmantel, Germany, in 1654
18 burned at Castle Hill, Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1658
85 executed at Mohra, Sweden, on 25 August, 1670
71 beheaded or burned in Sweden between 1674-1677
90 burned at Salzburg, Austria, in 1678
11 burned at Prestonpans, Scotland, in 1678
36 executed in Paris, France, in 1680
“Several” burned at Rouen, France, in 1684-1685
3 executed (Suzanna, Isle and Catherine (last names unknown) at Arendsee,
Germany, in 1687
36 burned at Nordlingen, Germany between 1690-1694
5 burned at Paisley, Scotland, on 10 June, 1697
9 persons burned at Burghausen, Germany, all under 16 years of age, on 26
March, 1698
1 burned at Antrim, Ireland, in 1699
“Many” burned at Spott Loan, Scotland, in 1705
2 persons killed in the Trentino, Austria, between 1716 and 1717
1 executed in France, in 1718
2 persons, a mother and daughter, burned in Scotland, in 1722
13 burned at Szegedin, Hungary, in 1728
1 burned at Szegedin, Hungary, in 1730
13 burned alive at Szegedin, Hungary on 23 July, 1738
3 burned at Karpfen, Germany, in 1744
3 burned at Muhlbach, Germany, in 1746
1 executed at Szegedin, Hungary, in 1746
1 executed at Maros Vasarheli, (nation unknown), 1752
100 + executed at Haeck, Germany between 1772 and 1779
2 burned in Poland in 1793
“Several” burned in South America during the 1800’s
1 shot by a policeman at Uttenheim, Germany, on suspicion of being a were-
wolf, in November, 1925
1 murdered in Pennsylvania in 1929

for a total of 236,870 (unknowns listed)

Frank Donovan says: “Several modern writers claim that 9,000,000
people met their deaths during the witchcraft persecution but offer no valid
statistical records to support this estimate. On the other end of the scale is
the ‘educated guess’ of R.H.Robbins and others that the total may have been
about 200,000. Contemporary records are spotty and incomplete. Many deaths
were probably never recorded and other archives have been lost thru time.” It
is this writer’s opinion that – one-half million – executed is a reasonable
estimated total.

******************************************

I am compiling a listing of Protestants killed by Catholics, and a
listing of Protestants killed by Catholics. Contributions to all these lists
are solicited. The rules are:

1) You must have the NAME of the person killed. If all that is known
is HOW MANY were killed, this will be acceptable.
2) You must have a DATE. Day-month-year is preferred, but month-year
or year-only is acceptable.
3) You must have a LOCATION. Town-nation is best, but nation-only is
acceptable
3) You must REFERENCE your contribution.
4) Please follow the format as you see it above.

nb: I am not, at this time, compiling a list of Jews killed for their faith.
To list the six million names from the Holocaust of World War II alone
would be too much, and beyond comprehension. They are NOT forgotten!
Neither are the martyred Baha’is in Iran, nor the Muslim/Christian/Jew
problems current in the Mid-East…..nor the Muslim/Hindu troubles, nor
the……..well, add your own here.

I can be reached at whytbard@locksley.com thru the InterNet.

REFERENCES:

THE BOOK OF DAYS
W. J. Bethancourt III (unpublished ms.)

CHRONICLE OF THE WORLD
Jerome Burne; Ecam, 1990

A NATURAL HISTORY OF UNNATURAL THINGS
Daniel Cohen; McCall, 1971

NEVER ON A BROOMSTICK
Frank Donovan; Bell, 1971

A HISTORY OF SECRET SOCIETIES
Arkhon Daraul; Citadel, 1962

THE WEAKER VESSEL
Antonia Fraser, Borzoi, 1984

EXTRAORDINARY POPULAR DELUSIONS AND THE MADNESS OF
CROWDS
Charles MacKay; L.C.Page, 1932
(orig. pub. 1841)

THE HISTORY OF MAGIC AND THE OCCULT
Kurt Seligmann; Harmony Books, 1975

THE GEOGRAPHY OF WITCHCRAFT
Montague Summers, University Books, 1965

TREASURY OF WITCHCRAFT
Harry E. Wedeck; Philosophical Library, 1961

SOUNDINGS IN SATANISM

pp 46-54. ISBN 0 264 64627 4

*
(c) copyright 1990 W.J. Bethancourt

Experience The Witch Trial First Hand, Could You Survive?

There is a spot on the National Geographic Site that has always captured my imagination. The site walks you through what our Ancestors actually experienced during the Witch hunts and trials. When I stop to think about it, it is very sad. It is sad to believe that someone could point a finger and scream “Witch,” you were then grabbed and carted off to jail. No one would listen to your side of the story. No one cared. All that was important is everything was done to ensure that person appeared as a witch. The atmosphere was crazed, hysteria run rampant, it was a very terrifying time whether you were a witch or not. I know there were millions that were recorded being killed during this period of time. The numbers of people killed in Europe was staggering. It is horrible to think that so many were killed, whether they were witches or not, it didn’t matter. No one cared.  Your life belonged to someone else and that person was determined you were going to die…….

Could you survive the Witch Trials? Find out the fate you would have been dealt.

 

National Geographic presents Salem, the Witch Hysteria

The Witch Hunts – How to Identify a Witch

How to Identify a Witch

 

Disclaimer
This is NOT a about Wiccans or neo-pagans, and I do not advocate the belief that Wiccans are Satan-worshippers and/or baby-killers. This is a starting point for historical research into the great witch craze of 1100-1700 AD.

There were almost as many ways to identify a witch as there were witch-hunters.  No one person could pass every one of these tests. Nonetheless, the results of these tests were never ignored.

* Balance Scales

* Conversing With Familiars

* The Devil’s Mark

* Ducking the Witch

BALANCE SCALES

“Giant balance scales could…help identify a witch. If the suspect was heavier than the weights–sometimes a Bible was used instead of weights — then he or she was clearly a witch. Only if a perfect balance was struck was the accused vindicated.  This rarely, if ever, occurred.”

Bibliography.  (Farrington 58)

CONVERSING WITH FAMILIARS

If a woman had a pet, she could become a prime candidate for witchcraft accusations.  Familiars were imps in animal form, creatures which suckled from the Devil’s marks.

Bibliography.  (Farrington 58)

DUNKING THE WITCH

One ‘foolproof’ way to establish whether a suspect was a witch was ducking.  With right thumb bound to left toe, the accused was plunged into a convenient pond.  If he or she floated it proved an association with the black arts, with the body rejecting the baptismal water. If the victim drowned they (sic) were innocent. Given the curious position of the prisoner, it was more likely they
would float.

Bibliography.  (Farrington 58)

THE DEVIL’S MARK

It was widely believed that most witches sported a mark on their body which was placed there by the Devil.  The Witches’ mark, Devil’s Mark, or Witches’ teat was the seal of the Devil, given to witches upon initiation.   This mark could be a scar, a mole, a birthmark, or superfluous nipple.  The Devil’s Mark was a nipple through which the witch nourished her or his familiar.

However, even if a person had no mark, it did not mean she or he was not a witch.  Some witch-hunters believed that a witches’ mark was only put on the bodies of witches that the Devil thought he could not trust.  If a witch had no mark, it meant that she or he was especially devout to Satan.

Suspected witches were stripped, shaved, and strapped into a chair for interrogation.  The Inquisitors would then wait and watch.  If a mouse, rat, or beetle entered the cell and approach the victim, the accused was proven guilty. It did not matter that prisons were vermin-infested.  The witches were obviously conversing with familiars.

The witch’s body was then painstakingly searched.  Particular scrutiny was paid to the genitalia, for it was the most hidden part of the body.

When a Devil’s mark was found, the Inquisitor would prick the spot with a needle or blade.  If the mark did not bleed and the pricking did not cause pain, the spot was surely placed there by the Devil.

Many witch-hunters and Inquisitors used pricking knives with retractable blades.  Matthew Hopkins was one such hunter.  When the Devil’s mark was speared, the blade would retract, so the victim felt no pain, and no blood appeared.

Bibliography.  (Farrington 58)

 

—Author Unknown

What Were the Burning Times?

What Were the Burning Times?

Facts and Fiction About the European Witch Hunts

By , About.com

 

We’ve all seen the bumper stickers and the t-shirts: Never Again the Burning Times! It’s a rally cry for many born-again Pagans and Wiccans, and indicates a need to reclaim what’s ours – our rights to worship and celebrate as we choose. The phrase Burning Times is often used in modern Paganism and Wicca to indicate the era from the Dark Ages to around the nineteenth century, when charges of heresy were enough to get a witch burned at the stake. Some have claimed that as many as nine million people were killed in the name of “witch hunts.” However, there’s a lot of discussion within the Pagan world about the accuracy of that number, and some scholars have estimated it significantly lower, possibly as few as 200,000. That’s still a pretty big number, but a lot less than some of the other claims that have been made.

For the past thirty years or so, scholars – as well as many members of the Pagan and Wiccan communities — have debated the validity of the astronomical numbers of victims cited during the Burning Times. The problem with the early estimates of numbers is that, much like in war, the victor writes the history. In other words, the only documentation we have about the European witch hunts was written by the people who actually conducted those same witch hunts!

Jenny Gibbons’ thesis, Recent Developments in the Great European Witch Hunt, goes into great depth about some of these inflated numbers. Essentially, Gibbons states, bigger numbers of witches looked better for the witch hunters, who were the ones keeping track of things in the first place.

As time progressed, countries like England eventually repealed their proscriptions against witchcraft, and the Neopagan and Wiccan movements later moved into place both in Britain and the United States. As feminist writers latched on to the Goddess-centered movement, there was a tendency to portray the healer-midwife-village wisewoman as an innocent victim of evil patriarchal Catholic oppressors.

In the past, Wiccans and Pagans were often the first to point out that the European witch hunts targeted women – after all, these poor country girls were simply the victims of the misogynistic societies of their times. However, what is often overlooked is that although overall about 80% of the accused were female, in some areas, more men than women were persecuted as witches. Scandinavian countries in particular seemed to have equal numbers of both male and female accused.

Timeline

 

Let’s look at a brief timeline of the witch craze in Europe:

  • 906 C.E. The Canon Episcopi is written by a young abbot named Regino of Treves. Regino’s treatise reinforces the Church’s existing stance on witchcraft, which is that it doesn’t exist.
  • Around 975 C.E. The Church decides that the penalty for witchcraft – which apparently does in fact exist, despite the Canon Episcopi’s assertions to the contrary – is fairly mild. A woman convicted of the use of “witchcraft and enchantment and … magical philters” shall be sentenced to a year-long diet of bread and water.
  • 1227 C.E. Pope Gregory IX announces that it’s time to form an Inquisitorial Court to weed out heretics, who are summarily executed.
  • 1252 C.E. Pope Innocent III carries on the Inquisitions. However, he discovers that a much higher rate of confession is obtained if torture is permitted.
  • 1326 C.E. The Church authorizes the Inquisition to go beyond the investigations of heresy. Now they are encouraged to ferret out people practicing Witchcraft. The theory of demonology is created, establishing a link between witches and the Christian Satan.
  • 1340’s C.E. Europe is pummeled by the Black Plague, and a significant amount of people die. Witches, Jews and lepers are accused of spreading disease intentionally.
  • 1450 C.E. The Catholic Church announces that witches eat babies and sell their souls to the Devil. Witch hunts begin in earnest throughout Europe.
  • 1487 C.E. Publication of Malleus Maleficarum (The Witches’ Hammer). This book describes all sorts of vile activities allegedly practiced by Witches, and also details some creative methods of getting confessions out of the accused.
  • 1517 C.E. Martin Luther leads the way to the Protestant Reformation, which in turn causes a decrease in the number of witchcraft convictions in England – because the Protestants won’t allow torture.
  • 1550 – 1650 C.E. Trials and executions reach their peak. Many of the people accused of witchcraft are actually being targeted in battles between Catholics and Protestants, and others are landowners whose property has been seized by the Church.
  • 1716 C.E. The last accused witches – Mary Hicks and her daughter Elizabeth — are executed in England. Other countries eventually follow suit and stop executing people for witchcraft.