Luis (Rowan) January 21 to February 17

  • Ogham Letter: Luis (L)
  • Symbolic Meaning: Courage, Protection, Connection
  • Ruling Planet: The Sun
  • Ruling Elements: Fire
  • Season: Spring & Autumn
  • Corresponding Star Sign: Aquarius / Pisces

 

The second lunar month is ruled by that of the Rowan Tree. Another tree associated with a powerful, feminine connection, the small, deciduous rowan is praised for its beauty and hardiness. A strong symbol of courage, protection and connection.

 

The rowan tree can take root almost anywhere it wants but prefers to grow and thrive in greater heights giving it the name of the ‘Lady of the Mountain’. Even though it looks delicate, up here it will thrive in harsh conditions and always come out stronger on the other side.

 

The Rowan is deeply rooted with psyche and philosophy. It is thought to open the mind, improve psychic powers and inspire those who come into contact with it.

 

The tree has a positive presence and it’s protective abilities are used to keep evil spirits at bay. Branches of the rowan were hung around doors to keep those inside safe from wrongdoings.

 

The celts thought that the rowan berries possessed magical powers. The bright red berries are a sign of protection. Red being the most protective colour. They are a great source of vitamin C and were used to treat scurvy.

 


Rowan Tree Zodiac

 

Those born under the Rowan Tree are quietly influential and aloof. They are idealists and individuals, often feeling misunderstood. They have the natural ability to transform a situation making those around feel comfortable but don’t be fooled by their calm, collected demeanor as inside they are burning bright with a passion for change. They’re diplomatic and great listeners, always respecting others beliefs making them great leaders. It is the philosophical sign in the Celtic zodiac.

 

Rowan signs pair well with Ivy and Hawthorn.

 

—tree2mydoor.com

 

Beth (Birch) December 24th to January 20th

Birch Tree: December 24th – January 20th

 

  • Ogham Letter: Beith (B)

  • Symbolic Meaning: New Beginnings, Growth, Renewal, Rebirth, Adaptability

  • Ruling Planet: Venus

  • Ruling Elements: Air & Water

  • Season: Spring & Autumn

  • Corresponding Star Sign: Capricorn

 

The first lunar month of the Celtic Tree Calendar is the Birch Tree. Known as the ‘Lady of the Woods’, birch tree holds deep feminine connections making it a symbol of rebirth and fertility. It’s elegance in the woods is made known by its delicate, peeling silvery white bark.

The leaves from the tree can be brewed into a tea that is used to treat many infections and remove excess water from the body. This tree doesn’t just hold magical energy but practical, medicinal properties too.

Placed at the centre of the Beltane Festival or May Day as it is now commonly known, people will dance around the May Pole made from Birch to bring a fruitful harvest in the following year.

The lunar month of birch is a fantastic time for starting new creativity and projects. Whether that involves a new job or adventure – this is the month to do it!

Birch Tree Zodiac

Just like the birch tree itself, those born under this sign have high ambitions, they are driven and will strive to grow wherever they can. Born at the darkest time of the year they are always reaching towards the light, easily inspiring those around them. Cool headed and natural born leaders but in touch with their softer side bringing beauty where it’s needed the most.

Birch signs are well matched with Vine and Willow signs.

 

Birch Tree Symbolism and Meaning

The Birch Tree is an elegant force of nature. The silvery white bark looks sophisticated and graceful but under this beauty lies a strong, willfulness to grow where nothing else can.

It is almost always one of the first species to regrow in places of tragedy, a forest fire perhaps or even after the great ice age. It can thrive in harsh conditions of low nutrient soils and colder climates. It’s also one of the first trees to regrow leaves after the depths of winter bringing us into the new life of spring. It’s widespread across the British Isles and a coloniser of many UK woodlands.

The native tree holds strong connections with feminine energies and in Celtic Lore is known as ‘The Lady of the Woods’. It’s most recognisable features are the paper thin bark that peels to reveal dark fissures along the trunk and the delicate, flowing leaves that cover the tree in summer.

The beauty of the tree can be seen in every season making it a great specimen tree for the garden. Silver birch trees are amazing for garden wildlife. The tree is a great attraction and will be unconditionally adored by the birds and the bees.

As the birch is a pioneer species this gives it a symbol of rebirth, new beginnings and growth. It’s a sacred tree within the mythology of the Celts and is thought to have very protective influences.

On Midsummer’s Eve, branches from the tree would be hung around doors of dwellings in hopes to bring good luck and guard against any evil misfortune. To bring in the new year with goodness, evil spirits were brushed from homes using a broom made from the twigs of a birch tree.

Not just magical but also medicinal, the leaves of the birch can be brewed into a tea that can be used to treat infections and remove excess water from the body.

The Birch Tree was the centre of the Beltane Festival, now more commonly known to us as May Day. Maypoles would be created from the wood of the birch and everyone would gather round and dance to ensure a fruitful harvest that year.

Birch is the first lunar month in the Celtic Tree Calendar lying between the dates of 24th December – 20th January.

 

Birch Tree Zodiac

  • Ruled by: the 1st Lunar Month
  • Dates: 24th December – 20th January
  • Ogham Letter: Beith (B)
  • Ruling Planet: Venus
  • Ruling Elements: Air and Watery7

 

–tree2mydoor.com

 

Celtic Tree Calendar

The Celtic tree calendar, also called the Beth-Luis-Nion Calendar, is a modern calendar based on modern, theoretical interpretations of the Ogham alphabet, or the Celtic Tree Alphabet. While there is no evidence of ancient Celts or Druids using a calendar that even resembled this one, it has, however, become a valuable spiritual, liturgical and magical tool for some modern NeoPagans who identify with the ancient Celts. Celtic Reconstructionist Pagans reject it utterly as a complete fabrication with no historic basis. Which of course it is. Others embrace it as a tool to enhance their magic, their spirituality and their connection with nature and to help give structure to their rituals.

A Celtic tree calendar was first posited in the 19th century by Edward Davies based on research of the Ogygia and the Book of Ballymote further developed by Robert Graves in his book The White Goddess and further developed by Ross Nichols.

The calendar has 13 months of 28 days and an extra day posited as the “year and a day” day. It begins with the winter solstice, in contrast to the tradition of Samhain as the Celtic New Year.

Graves’ Celtic Tree Calendar

Beth (Birch) December 24th to January 20th
Luis (Rowan) January 21 to February 17
Nion (Ash) February 18 to March 17
Fearn (Alder) March 18 to April 14
Saille (Willow) April 15 to May 12
Uath (Hawthorn) May 13 to June 9
Duir (Oak) June 10 to July 7
Tinne (Holly) July 8 to August 4
Coll (Hazel) August 5 to September 1
Muin (Vine) September 2 to September 29
Gort (Ivy) September 30 to October 27
Ngetal (Reed) October 28 to November 24
Ruis (Elder) November 25 to December 22
December 23 Extra day for “Year and a Day”

Variations on the Calendar

Due to its obvious limitations, the calendar has been changed a little here and there to fit with various traditions. Some have altered the start dates of the month to begin on the new moon or the full moon make the calendar more in line with lunar tradition and many believe the calendar should have been started at Samhain, which is regarded as the traditional Celtic New Year.

Gregorian Variation
A simpler variation based on the Gregorian calendar makes it much easier to keep track of though it has many problems. As many believe the calendar should begin on November 1st to correspond with Samhain as the Celtic or Witches New Year, this variation would assign Beth to November, Luis to December and so on. However, this leaves the problem of what to do with the extra month. One solution is to declare Ruis an extra month for leap years.

Lunar Variation, beginning at Samhain
This variation begins with Beth at Samhain and ending on the first new moon (or full moon) after Samhain. It is true that this could result in Beth lasting only a day, but it follows with the tradition of lunar days. The new moon starts the first lunar day and the next moonrise starts the second lunar day, the first may last only a few minutes. This also solves the problem of extra moons and extra days. The extra “Year and a Day” day posited by Graves would occur on Samhain eve.

Full Moon Names

Much more widely accepted than the calendar is naming the full moons based upon it. If you follow Graves’ model of beginning with the winter solstice, the first full moon after the winter solstice would be the Birch moon, etc. More popular, however, is the Samhain as New Year model, in which case the first full moon after Samhain, November, is the Birch moon. The next in November/December is the Rowan Moon, then the Ash Moon in December/January, the Alder Moon in January/February, the Willow Moon in February/March, the Hawthorn Moon in March/April, the Oak moon in April/May, the Holly Moon in June/July, the Hazel moon in July/August, the Vine moon in August/September, the Ivy moon in September/October, the reed moon in October and the Elder moon, the 13th moon when needed.

Celtic Tree Astrology

In The White Goddess, Grave suggested a system of astrology that went along with this calendar. This idea has been further developed in modern times.

More Information on the Web

http://www.maryjones.us/jce/celtictreecalendar.html
http://paganwiccan.about.com/od/moonphasemagic/ss/Celtic-Tree-Months.htm

Further Reading

The White Goddess by Robert Graves
The Book of Druidry by Ross Nichols
The Handbook of Celtic Astrology by Helene Patterson
Year of Moons, Season of Trees by Pattalee Glass-Koentop

 

Published on Witchipedia

Various Traditions/Religions & Their Names for the Months of the Year

Julian and Gregorian calendars

The Gregorian calendar, like the Julian calendar before it, has twelve months:

Chronology Alphabetic Days
1 January 31 days
2 February 28 days, 29 in leap years
3 March 31 days
4 April 30 days
5 May 31 days
6 June 30 days
7 July 31 days
8 August 31 days
9 September 30 days
10 October 31 days
11 November 30 days
12 December 31 days

Hebrew calendar

The Hebrew calendar has 12 or 13 months.

  1. Nisan, 30 days ניסן
  2. Iyar, 30 days אייר
  3. Sivan, 30 days סיון
  4. Tammuz, 29 days תמוז
  5. Av, 30 days אב
  6. Elul, 29 days אלול
  7. Tishri, 30 days תשרי
  8. Marcheshvan, 29/30 days מַרְחֶשְׁוָן
  9. Kislev, 30/29 days כסלו
  10. Tevet, 29 days טבת
  11. Shevat, 30 days שבט
  12. Adar 1, 30 days, intercalary month אדר א
  13. Adar 2, 29 days אדר ב

Adar 1 is only added 7 times in 19 years. In ordinary years, Adar 2 is simply called Adar.

Islamic calendar

There are also twelve months in the Islamic calendar. They are named as follows:

  1. Muharram (Restricted/sacred) محرّم
  2. Safar (Empty/Yellow) صفر
  3. Rabī’ al-Awwal/Rabi’ I (First Spring) ربيع الأول
  4. Rabī’ ath-Thānī/Rabi` al-Aakhir/Rabi’ II (Second spring or Last spring) ربيع الآخر أو ربيع الثاني
  5. Jumada al-Awwal/Jumaada I (First Freeze) جمادى الأول
  6. Jumada ath-Thānī or Jumādā al-Thānī/Jumādā II (Second Freeze or Last Freeze) جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني
  7. Rajab (To Respect) رجب
  8. Sha’bān (To Spread and Distribute) شعبان
  9. Ramadān (Parched Thirst) رمضان
  10. Shawwāl (To Be Light and Vigorous) شوّال
  11. Dhu al-Qi’dah (The Master of Truce) ذو القعدة
  12. Dhu al-Hijjah (The Possessor of Hajj) ذو الحجة

Arabic calendar

Gregorian month Arabic month
January يناير كانون الثاني Kanun Al-Thani
February فبراير شباط Shebat
March مارس اذار Adhar
April ابريل نيسان Nisan
May مايو أيّار Ayyar
June يونيو حزيران Ḩazayran
July يوليو تمّوز Tammuz
August أغسطس اَب ʕAb
September سبتمبر أيلول Aylul
October أكتوبر تشرين الأول Tishrin Al-Awwal
November نوفمبر تشرين الثاني Tishrin Al-Thani
December ديسمبر كانون الأول Kanun Al-Awwal


Hindu calendar

The Hindu calendar has various systems of naming the months. The months in the lunar calendar are:

Sanskrit name Tamil name Telugu name Nepali name
1 Caitra (चैत्र) Chitirai (சித்திரை) Chaithramu (చైత్రము) Chaitra (चैत्र/चैत)
2 Vaiśākha (वैशाख) Vaikasi (வைகாசி) Vaisaakhamu (వైశాఖము) Baisakh (बैशाख)
3 Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ) Aani (ஆனி) Jyeshttamu (జ్యేష్ఠము) Jesth (जेष्ठ/जेठ)
4 Ashadha (आषाढ) Aadi (ஆடி) Aashaadhamu (ఆషాఢము) Aasad (आषाढ/असार)
5 Śrāvaṇa (श्रावण) Aavani (ஆவணி) Sraavanamu (శ్రావణము) Srawan (श्रावण/साउन)
6 Bhadrapada (भाद्रपद) Purratasi (புரட்டாசி) Bhaadhrapadamu (భాద్రపదము) Bhadau (भाद्र|भदौ)
7 Āśvina (अश्विन) Aiypasi (ஐப்பசி) Aasveeyujamu (ఆశ్వయుజము) Asoj (आश्विन/असोज)
8 Kārtika (कार्तिक) Kaarthigai (கார்த்திகை) Kaarthikamu (కార్తీకము) Kartik (कार्तिक)
9 Mārgaśīrṣa (मार्गशीर्ष) Maargazhi (மார்கழி) Maargaseershamu (మార్గశిరము) Mangsir (मार्ग/मंसिर)
10 Pauṣa (पौष) Thai (தை) Pushyamu (పుష్యము) Push (पौष/पुष/पूस)
11 Māgha (माघ) Maasi (மாசி) Maaghamu (మాఘము) Magh (माघ)
12 Phālguna (फाल्गुन) Panguni (பங்குனி) Phaalgunamu (ఫాల్గుణము) Falgun (फाल्गुन/फागुन)

These are also the names used in the Indian national calendar for the newly redefined months. Purushottam Maas or Adhik Maas (translit. adhika = ‘extra’, māsa = ‘month’) is an extra month in the Hindu calendar that is inserted to keep the lunar and solar calendars aligned. “Purushottam” is an epithet of Vishnu, to whom the month is dedicated.

Iranian calendar (Persian calendar)

The Iranian / Persian calendar, currently used in Iran and Afghanistan, also has 12 months. The Persian names are included in the parentheses. It begins on the northern Spring equinox.

  1. Farvardin (31 days, فروردین)
  2. Ordibehesht (31 days, اردیبهشت)
  3. Khordad (31 days, خرداد)
  4. Tir (31 days, تیر)
  5. Mordad (31 days, مرداد)
  6. Shahrivar (31 days, شهریور)
  7. Mehr (30 days, مهر)
  8. Aban (30 days, آبان)
  9. Azar (30 days, آذر)
  10. Dey (30 days, دی)
  11. Bahman (30 days, بهمن)
  12. Esfand (29 days- 30 days in leap year, اسفند)

Khmer calendar

Like the Hindu calendar, the Khmer calendar consists of both a lunar calendar and a solar calendar.

The Khmer solar calendar is used more commonly than the lunar calendar. There are 12 months and the numbers of days follow the Julian and Gregorian calendar.

Khmer name Transliteration Julian and Gregorian name
1 មករា Makara January
2 កម្ភៈ Kompeak February
3 មិនា or មីនា Mik Nea or Me Na March
4 មេសា Mesa April
5 ឧសភា Uk Sak Phea May
6 មិថុនា Mik Thok Na June
7 កក្កដា Kak Ka Da July
8 សីហា Seiha August
9 កញ្ញា Kagna September
10 តុលា Tola October
11 វិច្ឆិកា Vicheka November
12 ធ្នូ Thnu December

Thai calendar

English name Thai name Abbr. Transcription Sanskrit word Zodiac sign
January มกราคม ม.ค. mokarakhom mokara “sea-monster” Capricorn
February กุมภาพันธ์ ก.พ. kumphaphan kumbha “pitcher, water-pot” Aquarius
March มีนาคม มี.ค. minakhom mīna “(a specific kind of) fish” Pisces
April เมษายน เม.ย. mesayon meṣa “ram” Aries
May พฤษภาคม พ.ค. phruetsaphakhom vṛṣabha “bull” Taurus
June มิถุนายน มิ.ย. mithunayon mithuna “a pair” Gemini
July กรกฎาคม ก.ค. karakadakhom karkaṭa “crab” Cancer
August สิงหาคม ส.ค. singhakhom siṃha “lion” Leo
September กันยายน ก.ย. kanyayon kanyā “girl” Virgo
October ตุลาคม ต.ค. tulakhom tulā “balance” Libra
November พฤศจิกายน พ.ย. phruetsachikayon vṛścika “scorpion” Scorpio
December ธันวาคม ธ.ค. thanwakhom dhanu “bow, arc” Sagittarius

Kollam era (Malayalam) calendar

Malayalam name Transliteration Concurrent Gregorian months Sanskrit word and meaning Zodiac sign
ചിങ്ങം chi-ngnga-m August–September simha “lion” Leo
കന്നി ka-nni September–October kanyā “girl” Virgo
തുലാം thu-lā-m October–November tulā “balance” Libra
വൃശ്ചികം vRSh-chi-ka-m November–December vṛścika “scorpion” Scorpio
ധനു dha-nu December–January dhanu “bow, arc” Sagittarius
മകരം ma-ka-ra-m January–February mokara “sea-monster” Capricorn
കുംഭം kum-bha-m February–March kumbha “pitcher, water-pot” Aquarius
മീനം mee-na-m March–April mīna “(a specific kind of) fish” Pisces
മേടം mE-Da-m April–May meṣa “ram” Aries
ഇടവം i-Ta-va-m May – June vṛṣabha “bull” Taurus
മിഥുനം mi-thu-na-m June–July mithuna “a pair” Gemini
കർക്കടകം kar-kka-Ta-ka-m July–August karkaṭa “crab” Cancer

Germanic calendar

The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use anymore, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, broken down into two groups of six often termed “winter months” and “summer months”. The calendar is peculiar in that the months always start on the same weekday rather than on the same date. Hence Þorri always starts on a Friday sometime between January 22 and January 28 (Old style: January 9 to January 15), Góa always starts on a Sunday between February 21 and February 27 (Old style: February 8 to February 14).

  • Skammdegi (“Short days”)
  1. Gormánuður (mid October – mid November, “slaughter month” or “Gór’s month”)
  2. Ýlir (mid November – mid December, “Yule month”)
  3. Mörsugur (mid December – mid January, “fat sucking month”)
  4. Þorri (mid January – mid February, “frozen snow month”)
  5. Góa (mid February – mid March, “Góa’s month, see Nór”)
  6. Einmánuður (mid March – mid April, “lone” or “single month”)
  • Náttleysi (“Nightless days”)
  1. Harpa (mid April – mid May, Harpa is a female name, probably a forgotten goddess, first day of Harpa is celebrated as Sumardagurinn fyrsti – first day of summer)
  2. Skerpla (mid May – mid June, another forgotten goddess)
  3. Sólmánuður (mid June – mid July, “sun month”)
  4. Heyannir (mid July – mid August, “hay business month”)
  5. Tvímánuður (mid August – mid September, “two” or “second month”)
  6. Haustmánuður (mid September – mid October, “autumn month”)

Old Georgian calendar

Month Georgian Month Name Transliteration Georgian Other Names Transliteration
January აპნისი, აპანი Apnisi, Apani
February სურწყუნისი Surtskunisi განცხადებისთვე Gantskhadebistve
March მირკანი Mirkani
April იგრიკა Igrika
May ვარდობისა Vardobisa ვარდობისთვე Vardobistve
June მარიალისა Marialisa თიბათვე, ივანობისთვე Tibatve, Ivanobistve
July თიბისა Tibisa მკათათვე, კვირიკობისთვე Mkatatve, Kvirikobistve
August ქველთობისა Kveltobisa მარიამობისთვე Mariamobistve
September ახალწლისა Akhaltslisa ენკენისთვე Enkenistve
October სთვლისა Stvlisa ღვინობისთვე Gvinobistve
November ტირისკონი Tiriskoni გიორგობისთვე, ჭინკობისთვე Giorgobistve, Chinkobistve
December ტირისდენი Tirisdeni ქრისტეშობისთვე Kristeshobistve

*NOTE: New Year in ancient Georgia started from September.

Old Swedish calendar

  1. Torsmånad (January, ‘Torre’s month’ (ancient god))
  2. Göjemånad (February, ‘Goe’s month’ (ancient goddess))
  3. Vårmånad (March, ‘Spring month’)
  4. Gräsmånad (April, ‘Grass month’)
  5. Blomstermånad (May, ‘Bloom month’)
  6. Sommarmånad (June, ‘Summer month’)
  7. Hömånad (July, ‘Hay month’)
  8. Skördemånad, Rötmånad (August, ‘Harvest month’ or ‘Rotten month’)
  9. Höstmånad (September, ‘Autumn month’)
  10. Slaktmånad (October, ‘Slaughter month’)
  11. Vintermånad (November, ‘Winter month’)
  12. Julmånad (December, ‘Christmas month’)

Old English calendar

Like the Old Norse calendar, the Anglo-Saxons had their own calendar before they were Christianized which reflected native traditions and deities. These months were attested by Bede in his works On Chronology and The Reckoning of Time written in the 8th century.[9] His months are probably those as written in the Northumbrian dialect of Old English which he was familiar with. The months were so named after the moon; the new moon marking the end of an old month and start of a new month; the full moonoccurring in the middle of the month, after which the month was named.

  1. Æfterra-ġēola mōnaþ (January, ‘After-Yule month’)
  2. Sol-mōnaþ (February, ‘Sol month’)
  3. Hrēð-mōnaþ (March, ‘Hreth month’)
  4. Ēostur-mōnaþ (April, ‘Ēostur month’)
  5. Ðrimilce-mōnaþ (May, ‘Three-milkings month’)
  6. Ærra-Liþa (June, ‘Ere-Litha’)
  7. Æftera-Liþa (July, ‘After-Litha’)
  8. Weōd-mōnaþ (August, ‘Weed month’)
  9. Hāliġ-mōnaþ or Hærfest-mōnaþ (September, ‘Holy month’ or ‘Harvest month’)
  10. Winter-fylleþ (October, ‘Winter-filleth’)
  11. Blōt-mōnaþ (November, ‘Blót month’)
  12. Ærra-ġēola mōnaþ (December, ‘Ere-Yule’)

Old Egyptian calendar

The ancient civil Egyptian calendar had a year that was 365 days long and was divided into 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days (epagomenes) at the end of the year. The months were divided into 3 “weeks” of ten days each. Because the ancient Egyptian year was almost a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year and stellar events “wandered” through the calendar, it is referred to as Annus Vagus or “Wandering Year”.

  1. Thout
  2. Paopi
  3. Hathor
  4. Koiak
  5. Tooba
  6. Emshir
  7. Paremhat
  8. Paremoude
  9. Pashons
  10. Paoni
  11. Epip
  12. Mesori

 

Source

Wikipedia

Months of the Year

The Old English names for the months give you some idea of what concerned people 1,500 years ago. They describe what happened at different times of the year. Remember, these relate to life in the northern hemisphere.

JANUARY

In the Roman calendar, Januarius mensis, the month of Janus the god of gates who looked both backwards and forwards, signifying the gate into the new year. Because this month included the festival of Janus, it later became the first month of the year.

The Old English names for this month were

ætera Geola after Yule, a name used by Christians. Yule was a pagan festival.

Formamonath first-month

Wulfmonath wolf-month, because that’s when they roamed in search of food!

FEBRUARY

In the Roman calendar, Februarius mensis, the month of februa, the feast of purification. Februus was the Etruscan god of riches, represented in Roman mythology by Dis Pater, ‘rich father’.

The Old English name for this month was solmonath, mud-month, because the rain made the soil and the fields difficult for people to work in..

MARCH

In the Roman calendar, Martius mensis, month of Mars, the god of war. In the earlier Roman calendar, it was the first of ten months in the year. (The twelve month year was devised later.)

In Old English, it was Hrethmonath, fierce-month, because it was a time of blustery winds.

APRIL

In the Roman calendar, Aprilis. It was the second month in the older Roman calendar, which had only ten months. Its name might have come from Latin aperire, to open, referring to the Spring opening of buds and blossoms. It might also be a dedication to the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite (who was called Venus in Roman mythology).

Earlier versions in English, from about the 13th century, included Aperill, Averil and the French Avril.

In Old English, it was eastermonath Easter-month. Eostre was the Germanic goddess of fruits and fertility whose name was borrowed by the Christian Church for the festival of Easter.

MAY

In the Roman calendar, Maius, related to the Greek goddess Maia, the mother of Hermes (who was called Mercury in Roman mythology).

An Old English name for this month was thrimilce, three-milk, because cows were very productive at this time and could be milked three times a day.

JUNE

In the Roman calendar, Junius, the name of some Roman generals, or perhaps Juno, the queen of the gods.

An Old English name for the month was seremonath, dry-month — different from the mud-month of February!

JULY

In the Roman calendar, Julius (the famous Julius Caesar) in whose honour it was named in 44BC. In the older Roman calendar, this was the 5th month, Quintilis.

In Old English, we find the picturesque name mædmonath, meadow-month, the time when cattle could feed in the meadows.

AUGUST

In the Roman calendar, named after the emperor Augustus in 8BC. In the older Roman calendar, the month was originally Sextilis, the 7th month.

In the Old English calendar, it was Weodmonath, weed-month. Weod meant grass and herbs, not just weeds as we know them. Harvesting the fruits of flourishing plants came in the following month.

SEPTEMBER

The name in the Roman calendar is from Latin septem, seven. This was the 7th month of the earlier Roman calendar.

In Old English, hæerfestmonath, harvest-month, and later haligmonath, holy-month, in the Christian calendar. This was because Mary, the mother of Jesus, was believed to have been born on September 8th.

OCTOBER

The name in the Roman calendar is from Latin octo, eight. It was the 8th month in the older Roman calendar.

In Old English, it was winmonath, wine-month, the time when grapes were gathered for wine-making.

NOVEMBER

In the Roman calender, the name came from Latin novem, nine. It was the 9th month of the earlier Roman calendar.

An Old English name was Blotmonath, blood-month, denoting the period of butchering animals and salting their meat for the coming winter. It was also called Windmonath, wind-month, because the seas became too rough for fishermen to do their work.

DECEMBER

In the Roman calendar, the name came from Latin decem, ten. It was the 10th and last month of the older Roman calendar.

In Old English, we find ærra Geloa, early Yule, the first period of the pagan festival which was later borrowed and adapted by the Christian church to celebrate the birth of Jesus.

Special note This is why Christmas is sometimes still called Yuletide.

The Month of December

The Month of December

December is the twelfth month of the year and has 31 days. It was originally the tenth month of the Roman calendar until 153 BCE.

December Means Tenth

December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the modern day Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar. The month kept its original name from the Latin word decem meaning “ten” which marked it as the tenth month of the year in the Roman calendar.

December was named during a time when the calendar year began with March, which is why its name no longer corresponds with its placement in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

  • Middle English – decembre
  • Latin name – December – tenth month
  • Old English – Geol-monaþ – month before yule

History of December

December was originally the last month of the old Roman calendar since the winter period was not assigned months. It originally consisted of 30 days, but its length was shortened to 29 days when the months of January and February were added around 700 BCE. During the Julian calendar reform, two days were added to December making it 31 days long.

Twelfth Month of the Year

December is the seasonal equivalent of June in the opposite hemisphere.

The month contains the winter solstice which is the shortest day of the year and marks the beginning of the winter season in the Northern Hemisphere.

December starts on the same day of the week as September every year and ends on the same day of the week as April every year.

Birth Flower and Birthstone

Its birth flower is the holly or Euphorbia pulcherrima.

The birthstone for December is the blue turquoise or zircon.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of November

The Month of November

November is the 11th month of the year and has 30 days. It was originally the 9th month of the Roman calendar until 153 BCE.

Naming November

November is the 11th month of the year in the modern day Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar. The month kept its original name from the Latin novemmeaning “nine” which marked it the 9th month of the year in the Roman calendar.

November was named during a time when the calendar year began with March, which is why its name no longer corresponds with its placement in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

  • Middle English – novembre
  • Latin name – novembris mensis – 9th month
  • Old English – Blotmanad – Blood month

History of November

November was originally the 9th month of early versions of the Roman calendar and consisted of 30 days. It became the 11th month of the year with a length of 29 days when the months of January and Februarywere added. During the Julian calendar reform, a day was added to November making it 30 days long again.

11th Month in the Year

November is the 11th month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar and was the 9th month in the Roman calendar. It is the seasonal equivalent of May in the opposite hemisphere.

November starts on the same day of the week as February in common years and March every year. November ends on the same day of the week as August every year.

Birth Flower and Birthstone

November’s birth flower is the chrysanthemum.

The birthstone for November is the topaz.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of October

The Month of October

October is the tenth month of the year and has 31 days. It was originally the eighth month of the Roman calendar until 153 BCE.

The Eighth Became the Tenth

October is the tenth month of the year in the modern day Gregorian calendar. It was also the tenth month in the earlier Julian calendar.

The name October is derived from octo, which means eight in Latin. It dates back more than 2000 years to the ancient Roman calendar, which was replaced by the Julian calendar in 45 BCE.

  • Middle English – octobre
  • Latin name – October mensis – eighth month
  • Anglo Saxons – Winterfylleth – winter full moon

History of October

October always had 31 days, and it became the tenth month of the year when the months of January and February were added, pushing October towards the end of the solar year, which is around 365.24 days long.

The Julian was substituted for the Gregorian calendar because it did not reflect the length of a year on Earth accurately enough. Today’s Gregorian calendar does a much better job at keeping up with our planet’s revolutions around the Sun, but even this calendar is not perfect.

Fall and Spring Month

October is in the fall in the Northern Hemisphere, the month after the autumnal equinox. However, as seasons are opposite on either side of the equator, October is in the spring in the Southern Hemisphere. The seasonal equivalent is April in the opposite hemisphere.

The month of October starts on the same day of the week as January in common years, but during leap years, October does not start on the same day of the week as any other month. It ends on the same day of the week as February every year and January in common years only.

Calendula and Opal

October’s birth flower is the calendula. The birthstone for October is the opal and it is said that the opal will crack if worn by someone who is not born in October.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of September

The Month of September

September is the ninth month of the year in and has 30 days. It was originally the seventh month of the Roman calendar until 153 BCE.

Naming September

September is the ninth month of the year in the modern day Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar. The month kept its original name from the Roman calendar in which septem means “seven” in Latin marking it as the seventh month.

September was named during a time when the calendar year began with March, which is why its name no longer corresponds with its placement in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

  • Middle English – septembre
  • Latin name – september mensis – seventh month
  • Anglo-Saxons – Gerst monath – Barley month

History of September

September was the seventh month and had a length of 30 days in older versions of the Roman calendar. It eventually became the ninth month with a length of 29 days after the months of January and February had been added to the calendar. Julius Caesar added one day to the month making it 30 days long during the Julian calendar reform.

Ninth Month of the Year

September is a time when many students return to school after the summer holiday in the Northern Hemisphere.

September starts on the same day of the week as December every year, but does not end on the same day of the week as any other month in the year.

Birth Flower and Birthstone

Its birth flowers are the forget-me-not, morning glory and aster.

The birthstone for September is the sapphire which means clear thinking.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of August

The Month of August

August is the eighth month of the year, has 31 days, and is named after Augustus Caesar.

August is the eighth month of the year in our modern day Gregorian calendar.

Naming August – Augustus Caesar

August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar. The month of August was originally named Sextilis in Latin since it was the sixth month in the ancient Roman calendar. The name of the month was changed to August in honor of Augustus Caesar in 8 BCE.

  • Latin name – Augustus mensis – Month of Augustus
  • Latin – sextilis mensis – Sixth month
  • Anglo-Saxons – Weod Monath – Weed month

History of August

In earlier versions of the Roman calendar, August was called Sextilis, the sixth month. It consisted of 31 days. It later became the eighth month with a length of 29 days when January and February were added to the year. Julius Caesar added two days to the month around 45 BCE. It was later renamed to honor Augustus Caesar in 8 BCE.

Eighth Month in the Year

August is the eighth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar and is 31 days long. It is considered the busiest time for tourism because it falls in the main school summer holiday period. It is the seasonal equivalent of February in the opposite hemisphere.

August does not start on the same day of the week as any other month in the year in common years, but ends on the same day of the week as November every year. During leap years, August starts on the same day as February and still ends on same day as November.

Birth Flower and Stone

Its birth flower is the gladiolus or poppy which represents beauty, strength, love, marriage and family.

The birthstone for August is the peridot or onyx.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of July

The Month of July

July is the seventh month of the year, has 31 days, and is named after Julius Caesar.

In our modern day Gregorian calendar, July is the seventh month of the year.

Julius Caesar’s Month

July is also the seventh month of the year in the Julian calendar. The month of July was previously called Quintilis in Latin as it was the fifth month in the ancient Roman calendar. The name of the month was changed to July in honor of Julius Caesar during the Julian calendar reform.

  • Middle English – Julie
  • Latin name – Julius mensis – Month of Julius
  • Latin – quintilis mensis – Fifth month

History of July

July was originally Quintilis, the fifth month of the year in the Roman calendar and consisted of 31 days. It was changed around 450 BCE when January became the first month of the year. Its name was changed during the Julian calendar reform in 45 BCE to honor Julius Caesar.

In modern times, July also has 31 days. It is the warmest month of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and coldest month in the Southern hemisphere.

The month of July starts on the same day of the week as April during common years and as January during leap years. July does not end on the same day of the week as any year in a common year but ends on the same day of the week as January in a leap year.

July’s Birth Flower and Stone

July’s birth flowers are the Larkspur or Water Lily.

The birthstone for July is the ruby which symbolizes contentment.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of June

The Month of June

June is the sixth month of the year, has 30 days, and is named after the Roman goddess Juno.

June is the sixth month of the year in our modern day Gregorian calendar.

Juno’s Month

June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar. It is believed that the month is named after the Roman goddess Juno, who is the wife of Jupiter and is also equivalent to the Greek goddess Hera. Another belief is that the month’s name comes from the Latin work iuniores which means “younger ones”.

  • Old English – Junius
  • Latin name – Junius mensis – Month of Juno
  • Old French – Juin

History of June

June was originally the fourth month of the year in earlier versions of the Roman calendar and consisted of 30 days. It became the fifth month with a length of 29 days following a calendar reform around 450 BCE. In the Julian calendar, June was given a length of 30 days again.

Sixth Month in the Year

June is the sixth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar and is 30 days long. It is the month that has the most amount of daylight hours of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and shortest amount of daylight hours in the Southern hemisphere.

Many celebrations take place in the month of June, especially marriages. According to one etymology, June is named after the Roman goddess Juno who is the goddess of marriage and a married couple’s household. It is considered good luck to get married in this month.

June and May are the only two months that doesn’t start on the same day of the week as any other month. June ends on the same day of the week as March every year.

Birth Flower and Stone

June’s birth flower is the rose or the honeysuckle.

The birthstones for June are the pearl, the moonstone, and the Alexandrite which all symbolize health and longevity.

 

–timeanddate.com

The Month of May

The Month of May

May is the fifth month of the year, has 31 days, and is named after the Greek goddess Maia.

May is the fifth month of the year in our modern day Gregorian calendar.

Naming May – Maia’s Month

May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar.  It is named after the Greek goddess, Maia who is also identified with the Roman goddess of fertility, Bona Dea.

  • Old English – Maius
  • Latin name – Maius mensis – Month of Maia
  • Old French – Mai

History of May

May was originally the third month of the year in older versions of the Roman calendar and consisted of 31 days. It became the fifth month when the months January  and February were added to the calendar.

Fifth Month in the Year

May is the fifth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar and consists of 31 days. It is commonly associated as a month of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn (fall) in the Southern hemisphere. It is said that this is the month when plants really start to grow.

May does not start or end on the same day of the week as any other month.

Birth Flower and Stone

Its birth flower is the Lily of the Valley and the Crataegus monogyna.

The birthstone for May is the emerald which represents love or success.

 

–timeandday.com

The Month of April

The Month of April

April is the fourth month of the year, has 30 days, and is named after the Greek goddess Aphrodite.

April is the fourth month of the year in our modern day Gregorian calendar.

Naming April – Aphrodite’s Month

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar and its predecessor, the Julian calendar.  Its name is derived from the latin word aperit, which means to open. It is considered that April is the month of the growing season and when trees and flowers begin to “open”. It is also believed that the month’s name is named after the Greek goddess, Aphrodite (Aphros).

  • Old English – April or Aprilis
  • Latin name – Aprilis or Aperit – to open
  • Greek – Aphro – short for Aphrodite

History of April

April was originally the second month of the year in early versions of the Roman calendar and consisted of 30 days. It became the fourth month consisting of only 29 days when January was designated the first month of the year around 450 BCE. The month became 30 days long again when Julius Caesar reformed the calendar.

Fourth Month

April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar and consists of 30 days. It is commonly associated with the season of spring in the Northern Hemisphere and fall (autumn) in the Southern hemisphere.

April starts on the same day of the week as July and ends on the same day of the week as December in common years. During leap years, April starts on the same day of the week as January.

Birth Flower and Stone

April’s birth flower is the daisy and sweet pea.

The birthstone for April is the diamond which symbolizes innocence.