On Thursday, August 30,We Celebrate the Goddess Ishtar

glittery pentacle ^.^

On Thursday, August 30,We Celebrate the Goddess Ishtar

 

The origin of this babylonian-assyrian main goddess was a semitian vegetation- and moon goddess with lower influence, but when these tribes arrived at the land of the sumerian kingdom, her cult reached the sumerian capital Uruk. The sumerian people identified Ishtar easily with their own goddess Inanna. After some time Ishtar became in the second millenium the highest and widest worshipped goddess of the Babylonians. The myths of Inanna became the myths of Ishtar:

Ishtars reign was not depending on a male consort, she reigned absolute on her own and united in her all the aspects of femininity. Her position in the Babylonian pantheon was the highest, but her family relations are a bit confusing: Ishtar was daughter of the moon goddess Ningal and her consort Nanna (akk. Sin), who were the Citygods of Uruk. In other traditions she appears to be the daughter of the sky god Anu, later she also became his wife.

She was also the sister of the sun god Utu/Marduk and the underworld goddess Ereschkigal (“Mistress of the great under”). She appeared in person wearing a zodiac belt together with hunting dogs like Diana or riding on a lion, her holy animal.

She was the Queen of heaven (Scharrat Schame) and the mother, who had born the world and still remained a virgin.

Her consort or husband was Tammuz ( sum.: Dumuzi), river god of Euphrates and Tigris, who was meanwhile also her son and her brother. When the world began, Tammuz (faithful son) came together with Ishtar in the world. She bore him, she made love with him and she remained a virgin. When Tammuz died in the summer and all vegetation died with him, Ishtar was looking for him all over the world. She finally found him in the underworld and brought him back to life (see Celtic believe). Tammuz was reborn and the vegetation could flourish again. Then the ritual-festival of the “Holy Marriage” was celebrated at the time of the autumn equinox, when in the Near-East the first rain fell again.

For the assyrian people she was mainly a war goddess (Lioness of the battle), but also the love and the sexual life belonged to her realm of influence. Moreover she was the Goddess of justice and healing.

This Akkadian/Babylonian Great Goddess represents a later and more complex development of the Sumerian Inanna, and her son/lover Tammuz plays the role of the vegetation-god. She is not only an embodiment of sexuality and fertility, a “Lady of Battle” and a goddess of healing, but it is also she who bestowed the ancient kings with the right to rule over her/their people. Her fame reached into the Hittite and Hurrian lands of Anatolia, to Sumeria, Egypt and to the Assyrians. Here especially – in Assyria and Egypt – she was revered as a goddess of Battle and is depicted with bow, quiver and sword; her prowess is symbolised by her lioness-steed.

In other sacred texts Ishtar is described as having “sweet lips” and a “beautiful figure” and it is clear that she takes much pleasure in love. Significantly, when she descends to the Netherworld all sexual activity ceases everywhere on earth. In this aspect her familiar and symbolic animal is the dove. Ishtar was also thought to rule the menstrual/ovarian cycle.

In the Old Testament her worship is regarded as an abomination, and it is Ishtar’s worshipers and her ishtarishtu (sacred prostitutes) who were to be found even at the doors of the Hebrew god’s great temple, much to the consternation of his priests and prophets.

As well as being renowned for her powers of creation, divine rulership, prophesy and desire, Ishtar was also regarded as a healer and we know that her effigy once was transported all the way to Egypt in order to heal the then sick Amenhotep III.
Resource
Shrine for the forgotten Goddesses

 

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Goddesses for every occasion

glittery pentacle ^.^

Goddesses for every occasion

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Sunday Sunne, Frau Sonne, Aditi, Amaterasu, Arinna, Izanami, Ochumare

Monday Luna, Selene, Diana, Re, Gealach, Ida, Artemis, Yemaya, Erzulie

Tuesday Pingalla, Anna, Aine, Danu, Yngona, Bellona, Aida Wedo, Sun Woman

Wednesday Isis, Demeter, Ceres, Spider Woman, Bona Dea, Oya, Devi-Kali, Hella, Rhiannon, Coatlique

Thursday Juno, Hera, Kwan Yin, Mary, Cybele, Tara, Mawu, Waresa, Ishtar

Friday Freya, Astarte, Aphrodite, Erzulie, Eve, Venus, Isis, Diana, Chalchiuhtlique

Saturday Ops, Rhea, Tellus mater, Gaia, Eartha, Ge, Ashera, the Shekinah, Mary, Demeter, Herodias

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Goddesses of the Zodiac

 

Aries = Athena, The Morrigan, Minerva
Taurus = Hathor, Isis, Io, Venus, Selene
Gemini = Kali, Parvati, Tefnut, Leda
Cancer = Ix Chel, Ida, Selene, Luna
Leo = Arinna, Cybele, Neshto, Juno
Virgo = Kwan Yin, Bel, Inanna, Diana, Ishtar
Libra = Ishtar, Aphrodite, Dike, Themis
Scorpio = Pele, Tiamat, Ishara, Selket
Sagittarius = Artemis, Diana, Pingala
Capricorn = Awehai, Ida, Amalthea, Vesta
Aquarius = Mawu, Cybele, Sophia, Iris, Juno
Pisces = Nammu, Anuit, Aphrodite, Dione

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Goddesses of the Month

 

January = Juno, Hera, Hestia, Brigid
February = Brigid, White Buffalo Woman, Juno Februa
March = Ra-Nuit, Artemis, Minerva
April = Aphrodite, Ishtar, Artemis, Astarte, Eostre
Venus, Terra , Erzulie
May = Maia, Flora, Tanith, Bel, Mary, Hera
June = Ishtar, Athena, Demeter, Juno, Persephone,
Luna, Hera, Mawu
July = Ishtar, Apet, Athena, Demeter, Persephone,
Spider Woman.
August = Ishtar, Ceres, Lakshmi, Hesperus
September= Hathor, Ishtar, Yemaya, Menkhet, Pomona
October = Hathor, Demeter, Ceres, the Horae
November = Sekhmet, Demeter, Diana, Kali, Astrae
December = Vesta, Hestia, Befana, Sekhmet, Oya

Hestia 26 December – 22 January
Bridhe 23 January – 19 February
Moura 20 February – 19 March
Columbina 20 March – 17 April
Maia 18 April – 15 May
Hera 16 May – 12 June
Rosea 13 June – 10 July
Kerea 11 July – 8 August
Hesperis 9 August – 5 September
Mala 6 September – 2 October
Hathor 3 October – 30 October
Cailleach/
Samhain 31 October – 27 November
Astraea 28 November – 25 December

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Goddesses for the days of the Moon/month

 

1 (new moon) Hathor, Isis, Anahit, Selene, Juno, Lucina, Luna, Re,
Blodeuwedd.

2 Selene, Luna, the Mothers, Gos, Arstat, Saoka

3 Athena, the Witch of Gaeta, Rata

4 Hathor, Isis, Selene, Luna

5 Maat, the Erinyes, Eric, Terra, the Eumenides

6 Artemis, Erzulie, the Mothers

7 the Sabbatu, Leto, Luna, Arstat

8 Selene, Luna, Ata Bey

9 Rhea, Selene, Spider Woman

10 Anahit, Anaitis, White Buffalo Calf Woman

11 Kista, Athena, Minerva, Sophia, Changing Woman

12 Demeter, Oddudua, Dikaiosune

13 The Muses, Diana, Oya, the Corn Mothers

14 Ishtar, Selene, Gos, Aida Wedo, the Lady, the Great Mother

15 Ishtar, Luna, Mene, Anna Perenna, Mary, Hina, Arianrhod, Aradia, Diana, Cybele, Mah

16 Levanah, Selene, Luna, Kwan Yin, Chalchiuhtlique

17 Ashi Vanguhi, Arstat, Kista, Demeter, Luna, Aida Wedo

18 Ochumare, Mawu, Copper Woman

19 The Manes, Ashi Vanguhi, Minerva

20 Selene, Tonantzin, Coatlique, Mary

21 Drvaspa, Hera, Athene, Medusa

22 Re, Gealach, Rhiannon, Selene, Mayauel

23 Venus, Aphrodite, Oshun, Erzulie, Freya, Xochiquetzl

24 Daena, Kista, Ochumare, Maat, Sophia, Chang-O

25 Ashi Vanguhi, Ard, Kista, Athena

26 Arstat, Cerridwen, Copper Woman, Mother Holle

27 Diana, Hecate, Maman Brigette, Oya

28 Zamyad, Tellus Mater, Hemera, Eos

29 Hecate, Tonantzin, Nyx, Rhiannon, Eurydice

30 Hecate, Mene, Hecate Prosmna, the moon Goddess, the Dark Maiden, the Crone.

 

Ishtar

Witch Craft

Ishtar

 

Unto the queen of the gods,
into whose hands are committed the behest of the great gods,
unto the lady of Nineveh,the queen of the gods,
the exhalted one, unto the daughter of the moon-god,
the twin sister of the sun god, unto her who ruleth all kingdoms,
unto the goddess of the world who determineth decrees,
unto the Lady of heaven and earth who receiveth supplication,
unto the merciful goddess who hearkeneth unto entreaty,
who receiveth prayer, who loveth righteousness,

I make my prayer unto Ishtar
to whom all confusion is a cause of grief.
The sorrows which I see I lament before thee.
Incline thine ear unto my words of lamentation
and let thine heart be opened unto my sorrowful speech.

Turn thy face unto me,
O Lady, so that by reason thereof
the heart of thy servant may be made strong!

I, Ashur-nasir-pal, the sorrowful one, am thy humble servant;
I, who am beloved of thee, make offerings unto thee and adore thy divinity.
I was born in the mountains which no man knoweth;
I was without understanding and I prayed not of thy majesty.
Moreover the people of Assyria did not recognise and did not accept thy divinity.

But thou, O Ishtar, thou mighty Queen of the gods,
by the lifting up of thine eyes did teach me,
for thou didst desire my rule.
Thou didst take me from the mountains,
and didst make me the Door of my peoples,
and thou, O Ishtar, didst make great my name!
As concerning that for which thou are wrath with me,
grant me forgiveness.
Let thine anger be appeased,
and let thine heart be mercifully inclined towards me.

Assyria. W.H.Boulton, p. 154

 

Pagan Studies of the Gods and Goddesses: Maat: The Ancient Egyptian Goddess

Maat

 

The Ancient Egyptian Goddess of Truth, Justice and Morality

Maat, also known as Ma’at or Mayet, was a female goddess in the ancient Egyptian religion who represented truth, justice, balance and morality. The daughter of the Egyptian sun deity Ra and wife of the moon god Thoth, she served a kind of spirit of justice to the Egyptians. She decided whether a person would successfully reach the afterlife, by weighing their soul against her feather of truth, and was the personification of the cosmic order and a representation of the stability of the universe. The earliest writings where she is mentioned date back to the Old Kingdom of Egypt more than 2,300 years ago.

The Egyptian culture was centered on order, everything had its due place in the world. This included religion, society and seasonal changes. The goddesses Ma’at came to represent the concept of balance and order because many Egyptians needed to explain the world around them. She was the one that kept the stars in motion, the seasons changing and the maintaining of the order of Heaven and Earth. The opposing force of this was known in ancient terms as “isfet” or chaos. Ancient Egyptians considered the desert beyond the Nile River to be chaotic; whereas, the area close to the Nile was considered orderly. Together, these two forces brought balance to the world in which they lived and was an important part of everyday Egyptian life

Ma’at is usually depicted in the form of a woman seated or standing with outstretched wings attached to both her arms. In other instances she is seen holding a scepter in one hand and an ankh (the symbol of life) in the other. Her statue was a stone platform depicting a stable foundation on which order was built. A common symbol associated with her is an ostrich feather, which she is almost always shown as wearing in her hair. Often, the Feather of Ma’at was a distinctive feature of her headdress. Less frequently images of the goddess showed her without a head, instead replaced by the feather. In other images the feather alone conveyed her presence. This feather has come to symbolize her being, as well as the representation of balance and order, it became a hieroglyph for “truth.”

Ma’at was associated with the law in ancient Egypt. From the 5th dynasty (c. 2510-2370 BC) onwards, the Vizier responsible for justice was called the Priest of Maat and in later periods judges wore images of her. The ‘Spirit of Maat’ was embodied by the chief judge in charge of the Egyptian law courts. He had a dual role, serving as both a priest and working directly in the law courts and justice system. The “Priest of Ma’at” began court hearings whilst wearing the feather of Ma’at and all other court officials wore small golden images of the goddess as a sign of their judicial authority, also as a symbol that their judgement would be balanced and fair. Priests drew the Feather of Ma’at on their tongues with green dye, so that the words they spoke were truth. The priest would rule on the earthly punishment according to the nature of the law that had been broken. Punishments included imposing fines, corporal punishment and in extreme cases capital punishment. It was considered a crime against Ma’at if a person engaged in jealousy, dishonesty, gluttony, laziness, injustice, and ungratefulness. The guilty Egyptian was deemed to have violated the Spirit of Ma’at and would face a further judgment in the Underworld during the ceremony of justification in the Hall of the Two Truths. The ‘Spirit of Ma’at’ detailed in the wisdom literature contained practical guidance with examples and some rules applied in previous law cases. These kinds of instructional texts have been described as “Ma’at Literature”.

The Book of the Dead is a collection of funerary texts and spells from ancient Egypt designed to assist a person’s journey through the underworld, into the afterlife. Without these spells, it was believed a person could not proceed. In the book is a spell called the “Forty-Two Declarations of Purity” or the “Negative Confessions”. This spell is comprised of confessions the tomb owner believed he committed throughout his life. It was believed that any crimes committed against Ma’at should be written down as they could easily be forgiven. In the Hall of Ma’at is where the judgement of the dead was performed in which Ma’at played an important role. The ceremony, called the “Judgment of Osiris,” was named after Osiris, the god of the dead. When the dead were judged, it was the feather of Ma’at that their hearts were weighed against. If a balanced scale was struck, the deceased was deemed worthy to meet Osiris in Paradise. The weightlessness of their hearts indicated that their souls were not burdened with sin and evil. If the heart of the deceased was found to be heavier than the feather of Ma’at, it would be devoured by Ammit, the soul-eating monster depicted with the head of a crocodile, the forequarters of a lion and the hindquarters of a hippopotamus. Other gods in the judgement hall who were part of the tribunal overseeing the weighing of the heart were also pictured holding a feather but the scales always represented Ma ́at.

Ancient Egyptians worshipped many gods, one was certainly Ma’at, although Egyptian archaeologists now believe she was perhaps more of a concept or an ideal. It’s reasonable to assume her principles aided the people of Egypt in being better individuals and that she could be compared to the conscience of a person. There was a small temple dedicated to Ma’at by Hatshepsut, the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, Egypt’s first female pharaoh, at the Karnak temple complex in Luxor Egypt. Largely in ruins, it still preserves inscriptions of some of the viziers of Ramesses III and XI. A previous Ma’at temple existed in this area, indicated by reliefs and stelae belonging to the reign of Amenhotep III. The temple is inside the Precinct of Montu, the smallest of three enclosures at Ipet-Isut.

 

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Ma’at

Ma’at (pronounced may-et) is the ancient Egyptian goddess of truth, justice, harmony, and balance (a concept known as ma’at in Egyptian) who first appears during the period known as the Old Kingdom (c. 2613 – 2181 BCE) but no doubt existed in some form earlier. She is depicted in anthropomorphic form as a winged woman, often in profile with an ostrich feather on her head, or simply as a white ostrich feather. The feather of Ma’at was an integral part of the Weighing of the Heart of the Soul ceremony in the afterlife where the heart of the soul of the dead person was weighed in the scales of justice against the feather. Historian Margaret Bunson writes:

She maintained a vital role in the mortuary rituals of Egypt where she weighed the hearts of the deceased. This mortuary role evolved over the decades into the principle of ma’at, the desired right attitude, which remained the ethical and moral foundation of the Egyptian people. (152)

NAME & SIGNIFICANCE

Ma’at is said to have been born of the sun god Ra (Atum) at the beginning of creation through the power of Heka, who was magic personified. Her name means “that which is straight” implying order, justice, and harmony. She is thought to have been present from the beginning of time when, from the primordial waters of Nun, the ben-ben (first mound of dry land) rose with Atum (or Ra, the sun god) standing upon it in the presence of the invisible Heka. In the moment that Ra spoke the world into creation, Ma’at was born. Her spirit of harmony and balance infused the creation and caused the world to operate rationally according to purpose. The principle of ma’at was the operational function of life and that of heka (magic) the power source which allowed for it. It is for this reason that she is considered more of a concept than a goddess with a specific personality and story like Isis or Hathor. Ma’at’s spirit is the spirit of all creation, and if one is in tune with that spirit, one will live well and have good reason to hope for eternal peace in the afterlife; if one refused to live in accordance with the principles of Ma’at, then one suffered the consequences which one would have brought upon one’s self. Margaret Bunson comments on this, writing:

Ma’at was the model for human behavior, in conformity with the will of the gods, the universal order evident in the heavens, cosmic balance upon the earth, the mirror of celestial beauty. Awareness of the cosmic order was evident early in Egypt; priest-astronomers charted the heavens and noted that the earth responded to the orbits of the stars and planets. The priests taught that mankind was commanded to reflect divine harmony by assuming a spirit of quietude, reasonable behavior, cooperation, and a recognition of the eternal qualities of existence, as demonstrated by the earth and the sky. All Egyptians anticipated becoming part of the cosmos when they died, thus the responsibility for acting in accordance with its laws was reasonable. Strict adherence to ma’at allowed the Egyptians to feel secure with the world and with the divine plan for all creation. (152)

Her importance is signified by one of the means by which the Egyptians wrote her name. Although she was often identified by the feather symbol, she was also designated by a plinth. The plinth was commonly seen below the thrones of deities but not used to relay their personal names. The fact that Ma’at was signified by a plinth suggests, according to Egyptologist Geraldine Pinch, that Ma’at was considered the foundation upon which Egyptian society was built (160). Her significance is also demonstrated in iconography showing her constantly at the side of Ra in his heavenly barge sailing with him across the sky during the day and helping him defend the boat against the serpent Apophis by night.

The ancient Egyptians also invoked her name in stories of a long-lost past on earth when all things were beautiful and there was no injustice. Such stories usually have to do with the time of Osiris and Isis and their just and benevolent rule of the earth before Osiris was murdered by Set. In some cases, though, it is Ma’at who rules the earth alone as Pinch notes:

Egyptian myths of a golden age included a period when Ma’at was ruler of earth. She was sometimes said to have withdrawn to the heavens because she was grieved by the wicked behavior of humanity. Ma’at could still be thought of as living with an individual like his or her good angel and accompanying that person into the afterlife. Eventually “joining Ma’at” became a euphemism for dying. (160)

It is in her mortuary role that Ma’at is best known to most people in the modern day. One of the most iconic images of ancient Egypt is the ceremony known as The Weighing of the Heart of the Soul in which Ma’at and her white feather of truth were most important.

MA’AT’S WHITE FEATHER OF TRUTH

The Egyptians believed strongly that every individual was responsible for his or her own life and that life should be lived with other people and the earth in mind. In the same way that the gods cared for humanity, so should humans care for each other and the earth which they had been provided with. This philosophy is evident in every aspect of Egyptian culture from the way they constructed their cities to the balance and symmetry of their temples and monuments. If one lived harmoniously in the will of the gods, then one was living in harmony with the concept of ma’at and the goddess who embodied that concept. One was free to live however one wanted, of course, and completely ignore the principle of ma’at, but eventually one would face the trial which awaited everyone: judgment in the Hall of Truth (also known as The Hall of Two Truths) in the afterlife. Wilkinson comments on this:

Her role was multifaceted but embraced two major aspects. On the one hand, Ma’at represesnted the universal order or balance – including concepts such as truth and right – which was established at the time of creation. This aspect is the basis of her relationship with Ra – for she is the order imposed upon the cosmos created by the solar demiurge and as such is the guiding principle who accompanied the sun god at all times…As a natural corollary of her identity with right balance and harmony Ma’at also actively represented the concept of judgement. In the Pyramid Texts the goddess appears in this role in dual form as ‘the two Ma’ats’ judging the deceased king’s right to the thrones of Geb [the rule of the earth] and in the later funerary literature it is in the Hall of the Two Truths (the dual form of Ma’at) that the judgment of the deceased occurs. The gods themselves, acting as the judges of the divine tribunal, are called ‘the council of Ma’at.’ (150)

To the Egyptians, the soul consisted of nine separate parts: the Khat was the physical body; the Ka one’s double-form; the Ba a human-headed bird aspect which could speed between earth and the heavens; Shuyet was the shadow self; Akh the immortal, transformed self; Sahu and Sechem aspects of the Akh; Ab was the heart, the source of good and evil; Ren was one’s secret name. All nine of these aspects were part of one’s earthly existence. When one died, the Akh (with the Sahu and Sechem) appeared before the god Osiris in the Hall of Truth and in the presence of the Forty-Two Judges to have one’s heart (Ab) weighed in the balance on a golden scale against Ma’at’s white feather of truth.

One would need to recite the Negative Confession (those actions one could honestly claim one had never committed in life) and then one’s heart was placed on the scale. If one’s heart was lighter than Ma’at’s feather, one waited while Osiris conferred with the Forty-Two Judges and the god of wisdom, Thoth, and, if considered worthy, was allowed to pass on through the hall and continue one’s existence in paradise; if one’s heart was heavier than the feather, it was thrown to the floor where it was devoured by the monster Ammut (the gobbler), and one then ceased to exist. No one could escape judgment, and the king of the land would have to stand before the scales of Ma’at and Osiris just as the lowest slave of field hand would also.

If one passed through judgment and avoided any of the pitfalls and traps set by demons and the forces of chaos, one arrived at The Field of Reeds, a paradise where one was greeted by those loved ones who had gone before and which was a mirror image of one’s life on earth. Margaret Bunson describes this afterlife:

Eternity itself was not some vague concept. The Egyptians, pragmatic and determined to have all things explained in concrete terms, believed that they would dwell in paradise, in areas graced by lakes and gardens. There they would eat the “cakes of Osiris” and float on the Lake of Flowers. The eternal kingdoms varied according to era and cultic belief but all were located beside flowing water and blessed with breezes, an attribute deemed necessary for comfort. The Garden of A’Aru was one such oasis of eternal bliss. Another was Ma’ati, an eternal land where the deceased buried a flame of fire and a scepter of crystal – rituals whose meanings are lost. The goddess Ma’at, the personification of cosmic order, justice, goodness, and faith, was the protector of the deceased in this enchanted realm, called Hehtt in some eras. Only the pure of heart, the uabt, could see Ma’at. (86-87)

In some images, the goddess is seen atop the scales at the moment of judgment and, in others, she is present near Osiris but she is always there even if only in the form of her feather placed on the scales. In the afterlife, she was thought to help those who had stood for her principles and lived their lives accordingly.

WORSHIP OF THE GODDESS

Although she was considered a very important deity, Ma’at had no temples and no official clergy (as was the case with Heka). She was honored by a small shrine set up in the temples of other gods. Even the one temple known to be erected in her honor by Queen Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) was built within the temple precinct of the god Montu. The people venerated the goddess by living according to her principles and bringing whatever gifts they wanted to offer to her shrines in the temples of the other gods. Wilkinson writes,

Even the title ‘priest of Ma’at’ is often regarded as an honourific which may have been given to those who served as magistrates or who dispensed judicial decisions on her behalf and who apparently wore small golden images of the goddess as a sign of their judicial authority. (152)

The only “official” worship of Ma’at was when the king of Egypt made sacrifice to her upon ascending to the throne and “presented Ma’at” to the gods by offering a small image of her. In doing so, the king was asking for her help in maintaining divine balance in his rule. If the king could not achieve balance and promote harmony, then it was a clear sign that he was not fit to rule. Ma’at – and the vital concept she embodied – was crucial to the king’s success.

She was an important and all-pervasive figure in the Egyptian pantheon, even though very few stories are told of her and she had no temple or cultic following. The gods were said to live off Ma’at and, as the scholar Richard H. Wilkinson notes, most of the images of the king presenting Ma’at to the other gods at his coronation “are essentially identical to those in which the king presents food, wine, or other forms of sacrifice to the gods” (152). The gods would have, in fact, lived off Ma’at in that they were all bound by their own laws to observe harmony and balance and encourage those values in the human beings they cared for.

Temples to Ma’at were the temples of all the other gods because Ma’at was the underlying cosmic principle which made the lives of humans and gods possible. One worshiped the goddess Ma’at by living a life in accordance with the highest principles of justice, order, and harmony keeping in mind one’s neighbors and the earth one had been given to tend. Although goddesses like Hathor and Isis were more popular, and even eventually took on many of Ma’at’s attributes, she remained an important deity throughout Egypt’s history and defined the cultural values of the country for centuries.

__________________________________________

*First article*
By Bryan Hilliard
Published on Ancient Origins

References
“Ancient Egyptian Gods | Ma’at.” Ancient Egyptian Gods | Ma’at. http://www.kingtutone.com/gods/maat/
“Ma’at, Goddess of Egypt.” Egyptian Goddess Maat ***. http://www.landofpyramids.org/maat.htm
Seawright, Caroline. “Ma’at, Goddess of Truth, Balance, Order.” Ma’at, Ancient Egyptian Goddess of Truth and Order.
“Ancient Egypt: The Mythology – Feather.” Ancient Egypt: The Mythology – Feather. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/feather.htm
“Ancient Egypt: The Mythology – Ma’at.” Ancient Egypt: The Mythology – Ma’at. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/maat.htm

 

*Second article*
APA Style
Mark, J. J. (2016, September 15). Ma’at. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Ma’at/

Chicago Style
Mark, Joshua J. “Ma’at.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Last modified September 15, 2016. https://www.ancient.eu/Ma’at/.

MLA Style
Mark, Joshua J. “Ma’at.” Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 15 Sep 2016. Web. 13 Aug 2018.

License
Written by Joshua J. Mark, published on 15 September 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms.

Venus, The Goddess of Fridays & Love

Venus

 

Venus is the Roman goddess of love, beauty, prosperity, fertility, and victory. She was so important to Romans that they claimed her as their ancestress. According to mythology, her son Aeneas fled from Troy to Italy. He became the ancestor of Remus and Romulus, who founded Rome.

So, in a way, it’s accurate to say that Venus was the mother of Rome. However, Venus had strong ties to GREEK MYTHOLOGY, too. The Romans thought she was the same goddess as APHRODITE, the GREEK GODDESS of love. They adopted many of Aphrodite’s symbols, such as roses and myrtle, to represent Venus. Myrtle was so important to this goddess that, during her festival, worshipers and even statues of her wore myrtle wreaths.

Venus’s festival took place on April 1. It was called the Veneralia. Aside from draping Venus in flowers, followers also carefully washed her statue, and promised to fulfill the moral obligations of good Roman wives and husbands. Many men and women also asked her advice on matters of the heart.

Other symbols of Venus included the scallop shell, doves, dolphins, pomegranates, pearls, mirrors, and girdles. Many of these were also adopted from Aphrodite. So was her origin story; she was said to be born of seafoam.

One of the most famous works of Western art depicts this event: Botticelli’s The Birth of Venus. It portrays her as standing on a large shell, her hair covering her, surrounded by other mythical figures. This artwork from hundreds of years after the Romans worshiped Venus shows how important her mythology continued to be even after the fall of Rome.

Plenty of other artworks also depict Venus, her birth, and her other myths. In fact, painting Venus was so popular that, after the classical era, any unclothed female figure came to be called a ‘Venus’.

Venus had many titles, representing her importance. These included:

  • Venus Cloacina – the Purifier
  • Venus Felix – the Lucky, suggesting she could be prayed to for good luck
  • Venus Genetrix – Mother, representing her role as mother of rome
  • Venus Murcia – Myrtle, representing the importance of this plant to her
  • Venus Verticordia – the Changer of Hearts, representing her role in love
  • Venus Victrix – Victorious, showing that she was a godess of victory

Later on in the Roman empire, Venus became even more important to Rome. She got new festivals on August 12 and October 9, and a shrine on a famous hill in Rome. Why? Well, Julius Caesar claimed her as his ancestor. Many other famous Roman politicians began to vie for her favor, and eventually, as Caeser became the head of a dynasty, she became associated with his legacy.

Venus was married to Vulcan, the god of fire and the forge. Vulcan was notoriously ugly – one of the ugliest of the gods. But he loved her so much that he created a golden carriage to pull her around. The carriage was drawn by doves to match Venus’s own beauty.

Venus was also the mother of CUPID, the god of love. Next time you see a picture of Cupid – maybe on Valentine’s day – you can think of his mother, Venus.

Despite her identification with Aphrodite, Venus was a native Roman goddess who was not adopted from anywhere. Her name is exactly the same as a Roman word for a particular kind of love. That name can be traced all the way back to the language before Latin, to a word meaning “to desire or love”. It’s clear that Venus was with the Romans for a long time.

Because she was the goddess of love, Venus was very important to new brides. They made offerings to her before they got married. Some people also say that they gave their childhood toys to her when they left home to get married.

Venus had many temples in Rome, since she was so important. The earliest known one was founded in 295 BC. Later, in 217 BC, Rome decided to give Venus a newer and even better temple after they lost an important battle. They thought that Venus was on the side of their enemies, and wanted to sway her. From this story, it’s easy to see how important Venus was to victory for the Romans.

You might be wondering why we have a planet named Venus. The planet is, indeed, name after the goddess. It was visible in the ancient night sky at certain times of the year, and looked like a very bright star. Because it was so bright and beautiful, it was named Venus. Ironically, the planet Venus is covered with acid clouds, so the name is not very suitable for a goddess of love and fertility. Nevertheless, the name shows us how much of an impact the Romans had on science.

Although Venus is no longer worshiped by large numbers of people, we still remember her in art and science thanks to her widespread influence.

 

Source

Venus: https://greekgodsandgoddesses.net – Greek Gods & Goddesses, February 22, 2017

The World of Goddesses

THE WORLD OF GODDESSES

 

APHRODITE – Greek; Goddess of passion, sexual love. Aphrodite will assist you in pulling loving energy toward yourself.

 

ARADIA – Italian; Queen of the Witches, daughter of Diana. Aradia is an extremely powerful entity and a protectress of Witches in general.

ARIANRHOD: Welsh; Goddess of the stars and reincarnation. Call on Arianrhod to help with past life memories and difficulties as well as for contacting the Star People.

ARTEMIS: Greek; Goddess of the Moon.

ASTARTE: Greek; Fertility Goddess. Whether you wish to bear children or have a magnificent garden, Astarte will assist in your desire.

ATHENA: Greek; Warrior Goddess and Protectress. Someone giving you a rough time at work? Call on Athena to help you.

 

BAST: Egyptian; Goddess of Protection and Cats. Bast is great for vehicle travel as well as walking down a dark alley. Call on her essence in the form of a giant panther to see you through to your destination.

BRIGID: Celtic; Warrior Goddess and Protectress. Brigid is also a “Triple Goddess”. She is strong and wise. Call on her to help protect your children in a tough situation.

 

CERES: Roman; Goddess of the Harvest.

CERRIDWEN: Welsh; Moon and Harvest Goddess. Also associated with the Dark Mother aspect of the Crone.

DEMETER: Greek; Earth Mother archetype. Excellent Goddess where birthing or small children are involved.

DIANA: Roman; Moon Goddess and Goddess of the Hunt. Diana is many faceted. She is a seductress (as she enchanted her brother Lucifer to beget Aradia in the form of a cat) as well as a mother figure for Witches.

DRYADS: Greek; feminine spirits of the trees.

FLORA: Roman; Goddess of Spring and Birth. For beautiful flowers, babies and all bounties of Mother Earth.

FORTUNA: Roman; Goddess of Fate.

FREYA: Scandinavian; Moon Goddess and wife/lover of Odin. Also cammander of the
Valkryies.

HATHOR: Egyptian; Protectress of women in business. A Hathor’s Mirror is very important for the Witch. Hathor was cunning as well as beautiful.

HECATE: Greek; Moon Goddess as in Crone or Dark Mother.

HERA: Greek; Goddess of Marriage. If handfasting or some type of commitment is the issure, Hera is the Goddess to seek. Just remember that she has a vindictive side.

HESTIA: Greek; Goddess of Home and Hearth. Building a house, remodeling, or apartment hunting. Safety in the home and family unit.

INANNA: Sumarian; Goddess representation of the Mother.

ISIS: Egyptian; represents the complete Goddess or the Triple Goddess connotation in one being.

KALI: Hindu; Creative/Destructive Goddess. Protectress of abused women. Kali Ma should be called if a woman is in fear of physical danger. Her power is truly awesome.

LILITH: Hebrew; Adam’s first wife and said to be turned into a demoness, however, if you have ever read any of Zacharia Sitchin’s work, you may change your mind. In my opinion, Lilith was a Star woman bred with Adam. This would make her a Goddess of Higher Intelligence or a representation of the Star People.

MAAT: Egyptian; Goddess of Justice and Diving Order. Maat is the true balance of any situation. She plays no favorites and will dispense justice to all parties involved. Be sure your own slate is clean in the situation before you call her.

MORGAN: Celtic; Goddess of Water and Magick. Morgan was said to be married to Merlin. It was from him she learned her magick. She was also doubled with The Lady Of The Lake.

MUSES: Greek; Goddesses of Inspiration who vary in number depending upon the pantheon used.

NEPHTYS: Egyptian; Goddess of Surprises, Sisters and Midwives.

NORAS: Celtic; the three sisters of the Wyrd. Responsible for weaving fate – past, present and future.

NUIT: Egyptian; Sky Mother. Often seen depicted in circular fashion cradling the stars.

PERSEPHONE: Greek; Goddess of the Underworld as well as Harvest. Daughter of Demeter.

SELENE: Greek; Goddess of the Moon and Solutions. Appeal to Selene to bring a logical answer to any problem.

 

VALKYRIES: Scandinavian; women warriors who carried the souls of the men slain in a battle to heaven.

VENUS: Roman; Goddess of Love and Romance.

VESTA: Roman; Goddess of Fire.

 

 

 

Norse Goddesses

NORSE GODDESSES

 

Amma
A great mother in the Norse creation story, Amma (“grandmother”) gave birth to the race of Churls, who conducted business and learned trades.

 

Atla
Atla is a water goddess and daughter of Ran.

 

Edda
Edda means great grandmother, and the term eddas (“tales of great grandmother”) is the word used to describe the great stories in Scandinavian mythology. The dwarfish Edda was the first to create offspring with her husband Ai. She gave birth to the Thralls, the ones “enthralled” to service as food producers.

 

Eir
A companion of Frigg, Eir is the goddess of healing. She taught her art and the secret powers of herbs only to women, the only physicians in ancient Scandinavia.

 

Frigg
As one of the foremost goddesses in Norse mythology, Frigg is the patroness of marriage and motherhood. She assists women in labor and is associated with the naming of children. Frigg has the reputation of knowing everyone’s destiny, but never reveals it. Being the wife of the god Odin, she was known as the Queen of the Heavens. She is the central deity in Asgard where her hall, Fensalir (“water halls”) is located.

 

Freyja
Freyja is the goddess of beauty, love and fertility, and the main deity of the Vanir. She loves music, spring and flowers, and spends much time with the fey. She is seen wearing a cloak of bird feathers, which allows the wearer to change into a falcon and a beautiful necklace of the Brisings given to her by dwarves, which the Norse still refer to as the Milky Way. Freyja is also a mediator between peace and violence, and the bride of fallen heroes. Riding her chariot pulled by cats through battlefields, she picks up half of the dead corpses, leaves the other half for Odin, and takes their souls to her hall, Sessrumnir,
in Asgard.

 

Fulla
Fulla is Frigg’s handmaiden and messenger. Prayers are addressed to her forintercession with Frigg, and guidance in service.

 

Gefion
All women that die unmarried go to Gefion the goddess of virgins. She is also the bringer of good luck and prosperity. It is traditionally claimed that she is the creator of the Island of Zealand.

 

Gerd
A Scandinavian goddess of light, Gerd lives in a house ringed by fire and shoots flames from her hands. She is the most beautiful of creatures and the daughter of a female giant and a mortal man. The fertility god Frey became infatuated with Gerd and unsuccessfully courted her until he won her over with a spell in runes.

 

Hel
Hel is the goddess of death and resides in her hall, Elvidnir (misery) in the underworld of Niflheim. She is described as being half white and half black. She is responsible for plagues, sickness and catastrophes.

 

Hnossa
The youthful goddess of infatuation, Hnossa is the daughter of Freya. Her name means “jewel.”

 

Idun
Idun is the goddess of eternal youth and the keeper of the golden apples the Norse gods eat to remain young.

 

Imd
Imd is a Scandinavian water goddess and the daughter of Ran.

 

Lufn
The goddess of forbidden love, Lofn encourages illicit unions.

 

Modgud
The servant of Hel, Modgud is the maiden that stands guard on a gold-paved bridge on a path leading to the underworld.

 

Mothir
A mother in the Norse creation myth, Mothir gave birth to the Jarls or leaders, the ones who hunted, fought, and attended school.

 

Norns
The goddesses of the destinies of both gods and men are the three sisters called Urd (fate), Verdandi (necessity) and Skuld (being).

 

Nott
The goddess of night, Nott, is the mother of the earth, Jord, and of the day as well. She rides forth each evening on her horse Frostymane, from whose foaming mouth the dew falls.

 

Ran
Ran is goddess of the sea and storms, and wife to the sea god Aegir. She collects the drowned in her net and takes them to her hall located at the bottom of the ocean.

 

Saga
Saga, the all-knowing goddess, is an aspect of Frigg in some mythology. She lives at Sinking Beach, a waterfall of cool waves where she offers her guests drinks in golden cups. Her name, which means “omniscience,” is applied to the epic heroic tales.

 

Sif
Sif is the golden haired wife of Thor and the goddess of crops and fertility.

\

Sjofn
Sjofn is the goddess to inspire human passions.

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Sjojungru
Sjojungru is a Scandinavian sea goddess.

 

Snotra
Snotra is the Scandinavian goddess of wisdom.

 

Valkyries
Valkyries are beautiful maidens that help Odin choose which brave warriors will be slain on the battlefield so they may then serve Odin. They are also Odins messengers, and when they ride forth on their winged horses, their armor shines and flickers causing the Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights).

List of the Most Used Goddess in Witchcraft

Aphrodite: Greek – Goddess of love, consort of Adonis.

Aradia: Italian – Queen and teacher of the Witches. 

Arianrhod: Welsh – Goddess of reincarnation.

Artemis: Greek & Roman – Goddess of the Moon, twin sister of Apollo. 

Astarte: Greek – Goddess of fertility.

Athena: Greek – Warrior Goddess.

Bast: Egyptian – Goddess of cats.

Brigid/Brid/Brigit: Celtic – Goddess of fertility and inspiration. 

Cerridwen: Welsh – Goddess of the Moon and of harvest. 

Cybele: Greek –  Goddess of natural caverns, worshipped on mountain tops. 

Demeter: Greek – Goddess of the fruitfulness of the Earth. 

Diana: Roman – Moon Goddess and Goddess of the hunt. 

Dryads, The: Greek – Female tree spirits.

Flora: Roman – Goddess of springtime.

Fortuna: Roman – Goddess of fate.

Freya: Scandinavian – Moon Goddess. Consort of Odin and Chief of The Valkyries.

Hathor: Egyptian – Sky Goddess, Protector of women.

Hecate: Greek – Moon Goddess, Goddess of the underworld, and Goddess of Magick. 

Hera: Greek – Goddess of marriage. Consort of Zeus.

Hestia: Greek – Goddess of hearth and home.

Inanna: Sumerian – Queen of Heaven.

Isis: Egyptian –  The triple Goddess (Maid, Mother, Crone). 

Kali: Hindu – Goddess of destruction and creation. Often called Kali-Ma (“the Back Mother”). Consort of Shiva.

Ma’at/Mayet: Egyptian – Goddess of justice, truth and the law.

Morhan: Celtic – Goddess of Water and Magick. 

Muses, The: Greek – Goddesses of inspiration and memory.

Nephthys: Egyptian – Goddess of Midwives. 

Norns, The: Celtic – Guardians of the sacred tree Yggdrasil. 

Nut: Egyptian – Sky Goddess. 

Persephone: Greek – Goddess of the underworld. 

Selene: Greek – Goddess of the Moon, 

Valkyries, The: Scandinavian – Women warriors who brought the souls of those slain in Valhala.

Venus: Roman – Goddess of love.

Vesta: Roman – Goddess of fire, both domestic and ritual.

Dictionary of the Gods

Dictionary of the Gods

 

Egyptian:

AAH: The Moon God. I notice that the moon is male here just as it is in
Sumer and Babylon. Aah is egyptian for Moon.

 

AMON-RE: This is Re as the “Invisible God”. He seems to be all of the
Egptian Gods combined into one unified god-head, and was not outwardly
worshipped. It simply shows that the Egyptians knew that All was part of one
underlying Unity.

 

AMMUT: The Eater of the Dead. This is the monster that sits within the
judgment chamber and devoures those who do not pass the trial. He has the head
of a crocodile, the forebody of a leapord, and the hindquarters of a
hippopotamus.

 

ANUBIS: This jackle-headed god is the one who comes to you at death and
guides you through the darkness to the judgment chamber. Messenger of the gods.
Son of Osiris and Nephthys. Guardian of the tombs.

 

ANUKIS: Wife of Khnum.

 

APIS BULL, THE: God of lust and desire for life.

 

APOPHIS (ZET): This myth is not really a creation myth, but the energies it
involves are the same. It resembles the stories of Lotan, Zu, Asag, and
Leviathan. Actually, it is the idea of the day (Re) defeating the night
(Typhon). It is also the new year defeating the old. In either case, it is an
“Order from Chaos” type story. Typhon is a serpent god who is an enemy of Re.
Re sends the gods to slay him. They are, of course, successful. In one version
of the myth, Seth himsself is the one to kill Apophis each day (which is strange
as Seth and Apophis seem to be the same basic god-form: see Seth).

 

AROUERIS (Horus the Elder): See Horus the Elder.

 

ATEN (Amon-Re-Harakhti): This God was worshipped by Akhenaten as the “One
True God”. He had only a brief worship; Akhenaten was not liked for his
break from the Atum-Re (see below) cult. However, it would seem that Moses was
affected by Akhenaten’s ideas as he (Moses) studied the Egyptian mysteries. It
seems Aten is the forerunner of Yahweh. Aten is Egyptian for Sun.

 

ATUM-RE: This is Re as he emerged out of the Nun (Primordial Sea), appointed
the Ogdoad (see below) to their proper places in the Heavens, and
single-handedly created all in existance. Also, Re is told to have seperated
the lovers Geb and Nuit from their lovemaking, setting Nuit as the Sky and Geb
as the Earth.

 

AURAMOOUTH: Daughter of Nuit. Sky-goddess of Water.

 

BAST: A cat Goddess, and a cat-headed deity. Goddess of occultism and
magick.

 

GEB: This is the Earth God, with Nuit as the Sky Goddess. Thier union
brought forth Isis and Osiris, Seth and Nephthys, and Horus the Elder.

 

HAPI: God of the Nile, and a protection deity of the North, and the small
viscerae of the deceased. Son of Horus (see Mestha, Tuamautef, and Qubhsennuf).

 

HATHOR: This Goddess is a Love/War (Passion) Goddess. She is the Eye of Re
(i.e the Sun itself) whome, when angry, even the Gods fear. She can take the
form of a Cow or Cat. She also comes to new-born children, in the form of Seven
Women, to tell them their destinies.

 

HORUS THE ELDER (Aroueris): Son of Geb and Nuit, He is a Cosmic Being who’s
right eye is the Sun and who’s left eye is the Moon. If Seth was origonally the
New Moon (see Seth), then the story of Seth removing Horus’ eye may well be a
story of a solar eclipse.

 

HORUS THE YOUNGER (Heru): The hawk-headed god is the son of Isis and the
newly resurected Osiris. He removed Seth from the Throne of Egypt and ruled as
successor to his father. He is also the one who leads the soul before Osiris
upon passing the Weighing of the Heart. In the battle against Seth, Horus lost
an eye and later regained it. This gives us the symbol of the Eye of Horus (see
Horus the Elder).

 

HU: He and his partner Sia are two aspects of the Creative Power of the Gods.

 

ISIS (Au-Seth): Wife/sister of Osiris. Goddess of Magick and Healing. She
is also much like Ishtar/Innana. (See Osiris). The Egyptian Goddess-force.

 

KHNUM: Lord of barley and wheat, fruit and flowers, birds, fish, and all
animals. Created Man on a potters wheel. He lives on the first mound of Earth
that rose from the Nun, where the Source of the Nile lies, in a Temple called
“Joy of Life”. It is He who opens the flood-gates each year.

 

KHONSU: Son of Amon and Mut.

 

MAAT: Goddess of Truth and Justice. Wife of Thoth. She existed before the
birth of the gods. (See Hokhmah of the Hebrews). Her symbol is the feather
that can be seen on the Judgment Scale.

 

MESTHA: A god of Protection of the South, and the stomach and large
intestines of the deceased. Son of Horus (see Hapi, Tuamautef, and Qebhsennuf).

 

MIN: A fertility God.

 

MUT: Amon’s wife. Keep in mind that Amon was fused with Re, and was not the
same Deity to begin with.

 

NEITH: Sky goddess of War and Fire.

 

NEKHBET: Symbolised as a Vulture. Guardian of Upper Egypt (See Ua-Zit).

 

NEPHTHYS: Goddess of women. Wife of Seth, and the Dark Twin of Isis. Sister
of Osiris. She is also the mother of Anubis.

 

NUIT: Goddes of Sky and sister/wife of Geb. (See Geb).

 

NUN: Nun is listed with the Ogdoad. However, I wish to single him out here
as it is from him the name of the Primordial Waters was taken. He is the
oldest of the Gods.

 

OGDOAD, THE: This myth is from the mythos where Atum-Re is the Creator God.
There were eight Ogdoad, four frogs and four snakes, who were the Primordial
Waters- the Nun. Atum-Re arose from the Nun, and appointed the Ogdoad to their
proper places in the Heavens (thus, brought order from chaos). Their names are:
Nun and his consort Naunet, Kuk and Kuaket, Huh and Huahet, and Amon and
Amaunet.

 

OSIRIS (Au-Saur): Osiris was eventually merged with Re and seems to be nearly
the same deity in many aspects (forming a kind of Divine Loop). He is a God
Force with Isis as his Goddess Force. Osiris was probably origonally a
fertility god (like Tammuz), but was elevated when associated with Re.
Mythologically, he was origonally a Pharoah who brough civilzation to the
people. He is the Egyptian God-force. As the lord of the Underworld, he is
Khent-Amenti. (His real name is Au Sar: “exceeding king”).

 

PTAH: This god is a parallel myth to the Atum-Re mythos (see above). Ptah is
equated with the Nun (the Egyptian Primordial Waters). In this mythos, Ptah
creates Atum-Re and all the other gods, as well as all in existance. Also,
patron god of Architechs.

 

QEBHSENNUF: A god of Protection of the West, and the liver and gall-bladder
of the deceased. Son of Horus (see Mestha, Hapi, and Tuamautef).

 

RE: This is the falcon-headed sun god who is born each morning, grows old by
the end of the day, and enters the land of the dead each night. He is
Khephira in the morning, Re at midday, and Atum at night.

 

SATIS: Daughter of Khnum.

 

SHU: The god of Air and the husband/brother of Tephnuit. Atum-Re fertilized
himself and brought this god, and his wife into existance. Shu and Tephnuit’s
union brought forth Geb and Nuit, the Earth and Sky. Shu was placed, by Re,
between Geb and Nuit and he acts as a support to Nuit herself.

 

SIA: His name means “mind” or “thought”. He is most often paired with Hu,
and together they are two aspects of the Creative Power of the Gods.

 

SELKIS: Scorpion Goddess.

 

SETH: This is the brother of Osiris who destroyed him and dismembered his
body in order to take his throne. He is the Dark Serpent aspect of the God.
God of drought and storm, Lord of the Red Land (the desert). In Sanscrit the
word “sat” means to destroy by hewing into pieces. In the myth of Osiris…it
was Seth who killed Osiris and cut his body into fourteen pieces. But it may be
significant that the word “set” is also defined as “queen” or “princess” in
Egyptian. Au Set, known as Isis by the Greeks, is defined as “exceeding queen”.
In the myth of the combat Seth tries to mate sexually with Horus; this is
usually interpreted as being an insult. But the most primitive identity of the
figure Seth, who is also closely related to the serpent of darkness known as
Zet, and often refered to by classical Greek writers as Typhon, the serpent of
the goddess Gaia, may once have been female, or in some way symbolic of the
Goddess religion, perhaps related to the Goddess Ua Zit, “Great Serpent”, the
cobra Goddess of Neolithic times. Lastly, there is a theory that is pure
speculation on Seth’s battle with Horus. First, we look at Horus as a Solar
Deity. Then, we look at Isis as being the Full Moon (as she is the Goddess of
Magick). Next, if we consider that Seth was origonally female, then it is easy
(or just convenient) to assign him/her to the new moon. Put these together, and
the story of Seth attempting to mate with Horus, and then taking his eye, may
very well be a story of a solar eclipse (see Horus the Elder).

 

SOTHIS: Goddess of the dog-star, and of initiation. Isis.

 

TEPHNUIT: The Goddess of Moisture, wife/sister of Shu. (See Shu).

 

THOTH: This ibis-headed god is the Scribe of the Gods and the God of Wisdom.
He is the Logos, the Word of Re. He was Self-Created before the Creation.
Husband of Maat.

 

TUAMAUTEF: A god of Protection of the East, and the heart and lungs of the
deceased. Son of Horus (see Mestha, Hapi, and Qebhsennuf).

 

TUM: It is also a name of Re, usually seen as Atum.

 

UA ZIT: “Great Serpent” Cobra Goddess, guardian of Lower Egypt (see
Nekhbet). (Also see Seth for an interesting note).

 

ZET: See Apophis.

 

*************************************************

Canaanite:

ANATH: This was a Love and War Goddess, the Venus star. She is also known
for slaying the enimies of her brother Baal much in the same way Hathor
slaughtered much of mankind (Anath is heavily related to Hathor). After the
Defeat of Mavet and Yam, a feast was thrown for Baal. Anath locked everyone
inside, and proceeded to slay everyone (as they had all been fickle toward Baal
with both Mavet and Yam, as well as Ashtar). Baal stopped her and conveinced
her that a reign of peace is what was needed. She also has confronted Mavet and
was responsible for Baal’s liberation from the underworld. She is the twin
sister of Marah. Daughter of Asherah. She is also known as Astarte. Astarte
is the Canaanite Name of Ishtar; just as Ishtar is the Babylonian Name of
Inanna. In all cases the Name means, simply, “Goddess”. Astarte itself
translates literally as “She of the Womb”.

 

ARSAY: Daughter of Baal. An underworld Goddess.

 

ASHERAH: The Mother of the Gods, Qodesh (just like El), Queen of Heaven. She
is a goddess of Love and, as Astarte, a War Goddess. She is also an Earth
Goddess. Wife of El. (see El). When the gods decided to entreat Yam to ease
his reign of tyranny, it was Asherah who went to him and even offered herself.
The gods agreed to let her do this, except for Baal who was enraged at the idea.
(See Baal). Asherah is said to have given birth to seventy gods.

 

ASHTAR: Possibly a male version of Ishtar (Astarte in Canaan), the Venus
Star. When Baal was killed by Mavet, Asherah had Ashtar, her son, placed on the
throne. However, Ashtar was not big enough to fill the position, and resigned.
I believe one of his titles is Malik (the King) and other names for him are
Abimilki and Milkilu.

 

ASTARTE: A Name of Anath which means “Goddess”, or literally “She of the
Womb”. Astarte is simply the Canaanite version of the Name Ishtar.

 

BAAL: He is the Canaanite Ruler God (like Marduk). Baal and Yam-Nahar
origonally competed for kingship of the gods. The matter was brought before El,
who decided in favour of Yam. Yam then proceeded with a reign of tyranny over
the gods, and none of them felt they had the power to defeat Yam. So, they sent
Asherah to entreat him to lossen his grip. Asherah even offered herself to Yam.
Upon hearing this, Baal was enraged, and decided to defeat Yam. Yam got wind of
Baal’s plan and sent messengers to El with the demand that Baal be delivered to
him. El, afraid, agreed. Baal then taunted the gods for their cowardice and
went to face Yam. He had two weapons made, Yagrush (chaser) and Aymur (driver).
He struck Yam on the chest with Yagrush to no avail. Then he struck him on the
forehead with Aymur and fell Yam to the earth. After Yam’s defeat, Baal had a
palace built for himself; closely resembeling the story of Marduk. It also
resembles Marduk’s story in that the Primeval Waters threatened the gods, and
the High God and others were afraid to face them, with the exception of the
soon-to-be Ruler God. The Baal epic then continues to describe his fight
against Mavet. Baal is also a Storm God like Marduk, and a fertility god like
Tammuz. Dagon is his father. Baal is the Canaanite God-force (the goddess
force seems to be split between Anath and Asherah). Baal’s proper name is
Hadad, relating to his storm-god aspect. Baal is really a title, meaning
“Lord”.

 

DAGON: A vegitation God (especially corn). Father of Baal.

 

EL: The Father of the Gods, the Creator of Created Things, The Kindly, Kodesh.
Asherah is his wife. He wears bull horns on his helmet.

 

GAPEN: A messenger of Baal. His name either means Vine or Field. Probably
the former.

 

HADAD: See Baal.

 

HIRIBI: God of Summer.

 

HAURON: A God that is related to Ninurta of Mesopotamia and Horus of Egypt.

 

KOSHAROTH, THE: The Wise Goddesses. These may be somewhat along the lines of
the Greek Graces, or the Seven Hathors of Egypt. As we see them, they are
called to set up a Wedding. They are also sometimes symbolized as sparrows,
which indicated fertility. They were Goddesses of childbirth.

 

KOSHAR U KHASIS: Craftsman of the Gods. Built the palaces of both Yam-Nahir
and Baal. He also fashioned the two clubs that Baal used to defeat Yam.

 

KOSHARTU: Wife of Koshar.

 

LEVIATHAN: Another Name for Lotan or Tannin. See Lotan.

 

LOTAN: This may be another story like Apophis, Zu, Asag, and Leviathan where
it is not an actual creation story, but still involves the same energies. On
the other hand, it may be some kind of alternate Creation story where Lotan
replaces Yam-Nahar. Lotan is a seven headed serpent defeated by Baal with the
help of Mavet. Anath also claims a role in the defeat of the Serpent. Also
known as Tannin or Leviathan.

 

MARAH: Merciful Goddess of the Waters. Twin sister of Anath. Daughter of
Asherah.

 

MAVET: God of Death and Sterility. His name means Death. A son of El.
After Baal defeated Yam, he then sent a message to Mavet demanding that he keep
his domain in the underworld where he belonged. Mavet was enraged by this and
sent a threatening message to Baal, who was afraid and attempted to flatter his
way out of it. This, however, was to no avail and Baal was forced to face
Mavet. Mavet defeated him and held him in the underworld until Anath tracked
him (Mavet) down and defeated him herself. Mavet did not actually die, as he
and Baal had to face off once more seven years later. Neither defeated the
other, but Mavet did give in (at the command of Shapash) and proclaimed Baal the
King of the Gods.

 

NIKKAL: Consort of Yarikh. (S = Ningal). Goddess of the fruits of the Earth.
Daughter of Hiribi.

 

PIDRAY: Girl of Light. A daughter or consort of Baal.

 

QADISH-U-AMRAR: The two messengers of Asherah fused into one God.

 

RAHMAYA: A goddess impregnated, along with Asherah, by El. The Goddesses
then gave birth to the twin gods Shahar and Shalem, though I don’t know who gave
birth to whom.

 

RESHEPH: Probably a War God. Lord of the Arrow. Has gazel horns on his
helmet. He destroys men in mass by war and plague. He is the porter of the sun
Goddess Shepesh (this seems to resemble Khamael of the Hebrews). He is also
called Mekal (Annialator). Related to Nergal of Mesopotamia.

 

SHAHAR: God of dawn. Either a son of Asherah, or of Rohmaya.

 

SHALEM: God of Dusk. The Contemplation of Day. Either a son of Asherah, or
of Rohmaya.

 

SHAPASH: Sun Goddess. The Torch of the Gods.

 

SIN: Moon God.

 

TALLAY: Girl of Rain. A daughter or consort of Baal.

 

TANNIN: Another Name for Leviathan or Lotan. See Lotan.

 

UGAR: A messenger of Baal. His name either means Vine or Field, probably the
latter.

 

YAHWEH: Yahweh is added here because there was a short time in which He was
simply part of the Canaanite pantheon. When the Khabiru moved into Isra-El,
their young Volcano God, known as Yahweh (or “Everflowing”), was accepted as a
Son of El. Later, Yahweh was equated with El, and Asherah became His wife. H.

 

YAM-NAHAR: Yam-Nahar is the Primordial Waters that were defeated by Baal (see
Baal and Asherah). His name means Sea-River. He was originally given kingship
by El, and ruled as a tyrant over the Gods. Baal finally rose up against him.

 

YARIKH: Moon God.

 

*****************************************************

 

Babylonian: “S” indicates a parallel in Sumer.

 

ADAD: A storm, or weather, god. (See Hadad of Canaan).

 

ADAR: See Ninib

 

ANSHAR: “Whole Heaven” He and his wife, Kishar, are the children of Lamu and
Lahamu. They are said to be the circular Horizons of the sky and earth. Their
union brought forth Ea and Anu. (See Kishar)

 

ANU: This was the Sky God. S=An

 

ANUNNAKI, THE: The 50 great gods who deside the destiny of man. S.

 

ANZU: Deamon who stole the Tablets of Destiny. See Ninurta.

 

APSU: Tiamat’s first husband, symbolising the Sweet Waters (rivers).
Origonally, he and Tiamat (The Salt Waters of the Sea) were intermingled as one,
until he was killed by Ea for plotting against the younger gods.

 

ASUSHUNAMIR: Sexless creature created by Ea to descend into the Underworld
and charm Ereshkigal into reviving Ishtar with the Waters of Life. He is
Successful. S= Kurgarru, and Kalaturru.

 

EA (Ia): The Babylonian god of Wisdom and Magick, as well as Earth and Water.
Also called Nudimmud. Also called Enki. Father of Marduk. Atfter he killed
Apsu, he built his palace in the Sweet Waters, and called it Apsu. S=Enki (only
he was a ruler god and Water God. Ki was the Earth Goddess). In Babylon, Ea
replaces the works of Enlil. H= Yah.

 

ENLIL: Lord Wind or Lord Air, a storm God. God of Air. S.

 

ENKI: See Ea.

 

ERESHKIGAL: Queen of the Underworld. S.

 

ERRA: Also called Nergal. A god of pestilence and war. Husband of
Ereshkigal and King of the Underworld. See Nergal.

 

GAD: A god of luck and fortune related to the sign of Aries. (There most
definately must be link between this god and the Hebrew tribe of Gad, also
related to Aries).

 

GIBIL: A fire god invoked, with two others, against black magick. (See Gira
and Nusku)

 

GIRA: A fire god invoked, with two others, against black magick. (See Gibil
and Nusku)

 

ISHTAR: Wife of Tammuz, Queen of Heavaen. (see Tammuz). She is a Goddess of
Love and War. The Venus Star. The Babylonian Goddess-force. S= Inanna.

 

KI: Earth Goddess, sister/wife of An. Later, mother/wife of Enlil. S.

 

KISHAR: “Whole Earth” Wife/sister of Anshar. (See Anshar)

.

LAMU: He and his wife Lahamu are said to be the silt created by the junction
of the primeval Waters, the rivers and sea. They are the Children of Apsu and
Tiamat. (see Lahamu).

 

LAHAMU: Wife/sister of Lamu. (See Lamu).

 

LAMASHTU: Demoness who steals babies from their mothers. A probable source
for much of the Hebrew Lilith.

 

MARDUK: Also known as Bel (The Lord). The son of Ea who defeated Tiamat
(because the other gods were afraid to face her), thus destroying Chaos and
reigning in Order. He was appointed High God because of this, and he took the
Tablets of Destiny from Qingu. He is the Hero of the Gods, and also a storm
deity. The story of Marduk is very similar to Baal. Marduk had no real place
among the gods until he agreed to defeat Tiamat. Baal, likewise, had no place
among the gods until he defeated Yam, and then he had a palace built for
himself. S=Nunurta (not a direct relation, but this is probably where Marduk
came from). Marduk and his son, Nabu, are, in part, solar deities much like
Osiris and Seth. For an explanation, see Nabu. Marduk is related to Jupiter,
therefore making him a Wandering God.

 

MUMMU: This is Apsu’s vizier, who was captured by Ea. He symbolised mist and
fog. This also happens to be a Name of Marduk.

 

NABU: Son of Marduk. God of Scribal Art and Wisdom. Marduk is the Lord of
the Waxing Year, and his son is the Lord of the Waning Year. I don’t know of
any mythology dealing with a defeat of Marduk, especially by Nabu. However,
there is a ritual involving both of them that embodies the Solar Cycle. At
Midsummer (Litha), two minor Goddesses (otherwise known as th hairdressers of
Marduk’s wife, Sarpanitum[?] ) would go in solomn procession from the Temple of
Marduk (The Dayhouse) to the Temple of Nabu (The Nighthouse). At Midwinter
(Yule), the two Goddesses would return to the Dayhouse. He is associated with
Mercury and is said to be the god of Science, and the guardian of the gods. He
supposedly appears as an old man, long of beard, with a crown of one hundred
horns, and a long robe. He is one of the Wandering Gods.

 

******************************************************

 

Sumerian:

 

ABU: King of plants (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

AN: An was the Sky or Heaven God. He and his wife Ki are the children of
Nammu. An is the creator of the Anunnaki.

 

ANUNNAKI, THE: These are the gods created by An, and appointed their
positions by Enki. Possibly they are children of An and Ki. There are also the
Seven Anunnaki who are the dreaded judges of the underworld. I believe there
are supposed to be 50 of them in all. The Anunnaki, and some others who may or
may not be Anunnaki, are marked with an “A”. A question mark, or course,
indicates questionable choices.

 

ASAG (KUR): Dragon of the Abyss (or Abzu). Daemon of Disease. Asag was not
seperated like Tiamat. Instead, he lived within the Abyss *after* creation and
held back the Primordial Waters from consuming the Earth. At one point, he
kidnapped Ereshkigal, and Enlil went to rescue her. The outcome of the battle
is not known. However, we do know that Enlil is the Lord of the Waters, and
that he built his home on the Sea. On the other hand, Ereshkigal herself, to
this day, is the Queen of the Underworld, as if she remained there. In any
case, Asag was not killed for, later, another god decided to destroy him for
reasons unknown. This was Ninurta (possibly a model for Marduk). (See
Ninurta). The story of Ninurta and Asag seem to parallel the myths of Typhon,
Lotan, Zu, and Leviathan. Note: Asag can be thought of as the Abyss itself.
Kur is the name of the Underworld, as well as a name for this Serpent. Perhaps
he is also an Anunnaki, but I doubt it.

 

ASHNAN: The grain goddess. She was created (along with Lahar) by Enlil and
Enki so that the Anunnunki would have food to eat and cloths to wear. However,
the two gods became drunk and could not perform their duties: it was to remedy
this that Man was created. (See Lahar).

 

BAU: Wife of NInurta (or Ningirsu).

 

DAZIMUA: Married Ningishzida (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

DUMUZI: The Sumerian God-force. A sheperd god and fertility god. Husband of
Inanna. (see Inanna). It seems he is an Anunnaki.

 

EIGHT CHILDREN OF KI, THE: (See Abu, Nintul, Ninsutu, Ninkasi, Nazi, Dazimua,
Ninti, Enshagag.) The Goddess Uttu, in the paradise of Dilmun, had born 8
plants from her union with Enki. He then proceeded to eat them all. Ki cursed
him for this and he became ill. He convinced her to remove her curse, and she
created these eight gods of healing, one for each pain he was having, to cure
him. There is a punning relation between the names of the gods and the names of
the body parts they healed.

 

EMESH: Summer. He and his brother Enten were created by Enlil. (See Enten).

 

ENBILULU: God in charge of the Tigris and Euphrates.

 

ENKI: This was the Water God, and also a lesser ruler under Enlil. It seems
Enlil created the world, and Enki was left to run it. Enlil simply resided in
his palace and issued blessings. Enki, with Ki, created Man. He is also a God
of Wisdom. Also, Enki is just a title. His name is Ea. It is not sure whoes
son he is. Also, there was one point when he became jealous of Enlil’s
superiority over him ,so he took it out on man through the “confusion of
tounges”.

 

ENKIMDU: God in charge of farm tools. He was origonally favoured by Inanna
for a husband. However, Dumuzi threatened him, and he gave Inanna up.

 

ENLIL: This was the Air God, and the supreme ruler and creator, son of An and
Ki. See Enki. Enlil also took Ki as his wife. God of wisdom and magick.
His name means Lord of the Winds, so he is also a Storm God.

 

ENSHAGAG: Lord of the Paradise City of Dilmun (see the eight children of Ki).

 

ENTEN: Winter. He and his brother Emesh were created by Enlil so that the
Earth could produce food, animals, etc… (See Emesh).

 

ERESHKIGAL: Queen of the underworld (Kur), of death, and enemy of Inanna.
All underwold deities are called Chthonic Deities. She is said to be the sister
of Inanna, making her the daughter of Nanna. She is defineitly not one of the
Seven Chthonic Anunnaki, yet she is still an Anunnaki. Most likely she is the
Destructive Forces of Saturn as Inanna is Venus.

 

GALAS, THE: The demons of the underworld.

 

GESHTINANNA: Dumuzi’s sister. Divine poetress, singer, and interpreter of
dreams.

 

GILGAMESH: A human hero who was later deified. As a psudo-god, he resides in
the underworld and organizes it, sending souls to their proper places. He was
origonally a Priest-King.

 

GUGALANNA: This god is mentioned in the myth of the Descent of Inanna. When
Neti asks why she has come, Inanna says something about Lord Gugalnna, the
husband of Ereshkigal. The text reads: “My older sister, Ereshkigal, Because
her husband, the Lord Gugalanna, had been killed to witness the funeral rites
… so be it!”

 

HAIA: Nidaba’s or Nanshe’s husband.

 

IGIGI, THE: It seems that these were very early deities who guide and control
every aspect of nature. Either they were not given much promenance later, or
they simply were never given much attention. Chances are that these are Angels
were the gods are Archangels.

 

INANNA: The Summerian Goddess-force. Inanna is the daughter of the moon,
sister of the sun, and the planet Venus. She was a War Goddess and a Love
Goddess. (see Dumuzi). Note on the myth of her descent: the myth of Enlil and
Ninlil’s descent into the underwold may combined to Inanna’s descent. If it is,
then we have a full story of the cycle of the god and goddess’ descent.

 

ISHKUR: God in charge of rain and winds

 

ISIMUD: Messenger of Enki. Has two faces.

 

KALATURRU: Sexless created created by Enki and given the Food and Water of
Life to revive Inanna in the underworld. He was created with another like it:
Kurgarru. (see Kurgarru).

 

KI: She is the Earth Goddess. Also known as Ninhursag, Nintu, or Ninma.
First, she was the wife/sister of An. After she was seperated from him by their
son Enlil…”An carried off Heaven, and Enlil carried off Earth. In this she
became the mother/wife of Enlil.

 

KULLA: God in charge of building tools and bricks.

 

KUR: The Underworld. (See Asag).

 

KURGARRU: Sexless creature created by Enki and given the Food and Water of
Life to revive Innana in the underworld. He was created with another like it:
Kalaturru. (see Kalaturru).

 

LAHAR: The Cattle God. He and Ashnan were created (by Enlil and Enki) so the
Anunnaki would have food to eat and clothes to wear. (See Ashnan).

 

LILITH: A succubis. She is known from a story where she made her home in the
trunk of Inanna’s Sacred Tree. Anzu made his home in the branches, and a
serpent had made it’s home in the roots. This infestation had caused the Tree
to cease growing. Inanna called upon Gilgamesh to rid the Tree of it’s
occupants. For this, Inanna gave him his famous Bow.

 

MARTU: God of the Semites, or Amurru (Amorites), who were still nomadic,
“barbaric” people at the time of Sumer. They later moved into the land of Sumer
and conquered it….thus arose Babylonia.

 

MESLAMTAEA: One of the three underwold gods. These are not part of the Seven
Dreaded Anunnaki, as they are children of Enlil and Ninlil. (See Ninazu and
????2).

 

MUSHDAMMA: In charge of active building. The Builder of Enlil.

 

NAMMU: The goddess who was the Primordial Waters.

 

NANNA: The Moon god. Father of Utu and Inanna, as well as all the other
planets and stars. Son of Enlil and Ninlil. Enlil had raped Enlil and was
sentenced to the Underworld for His crime. Ninlil, however, loved Him and
followed Him downward. She gave birth to a number of Underworld Gods, but Enlil
was able to remove Her from the underworld before she gave birth to Nanna.
Nanna enters the land of the dead once a month (the New Moon) and judges the
dead with his son Utu. Nanna travels the sky in a boat. He is long of beard
and carries a wand of lapis lazuli in his palm.

 

NANSHE: Goddess in charge of Sea. Goddess of Justice. Judges Mankind on
NewYears, with Nidaba at her side. Also interprets dreams for the gods.

 

NAZI: Married Nindar (see the eight children of Ki).

 

NEDU: See Neti.

 

NERGAL: King of the Underwold, the Ambusher. A god of pestilence. See
Babylonia. He is a god of War and Mars, and therefore a Wandering God.

 

NETI: The gatekeeper of the first of seven gates to the underworld. I wonder
if this is not one of the seven Chthonic Anunnaki… Also called Nedu

.

NIDABA: This goddess was a serpent who was in charge of Temple record
keeping. She is also the Goddess of Writing.

 

NINAZU: One of the three underworld deities. Child of Enlil and Ninlil (from
the begetting of Nanna). (See Meslamtaea, and ????2)

 

NINGAL: Wife of Nanna.

 

NINHURSAG: See Ki.

 

NINISINNA: Goddess in charge of Healing and the art of Medicine.

 

NINKASI: The Goddess who sates the heart; meaning the goddess of intoxicating
drink. (see the Eight Children of Ki).

 

NINKUR: Daughter of Enki and Ninsar. (from the myth of the 8 plants).

 

NINLIL: Enlil’s wife. This Goddess followed Enlil to the underworld after he
had been banished there by the Anunnaki for raping her. At this point she was
pregnant with Nanna (from the rape). In the underworld she gave birth to the
Three Underworld Deities and gave birth to Nanna after she made it back out.

 

NINSAR: Daughter of Enki and Ki. (from the myth of the 8 plants).

 

NINSHUBUR: Inanna’s messenger. Possibly an Anunnaki?

 

NINSIKI: Enki’s wife.

 

NINSUTU: Wife of Ninazu (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

NINTI: Queen of the Month (see the Eight children of Ki). Note: The part of
Enki’s body that was healed by this goddess was his rib. The Sumerian word for
rib is “Ti”. Therefore Nin-ti means “lady of the rib”. On the other hand, the
word “Ti” can also be translated as “to make live”. Therefore, Ninti can also
mean “lady who brings life”. Later, as we all know, Eve was made from Adam’s
rib. The word Eve (heb.- Havah) also means “to make live”. Perhaps, and most
likely, the Hebrew myth of Adam’s rib comes directly from this myth. However,
something was lost in the translation, as Havah has no relation to the Hebrew
word for rib.

 

NINTU: See Ki.

 

NINTUL: Lord of the city Magon (see the Eight children of Ki).

 

NINURTA: Hero of the Gods. God of the Stormy South Winds. Possible
pre-cursur to Marduk. This god owned a weapon that was alive. This weapon,
Sharur, for some reason, convenced Nunurta to destroy Asag. This he did.
However, once Asag was gone, the Waters rose up and engulfed the Earth. Nothing
could grow. So, Nunurta built a stone wall over Asag’s body that stopped and
held back the Waters. Then he took the Waters that had already engulfed the
land and dumped them into the Euphrates. This caused the overflow of the
Euphrates, and the land became abundant. Obviously, this is a myth relating to
the yearly flooding of the river. Ninurta is the son of Enlil and Ki. Also, as
Ningirsu, brother of Nanshe. See Ninurta in Babylon.

 

NIMUG: Goddess given task by Enki at the time he organized the world, but we
don’t know what.

 

NUNGAL: Ereshkigal’s daughter. Judge and protector of the Black Heads.

 

NUSKU: Messenger of Enlil.

 

SUMUGAN: Enki set him as lord of the steppe lands. He may be one of the
Anunnaki, but there is at least one indication that he was created later.

 

UTU: The Sun God. As he travels through the underworld at night (making it
daytime there), he judges the dead. Nanna, as he visits the underworld once
each month (at the New Moon), also judges with his son. He travels the sky in a
chariot drawn by four mythological beasts. He was set by Enki in charge of
cities and bounderies, or (possibly) the entire universe. This would fit as he
is the ruling deity just under Enki. Son of Nanna.

 

UTTU: Daughter of Enki and Ninkur. Goddess of plants and weaving. (from the
myth of the 8 plants).

 

????: “Who loves fish” in charge of marshlands.

 

????2: One of the three underworld deities.. Child of Enlil and Ninlil (from
the begetting of Nanna). (See Ninazu and Meslamtaea).

 

********************************************************

 

Hebraic: list does not include most Archangels and Angels. H = a Human.

 

H AARON: Aaron is another of the Seven Sheperds. He balances Moses (Netzach)
as the other Sphere of Prophesy (Hod). Aaron is the brother of Moses.

 

H ABRAHAM: Abraham is one of the Seven Sheperds, and one of the Four Legs of
the Throne in the Chariot. He is the Mild, Watery (Chesed) aspect of the Four
Legs. Abundant Love. Historically, it is said that Abraham may have been an
Amorite who had settled in Sumer before Babylon (also Amorites) conquered it.
He was the first to make a covenatnt with Yahweh (or possibly El of Canaan).

 

H ADAM: This is Adam after Eve was seperated from him. He is the Father of
Mankind. (See Eve).

 

H ADAM KADMON: Adam Kadmon is not Primordial as it relates to “before
creation”. However, his creation marked the Primordial Man. He was both Male
and Female in one being, not yet seperated into Adam and Eve.

 

ADONAI: This means “Lord”. However, the word itself is feminine in nature,
thus making it similar in nature to Elohim: both male and female. Once again,
this name could be thought of as the combined force of Yahweh and Asherah.
This, too, is a very primordial name.

 

ASHERAH: Asherah is listed here and with the Canaanites. She is the same
Goddess, but seems to have been adopted by the Hebrews as the wife of Yahweh and
the Manifest Shekinah. The Hebraic Goddess-force.

 

ASMODEUS: This is the King of the Deamons. There are two types of deamon,
the malevolent kind, and those who have accepted the Torah and live in
indifference (at best) to man. Asmodeus is the king of these latter deamons, as
the malevolent kind have no leader. Samael will often rally the malevolent
deamons himself. Asmodeus is also the husband of the Younger Lilith.

 

AURIEL: The Divine Avenger. In some instances, Auriel is seen as an Angel of
Severity and Vengence. Otherwise, she is the Archangel of Earth. Supposedly
one of the Seven, yet with her included there are eight.

 

AZAZEL: An Archangel who descended to earth with Shemhazai. (See Shemhazai).
He taught mortal woen the art of seduction and make-up. When he was told of the
coming flood, he refused to repent. For this, he was cast into a pit and
covered with darkness, to remain there until the final days.

 

BEHEMOTH: This beast was set as the King of Beasts. At the “end” of
Creation, he will be sent against Leviathan, and both Creatures will die in the
battle. Behemoth will be fed to the pious along with Leviathan.

 

H DAVID: David is one of the Seven Sheperds, and one of the Four Legs of the
Throne in the Chariot. He represents Divinity Manifested in that he is the
Founder of the Kingship of Israel. (Malkuth).

 

EHEIEH: This means “I am”. It was the Name given to Moses at the scene of
the burning bush. Basically, this name relates more to YHVH, a concept, than it
does to Yahweh, a god.

 

EL: This is another name for Yahweh, usually translated to mean “God”.
Undoubtedly this comes from the Canaanite High God El. This name is used in
conjunction with the title Shaddai (heb.- Almighty), as well as Chai (heb.-
Living). Example: Shaddai El Chai = Almighty Living God.

 

ELOHIM: This means “Gods” and basically relates to a female force enfolded in
a male force. Or, a Male God with the ability to Create like a female. This is
because the root word here is “Goddess” (Eloah), and the pluaral “im” is
masculine. Mythologically, this could be thought of as the combined force of
the Seven Archangels as They Created the World in seven days. Elohim is the
pronunciation of YHVH for Binah. It should be thought of as leaning more toward
the feminine, and is actually a very primordial name. (See Yah).

 

H ESAU: Twin brother of Jacob who sold his brithright for a bowl of soup.
Mythologically, he is the founder of Canaan before the Israelites arrived. He
later became an Angel: the Guardian Angel of Edom.

 

H EVE: This is the second wife of Adam. She is the female half of Adam Kadmon
after he was seperated and became Adam. Her name means “Life” and she is the
Mother of Mankind. As a point of interest, see Ninti of Sumeria.

 

GABRIEL: The Strength of Divinity. Gabrael is a Divine messenger and
teacher. He (sometimes a she) is the benign Angel of Death, as well as the
ArchAngel of Water. He is lord of the Ashim. One of the Seven.

 

HANAEL: Divine Grace. The Archangel of Love and Passion. He is Lord of the
Elohim. One of the Seven.

 

HOKHMAH (TORAH): This Goddess’ name means “Wisdom”. It is said that she was
created before all else. In fact, she took part in the dividing of the
Primordial Waters (Prov. 8:23, 28). She is equated with the Torah, wich is said
to have been created first, and is the embodiment of Wisdom to the Jewish
people. (See Maat of the Egyptians).

 

H ISAAC: Isaac is one of the Seven Sheperds, and also one of the Four Legs of
the Throne in the Chariot. He is the Fire to his father’s Water. Strict
Justice (Geburah). The myth of his near-sacrifice at the hand of Abraham was
the injection of Divine Severity into Abraham’s Mercy (see above). He is
Abraham’s son.

 

H JACOB: Jacob was the third Patriarch, and thus is the balancer of his
predecessor Abraham (Chesed) and Isaac (Geburah). Mercy (Tiphareth). He is
also one of the Seven Sheperds, and one of the Four Legs of the Throne in the
Chariot. He is the son of Isaac, and twin brother of Esau.

 

H JOSEPH: Joseph is one of the Seven Sheperds. He displays the ability to
resist the sexual temptation of Yesode. This is displayed in the myth of the
Egyptian woman’s attempted seduction of him. He is the Keeper of the Covenant
to the pure Yahwists. He is the son of Jacob who first went to Egypt and was
responsible for the Hebrew presence there.

 

KHAMAEL: This Archangel is the Archangel of Divine Severity, just as Samael.
In fact, the two angels are one and the same. Classical Qabalah lists Samael as
the leader of the Seraphim, but modern Qabalah has replaced the name with
Khamael. Further, the Archangel Shemhazai, who hung himself between heaven and
earth, is also Samael. This puts him in the perfect postion to fullfill his
duties as the Porter of Heaven: Khamael, who resides at the very fringes of
Heaven with hundreds of thousands of angels of destruction at his command. His
purpose there is to keep intruders from entering the Heavens. He once attempted
to stop Moses from entering, but was defeated by the Prophet. One of the Seven.

 

LAILAH: This Goddess’ name is Hebrew for “Night”. It was the Darkness
mentioned in Gen 1:2, and she was named by Yahweh in Gen 1:5.

 

LEVANAH: The Moon (goddess).

 

LEVIATHAN: This could very possibly be related to the ideas of Typhon, Lotan,
Zu, and Asag; where it resembles the creation myth, yet is seperate there-from.
In this myth, there are two Leviathan, a male and a female. Once these two
beasts are created, to rule the seas, Yahweh decides against letting the female
live. Yahweh fears that the offspring of these two great beasts would destroy
the world. The female is thusly killed. At the “end” of Creation, the male
Leviathan is going to be killed in a battle with Behemoth (the Angels having
failed at the task), and his skin will be set as a canopy over the heads of the
pious, while his meat is fed to them. Certainly, the relation to this myth and
Tiamat’s destruction, and the setting of half of her body as the Sky, can be
easily seen. Interestingly, Leviathan is thought to be another name for the
Canaanite Lotan (See Lotan).

 

H LILITH: The Hebrew form of Lilith is the first wife of Adam. She refused to
bow down to him and left the Garden. She mated with daemons and became the
patron Goddess of the Night and all it’s creatures. She represnets the
subconscious mind, that part of us that is most primal and sexual and defiant.
She is the other half of the submissive Eve. There are two forms of Lilith, the
Younger and the Elder. As the younger, she is the wife of Asmodeus (this being
when she was in her cave mating with deamons). As the older, she is the wife of
Samael (this being when she joined with him in bringing down Adam and Eve from
the Garden.

 

METETRON: The Prince of the Face. This was once the human Enoch, who was
permited to ascend to Heaven without dieing. He was transformed into the
ArchAngel with 360 eyes and 36 pairs of wings. His palace was set on high and
his word was to be followed as if it were the voice of Yahweh HImself.
Personally, I feel that Metetron and Yahweh are synonimous. Metetron is even
known as the “Lesser YHVH”, and one of his many names is Yahoel, which is Y, H,
and V (transliterated as O) with “el” added to the end. Metetron is the lord of
the Chaioth haQodesh.

 

MICHAEL: The Protector of the Divine. He is the High Priest of Heaven and
it’s main guardian. Seen to be the Guardian Angel of Israel and all of
humanity. He is the ArchAngel of Fire, and sometimes a benign Angel of Death.
He is lord of the Malachim. One of the Seven.

 

H MOSES: Moses is one of the Seven Sheperds, relateing to Netzach. In the
case of the Seven Sheperds, Netzach and Hod are Spheres of Prophesy. He is the
prophet that lead the Exodus.

 

RAHAB: This serpent is also much like Tiamat, more so than Tehom. He is
described as an Archangel in Hebrew mythos.

 

RAPHAEL: The Divine Physician. Self explanitory. Raphael is also the
ArchAngel of Air. He is lord of the Beney Elohim. One of the Seven.

 

RAZIEL: The Divine Scribe. There is a veil in Heaven that seperates the
Divine Throne from the angelic hosts. Ratziel stands behind this veil and
records all the goings on at the Merkabah into a book. This book, the Book of
the Angel Raziel, a book containing all the knowledge of heaven and earth, was
given to Adam by Raziel. The other angels, jealous, took the book and cast it
into the sea. Yahweh, upon hearing of this transgression, ressurected Rahab to
retrieve it for Adam. After this the book fades away. It resurfaces when it is
given to Noah because it contains the instructions for the Ark. From there it
passed down the family line until it reached Solomon. It is said that Solomon
obtained all of his great Wisdom from this book. Another job of Ratziel is to
stand before the Merkabah with outstretched wings, lest the breath of the
Chaioth haQodesh consume all of the Heavens. He is Lord of the Auphanim. He is
also listed as one of the seven, but with his inclusion, and Auriel’s, there are
nine.

 

RUACH ELOHIM (SHEKINAH): Ruach Elohim is the Spirit of the Gods, and the
Shekinah is the Presence of Divinity. Shekinah is also seen as a Goddess. (Gen
1:2)

 

SAMAEL: The Poison of Divinity. Samael is the greatest of Angels (excepting
Metetron HImself), with twelve wings as opposed to the normal six of the the
other ArchAngels. He is the most beautiful angel. He is the main Angel of
Death, and is the Archangel of Divine Severity. His angelic order is the
Seraphim; the Firey Serpents sent to punish Israel for it’s transgressions. He
is also the husband of the elder Lilith. See also Khamael and Shemhazai; two
other names for Samael. As Khamael, he is one of the seven.

 

SANDALPHON: She is the twin of Metetron and the Archangel of Earth (as in the
physical Universe, as opposed to the Element of Earth like Auriel). It is
written that she descended to Earth as the male prophit Elijah as a guardian and
protector. She is Ruler of the Kerubim. It is said that She stands at the foot
of the Merkabah, and weaves prayers into garlands to rest on Yahweh’s head.

 

SHADDAI: See El.

 

SHEKINAH: See Ruach Elohim.

 

SHEMESH: The Sun (god).

 

SHEMHAZAI: This Archangel, along with Azazel, descended with his angelic host
before the flood to steer Man back onto the right path. This order of Angels
became known as the Watchers. However, the angels soon fell prey to the same
vices as man and began to take wives from the Cainite women. For sex, they
would sell the secrets of Heaven to the women. They gave knowledge on
everything from making weapons of war, to the Qabalah itself. The offspring of
these unions are known as the Nephilim (giants), and were destructive giants
that plagued mankind. Others even became the heroes of ancient times (such as
Gilgamesh from Sumer). The Flood was then sent to destroy these giants. When
told of the news, Shemhazai repented his deeds and hung himself, upside-down,
between heaven and earth. To this day, he can be seen there as the consellation
Orion. Shemhazai is actually a form of the Archangel Samael. Also see Khamael.

 

TEHOM: This Goddess’ name is Hebrew for “Deep”. (Gen. 1:2). She is similar
to the Babylonian Tiamat, yet is more along the lines of the Sumerian Nammu.

 

TZADKIEL: Divine Justice. He is the Archangel of Divine Benevolence, and
Lord of the Chashmalim. One of the Seven.

 

TZAPHKIEL: Divine Contemplation. Lord of the Aralim. One of the Seven.

 

UZZA: Archangel of Egypt.

 

YAH: This, in Hebrew, is spelled “YH”. This, esetoricaly, is the combination
of the Y and H of YHVH. It is where the God and Goddess principals emerge from
the Primordial Waters and mate. Literally, it is the Hebrew version of
Babylon’s Ea (spelled IA- A and H, just like I and Y, are interchangable in this
context). It is the Name of Chockmah. In this, it should be thought of as
leaning toward the masuline (as opposed to Elohim), and is a primordial name.

 

YAHWEH: Yahweh is the God Force. Yahweh is also a War God, Storm God, and a
Volcano Deity. The name Yahweh itself may be from the Sanscrit “YHVH”, meaning
“Ever-Flowing” and thus relates him to volcanic activity. After a short time,
Yahweh became the National Deity of Isra-El, and was equated with El of Canaan.
Along with this, He adopted Asherah (the wife of El) as His own wife. Also, the
Hebrews seemed to have associated Yahweh with Baal, making the two gods (just as
with El and Yahweh) nearly identical.

 

YAM: Sea God.

 

YHVH: as differenciated from Yahweh, who was not the only god to the early
Hebrews. it is a formula to “sum up” the Ain (Nothingness)- or The One. The
Face of Divinity.

 

ZIZ SHADAI: This mighty beast is the King of Birds.

 

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Hittite: B = Babylonian

 

ALALUS: Father of Anus. Anus removed him from the throne.

 

ANUS: Sky God. Removed his father Alalus from the throne, and was, himself,
removed by his son Kumarbis. B = Anu.

 

ARINNA: Sun Goddess. She sent an Eagle out in search of Telepinus. The
effort failed.

 

EA: He resides in the Apsu, just as he does in Babylonia. What he does in
the Hittite pantheon I don’t know. He is the one who decided on how to defeat
Ulikummis, by using the copper knife that was “used to seperate heaven and
earth”. B.

 

ENLIL: Enlil also makes a guest appearance in the Ulikummis myth. He saw
Ulikummis as a child and told the gods later, after the child had grown to it’s
great size, that they could not hope to defeat it.

 

HEBAT: Wife of Teshub.

 

HANNAHANNAS: Queen of Heaven. She urges Teshub to do something about
Telepinus’ disappearance. Teshub went as far as Telepinus’ own door, where he
banged on the door until he broke his hammer, and thus abandoned the quest.

 

ILLUYANKAS: A dragon slain by Teshub. There are two versions of this myth.
In the old version, they two gods fight and Illuyankas wins. Teshub” then goes
to Inaras for advice, and she devises a trap for the dragon. She goes to him
with large quantities of liqure, and entices him to drink his fill. Once drunk,
the dragon is bound, and Teshub appears with the other gods and kills him. In
the later version, the two gods fight and Teshub, again, loses. Illuyankas then
takes Teshub’s eyes and heart. Teshub then has a son, who grows and marries
Illuyankas’ daughter. Teshub tells his son to ask for his eyes and heart as a
wedding gift, and it is given. Restored, Teshub goes to face Illuyankas once
more. At the point of vanquishing the dragon, Teshub’s son finds out about the
battle; realizing that he had been used for this purpose. He demaned that his
father take him along with Illuyankas, and so Teshub killed them both.

 

illuyankas’s daughter: See Illuyankas.

 

IMBALURIS: A messenger of Kumarbis.

 

INARAS: Goddess who set a trap for Illuyankas in the old version of the myth.

 

IRSIRRA DEITIES, THE: Either the “Maidens of Heaven” or else they are
underworld deities.

 

ISHTAR: Only appears in Hittite myth in an attempt to lull Ulikummis by
undressing and singing to him. Her attempt failed as the creature didn’t see or
hear her. B.

 

KAMRUSEPAS: Goddess of healing and magick. She calms and purified Telepinus
upon his return.

 

KUMARBIS: The Hittlte High God (like El of the Canaanites), Father of the
Gods. Removed his father, Anus, from the throne. In order to keep his son
Teshub from removing him from the throne, he made Ulikummis to oppose him.

 

MUKISANUS: Vizier of Kumarbis.

 

sea goddess: Kumarbis went to this goddess for advice on how to stop Teshub
from taking the throne. Her advice seems to have lead to the creation of
Ulikummis.

 

SHAUSHKA: a Love Goddess.

 

teshub’s son: See Illuyankas.

 

TELEPINUS: He is like Tammuz, a fertility god. He becomes enraged for
reasons unknown and storms off into the stepp lands where he falls asleep.
Draught and famine ensue. He was brought back by a Bee, after extensive
searching by the gods had failed. Son of Teshub.

 

TESHUB: Ruler God (like Baal of the Canaanites), son of Kumarbis. He is also
a sun God, and a fertility God. He carries a hammer as a weapon. He defeated
Ulikummis with the help of Ea. When Kumarbis first attempted to remove his
father, Anus, from the throne, he bit off the Anus’ loins in the struggle.
Thus, Anus’ seed was implanted within Kumarbis and Teshub was born.

 

UBELLURIS: This deity is much like the Greek Atlas, who supports the world on
his shoulders. Ulikummis was placed on his right shoulder by the Irsirra
deities to grow tall and strong. Ubelluris didn’t even notice the presence
until Ea pointed it out to him.

 

ULIKUMMIS: Son of Kumarbis. He was made to oppose Teshub. There is also
mention that he destoys some of mankind. However, he is actually described as
being blind, deaf, and dumb; as well as immobile. He was made of stone and
placed on Ubelluris’ shoulder to grow. He grew until he reached heaven itself.
When the gods found him, Ishtar removed her clothing and attempted to lull him
with music, but he didn’t see or hear her (as he was a blind and deaf creature).
The gods attempted to destroy him, but had no affect (he didn’t even notice).
Finally, Ea called for the Copper Knife that had been used in the seperation of
heaven and earth. He then used the blade to sever Ulikummis from Ubelluris’
shoulder; lopping the creature off at the feet. Teshub was then able to destroy
the creature totally. It is interesting to note that this god’s name is the
same as a pair of twin volcanic mountains in Asia Minor. This may explain why
he is said to be destroying mankind, even in his seemingly catatonic state.

 

 

Study of Pagan Gods and Goddesses: Cerridwen, Keeper of the Cauldron

Cerridwen

Keeper of the Cauldron

The Crone of Wisdom
In Welsh legend, Cerridwen represents the crone, which is the darker aspect of the goddess. She has powers of prophecy, and is the keeper of the cauldron of knowledge and inspiration in the Underworld. As typical of Celtic goddesses, she has two children: daughter Crearwy is fair and light, but son Afagddu (also called Morfran) is dark, ugly and malevolent.

The Legend of Gwion
In one part of the Mabinogion, which is the cycle of myths found in Welsh legend, Cerridwen brews up a potion in her magical cauldron to give to her son Afagddu (Morfran).

She puts young Gwion in charge of guarding the cauldron, but three drops of the brew fall upon his finger, blessing him with the knowledge held within. Cerridwen pursues Gwion through a cycle of seasons until, in the form of a hen, she swallows Gwion, disguised as an ear of corn. Nine months later, she gives birth to Taliesen, the greatest of all the Welsh poets.

The Symbols of Cerridwen
The legend of Cerridwen is heavy with instances of transformation: when she is chasing Gwion, the two of them change into any number of animal and plant shapes. Following the birth of Taliesen, Cerridwen contemplates killing the infant but changes her mind; instead she throws him into the sea, where he is rescued by a Celtic prince, Elffin. Because of these stories, change and rebirth and transformation are all under the control of this powerful Celtic goddess.

The Cauldron of Knowledge
Cerridwen’s magical cauldron held a potion that granted knowledge and inspiration — however, it had to be brewed for a year and a day to reach its potency.

Because of her wisdom, Cerridwen is often granted the status of Crone, which in turn equates her with the darker aspect of the Triple Goddess.

As a goddess of the Underworld, Cerridwen is often symbolized by a white sow, which represents both her fecundity and fertility and her strength as a mother.

She is both the Mother and the Crone; many modern Pagans honor Cerridwen for her close association to the full moon.

Cerridwen is also associated with transformation and change in some traditions; in particular, those who embrace a feminist spirituality often honor her. Judith Shaw of Feminism and Religion says, “When Cerridwen calls your name, know that the need for change is upon you; transformation is at hand. It is time to examine what circumstances in your life no longer serve you. Something must die so that something new and better can be born. Forging these fires of transformation will bring true inspiration into your life. As the Dark Goddess Cerridwen pursues her version of justice with ceaseless energy so can you breathe in the power of the Divine Feminine She offers, planting your seeds of change and pursuing their growth with a ceaseless energy of your own.”

Cerridwen and the Arthur Legend
The stories of Cerridwen found within the Mabinogion are actually the basis for the cycle of Arthurian legend. Her son Taliesin became a bard in the court of Elffin, the Celtic prince who rescued him from the sea. Later on, when Elffin is captured by the Welsh king Maelgwn, Taliesen challenges Maelgwn’s bards to a contest of words.

It is Taliesen’s eloquence that ultimately frees Elffin from his chains. Through a mysterious power, he renders Maelgwn’s bards incapable of speech, and frees Elphin from his chains. Taliesen becomes associated with Merlin the magician in the Arthurian cycle.

In the Celtic legend of Bran the Blessed, the cauldron appears as a vessel of wisdom and rebirth. Bran, mighty warrior-god, obtains a magical cauldron from Cerridwen (in disguise as a giantess) who had been expelled from a lake in Ireland, which represents the Otherworld of Celtic lore. The cauldron can resurrect the corpse of dead warriors placed inside it (this scene is believed to be depicted on the Gundestrup Cauldron). Bran gives his sister Branwen and her new husband Math — the King of Ireland — the cauldron as a wedding gift, but when war breaks out Bran sets out to take the valuable gift back.

He is accompanied by a band of a loyal knights with him, but only seven return home.

Bran himself is wounded in the foot by a poisoned spear, another theme that recurs in the Arthur legend — found in the guardian of the Holy Grail, the Fisher King. In fact, in some Welsh stories, Bran marries Anna, the daughter of Joseph of Arimathea. Also like Arthur, only seven of Bran’s men return home. Bran travels after his death to the otherworld, and Arthur makes his way to Avalon. There are theories among some scholars that Cerridwen’s cauldron — the cauldron of knowledge and rebirth — in in fact the Holy Grail for which Arthur spent his life searching.

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Cerridwen

Areas of Influence: Cerridwen’s name is derived from the Celtic word “cerru,” meaning cauldron. Like the Goddess herself, the cauldron symbolises the transformative power of magic, wisdom, rebirth and creative inspiration.

For these reasons she is seen as a patron Goddess of witches and wizards. She is also associated with the moon, fertility, science, prophecy and poetry.

Other spellings of her name include Ceridwen, Cereduin, Keridwen and Kerridwen.

I’m often asked how to pronounce Cerridwen? (Ker-RID-Wen) so I thought it would be useful to include that piece of information on this page.

Origins and Genealogy: Married to Tegid Voeland and was mother to three children: Creirwy, Morfan and Taliesin. There is no mention of her own origins in the surviving myths.

Strengths: Wise, powerful and resourceful.

Weaknesses: She tries to interfere in her children’s lives.

Cerridwen’s Symbolism
The Cauldron and the dark moon are associated with this Goddess.

Sacred Animals: This Goddess often transformed into a white sow to address her people.

In her myths she also shape shifted into a greyhound and an otter

Sacred Birds: Hawks and hens.

Sacred Plants: Corn.

Cerridwen’s Myth
The Goddess uses her knowledge of magic and herbs to create a potion to transform her ugly son Morfan into a wise boy.

The potion needs to be boiled in her cauldron for a year and a day. She leaves her servant Gwion in charge of the mixture until one day when he accidentally spilled three drops on his hand and licked it off, empowering him with the brew’s knowledge and power.

Frightened of the Goddesses reaction he turned himself into a rabbit. Cerridwen gave chase in the form of a greyhound. He then became a fish and jumped into a river and she became an otter. He turned into a bird and she followed as a hawk. Eventually Gwion transformed into a grain of corn and is eaten by the Goddess who had by then become a hen.

The grain took seed in her womb, and nine moons later, she gave birth to the Taliesin. She is unable to kill the child, instead she wraps him up in a leather bag and sets him out to sea. He survives and becomes the famous Welsh poet Taliesin

Cerridwen’s Archetypes
The Crone

The Crone represents the wise old woman whose child bearing days are behind her. Other associations with this Archetype include: compassion, transformation, healing and bawdiness death and endings. She is the respected older woman or grand parent at the heart of family who enjoys life and sharing her experience.

Unfortunately the word Crone or Hag often has negative connotations as many wise woman and midwives were persecuted as witches in the middle ages.

Shadow Crone is the bitter, old woman who has failed to learn from her life. She blames all her failings and unhappiness on a society that no longer respects the elders. As a result she becomes increasingly isolated and fearful.

This Celtic Goddess is often depicted as a Crone Goddess as she is wise and due to her cauldron’s associations with transformation and rebirth.

The Shape-shifter

The shape-shifter has the ability to change her physical appearance. They are also able to adapt easily to different environments by altering there behaviour.

Shadow shape-shifter is fickle, lacking conviction and constantly reinventing themselves like politicians to appeal to most people.

Cerridwen has the power to transform herself into many different creatures. As well as being regarded as a Crone Goddess she is also said to represent the Mother and Maiden aspects of the Triple Goddess.

How To Work With These Archetypes
The Crone: This maybe one of your Archetypes if you have gained wisdom, learning from your mistakes and showing a willingness to adapt to changing circumstances.

You are experiencing the Crone’s shadow if you have become rigid in your beliefs and have become stuck in a rut having lost all ability to let those areas of your life go that no longer serve you.

The shape-shifter is a useful archetype to have if you need to be flexible or perform lots of different roles.

The shadow side asks whether your chameleon like tendencies reflect a deep insecurity and inability to commit to any particular path.

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Reference

Patti Wigington, ThoughtCo.

Goddess-Guide.com